Arlberg railway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Arlberg Railway)
Jump to: navigation, search
Arlberg Railway
662 Pians.jpg
An ÖBB train on the Arlberg Railway in 2007
Overview
Native name Arlbergbahn
Type Heavy rail, Passenger/Freight rail
Intercity rail, Regional rail, Commuter rail
Status Operational
Locale Tyrol
Vorarlberg
Termini Innsbruck
Bludenz
Stations 31
Line number 101 05
Operation
Opened Stages between 1883–1884
Owner Austrian Federal Railways
Operator(s) Austrian Federal Railways
Technical
Line length 136.7 km (84.9 mi)
Number of tracks Double track
(Innsbruck–Ötztal,
Abzw Schönwies 1–Landeck-Zams,
Abzw Flirsch 1–Abzw Langen 1)
Single track
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Minimum radius Ostrampe: 300 m
Westrampe: 250 m
Electrification 15 kV/16,7 Hz AC Overhead line
Operating speed 160 km/h (99 mph)
Maximum incline Ostrampe: 2.6 %
Westrampe: 3.1 %
Route number 400
Route map

Arlbergbahn.png

km
from Kufstein
-0.434 Innsbruck Hbf S1   S2   S3   S4   S5  582 m (1,909 ft)
Brenner Railway to Bolzano/Bozen (“Konzert curve”)
Innsbruck Tramway, Stubaitalbahn
Connecting curve from Innsbruck Hbf goods station
1.325 Innsbruck West S1   S2   S4   S5  583 m (1,913 ft)
Mittenwald Railway to Garmisch-Partenkirchen
A12 Inntalautobahn
6.910 Völs S1   S2   S4  584 m (1,916 ft)
10.442 Kematen i. T. S1   S2   S4  593 m (1,946 ft)
Unterperfuss
14.247 Zirl S1   S2   S4  596 m (1,955 ft)
16.911 Inzing S1   S2  601 m (1,972 ft)
19.163 Hatting S1   S2  605 m (1,985 ft)
20.370 Üst (crossover) Zirl 2
21.412 Flaurling S1   S2  609 m (1,998 ft)
25,000
25,085
Change of chainage (-85 m), start of relocated line
25,545 Oberhofen im Inntal S1   S2  620 m (2,030 ft)
End of relocated line
26.800 Telfs-Pfaffenhofen S1   S2  623 m (2,044 ft)
31.056 Rietz S1   S2  635 m (2,083 ft)
34.647 Stams S1   S2  639 m (2,096 ft)
36.223 Mötz S1   S2  644 m (2,113 ft)
38.223 Silz S1   S2  648 m (2,126 ft)
42.458 Haiming S1   S2  669 m (2,195 ft)
45.420 Ötztal S1   S2  692 m (2,270 ft)
46.152
46.320
Change of chainage (-168 m)
47.200 Ötztaler bridge
B171 Tiroler Straße
50.056 Roppen S1   S2  706 m (2,316 ft)
54.698 Imst-Pitztal S1   S2  716 m (2,349 ft)
L16 Pitztaler Straße
59.070 Imsterberg S1   S2  724 m (2,375 ft)
63.015 Schönwies S1   S2  736 m (2,415 ft)
65.570 Works siding
65.780
65.891
Change of chainage (-111 m)
65.911 Abzw Schönwies 1Start of relocated line
66.550 Kronburg tunnel (330 m)
68.3 B180 Reschenstraße
68.580 Zammer tunnel (2335 m) eastern portal
70.980 Zams768 m (2,520 ft)
Zammer tunnel western portal
End of relocated line
71.837 Landeck-Zams S1   S2  776 m (2,546 ft)
Former Reschen railway to Mals
72.150 Connection to Firma Donauchemie AG
72.406
72.650
Change of chainage (-244 m)
73.404 Inn (L 188 m / H 25 m)
73.800 Landeck Perfuchs 816 m (2,677 ft)
76.447 Zappelbach bridge (L 34 m / H 11,2 m)
77.981 Pians 911 m (2,989 ft)
78.277 Ganderbach bridge (L 22 m / H 14,8 m)
78.918 Mayenthal bridge (L 53 m / H 15,0 m)
79.495 Burgfried bridge (L 72 m / H 10,0 m)
79.680 Wolfsgruberbach bridge (L 50 m / H 14,3 m)
79.949 Wiesberg 953 m (3,127 ft)
80.253 Trisanna bridge (L 207 m / H 87,4 m)
80.486 Weinzierl tunnel (212 m)
80.700 Start of relocated line
80.810 Moltertobel tunnel (1643 m)
82.308
82.200
Change of chainage (+108 m)
82.500 End of relocated line
82.496 Geigertobel bridge (L 81 m / H 11,5 m)
83.073 Strengen 1,027 m (3,369 ft)
85.114 Süßwald bridge (L 59 m / H 11,0 m)
85.308 Klausbach aqueduct (20 m)
87.274 Flirsch 1,122 m (3,681 ft)
87.564 Rosanna bridge I (L 28 m / H 7,9 m)
88.055 Rosanna bridge II (L 56 m / H 8,1 m)
S16 Arlbergschnellstraße
88.483 Avalanche gallery (33 m)
90.150 Flirsch 1 junctionStart of relocated line
90.176 Schnann(old)
90.420 Schnann 1,162 m (3,812 ft)
91.028 Innere Maienbach gallery (354 m)
91.363 SidingÖBB-substation
91.528 Rosanna bridge III
92.330 Apres tunnel (189 m)
93.334 Pettneu 1,193 m (3,914 ft)
93.476 Pettneu(old) 1,196 m (3,924 ft)
End of relocated line
93.767 Üst Flirsch 2
94.275 Vadisen gallery (579 m)
Start of new line
Rosanna bridge IV
96.271 St. Jakob 1,228 m (4,029 ft)
97.357 Wolfsgruben tunnel (1743 m), eastern portal
97.698 Rosanna bridge IV
97.923 Rosanna bridge V
99.100 Wolfsgruben tunnel, western portal
99.360 St. Anton am Arlberg 1,309 m (4,295 ft)
99.590 St. Anton am Arlberg(old) 1,303 m (4,275 ft)
99.500 Arlberg tunnel (10.648 m), new eastern portal
100.127 Arlberg tunnel (formerly 10.250 m), old eastern portal
100.600
100.828
Change of chainage (-228 m)
End of new line
104.241 Apex of the Arlberg railway 1,311 m (4,301 ft)
107.622 Üst St. Anton 3
110.377 Arlberg tunnel, western portal
110.480 Alfenz bridge (L 52 m / H 17,2 m)
110.715 Langen am Arlberg 1,217 m (3,993 ft)
Start of relocated line
111.054 Blisadona tunnel (2411 m) eastern portal
111.120 Simastobel tunnel (140 m)
111.670 Großtobel tunnel (505 m)
112.464 Bridge (L 62 m / H 8,4 m)
112.663 Kleines Lawinendach (34 m)
112.744 Bridge (L 32 m /H 6,7 m)
112.934 Abzw Langen 1
112.973 Wälditobel bridge (L 59 m / H 35 m)
113.031 Klösterle 1,157 m (3,796 ft)
113.100 Connection to proposed tunnel extension
113.465 Blisadona tunnel, western portal
113.547
113.463
Change of chainage (+84 m), end of relocated line
113.604 Great avalanche shelter (510 m)
114.113 In der Hose avalanche shelter (53 m)
114.166 Avalanche shelter III (163 m)
114.200 Start of relocated line
114.374 Wildentobel tunnel (1158 m)
114.583 Wildentobel aqueduct (15 m)
115.452 Spreubach bridge
115.600 End of relocated line
116.074 Wald am Arlberg(formerly Dannöfen) 1,074 m (3,524 ft)
116.630 Glongtobel bridge
117.995 Stelzitobel bridge (L 28 m / H 6,0 m)
118.342 Radonatobel bridge (L 80 m / H 21,0 m)
119.192 Bridge (L 23 m / H 6,1 m)
119.279 Mühltobel avalanche shelter (91 m)
119.531 Avalanche shelter IV (144 m)
119.692 Gipsbruchtobel avalanche shelter (35 m)
119.944 Avalanche shelter V (22 m)
121.253 Dalaas 932 m (3,058 ft)
121.563 Höllentobel bridge (L 96 m / H 24,2 m)
121.920 Röcken tunnel (68 m)
122.420 Schmiedtobel tunnel (94 m)
122.654 Schmiedtobel bridge (L 120 m / H 55,8 m)
122.954 Engelwand tunnel (280 m)
123.349 Engelwand avalanche shelter (31 m)
123.432 Brunntobel bridge (L 74 m / H 24,6 m)
123.722 Engelwäldchen tunnel (209 m)
124.856 Fünffingertobel gallery (32 m)
124.888 Fünffingertobel tunnel (78 m)
125.177 Hintergasse 824 m (2,703 ft)
125.666 Schanatobel bridge (L 70 m / H 18,8 m)
125.749 Böcktöbele avalanche shelter (36 m)
126.425 Pfaffentobel tunnel (97 m)
126.684 Plattentobel tunnel (162 m)
126.881 Rüfe viaduct (L 65 m / H 7,3 m)
127.970 Avalanche shelter VI (139 m)
127.109 Mason tunnel (147 m)
127.310 Arch (31,8 m)
127.528 Masonbach bridge
128.168 Mühltobel aqueduct (20 m)
129.543 Braz 705 m (2,313 ft)
132.685 Bings 614 m (2,014 ft)
Montafoner railway from Schruns
136.286 Bludenz 559 m (1,834 ft)
Vorarlberg Railway to Feldkirch, Lindau
Trisanna bridge and Castle Wiesberg
Zammer tunnel near Landeck
Inn bridge in Landeck

The Arlberg Railway (German: Arlbergbahn), which connects the Austrian cities Innsbruck and Bludenz, is Austria's only east-west mountain railway. The 135.7 km line is considered one of Europe's most problematic mountain railways, in part because it is threatened by avalanches, mudslides, rockfalls and floods. It is operated by the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) and frequented by international trains, including the Orient Express.

History and Construction[edit]

As early as 1842 a railway over the Arlberg Pass was under discussion, as the British sought a rail connection for traffic from England to Egypt. Two years later, in 1847, Carl Ganahl - a textile industrialist from Feldkirch - decided to privately support construction of the railway, despite the many technical challenges involved. On the other hand, the opening of the Semmering Railway in 1854 showed that mountain railways were basically possible and feasible. Trade Minister Anton Freiherr von Banhans presented on March 22, 1872, at the Chamber of Deputies a draft law on the execution of the Arlberg railway at government expense for a total amount of 42 million florins. In 1879 the protagonists of the Arlbergbahn with the intended 10,270 m long summit tunnel were successful. The submitted project had won confidence by the progress in the Gotthard Tunnel [1] Julius Lott was appointed planning director of the Arlbergbahn.

Lott-memorial

The costs were 38,165,282 crowns.

Arlbergbahn tunnel construction

The construction of the Arlberg Railway started on June 20, 1880, and proceeded at a faster pace than planned. Completion was originally not expected until the autumn of 1885, but already by May 29, 1883, the valley route from Innsbruck to Landeck in Tyrol was put into service. On September 21, 1884 the entire stretch of the mountain railway was completed, including the then single-track, 10.25 kilometres (6.37 mi) long Arlbergtunnel. The construction claimed 92 lives. The costs were totaled 38,165,282 crowns. The Arlberg tunnel rises from St. Anton on a length of approximately 4 km with 2 ‰. The highest point is at 1310.926 m in kilometer 104.241 m. Then it falls to Langen am Arlberg at 15 ‰.

Station Langen am Arlberg

Operation[edit]

The transalpine Arlberg Railway opened up a completely new connection between Lake Constance and the Adriatic Sea. Traffic increased so rapidly that already by July 15, 1885 a second track through the tunnel was opened, as had been planned since the beginning of the project. The most renowned train on the Arlberg route was the Orient Express, from London to Bucharest, which had only first-class compartments and parlors.

Right from the beginning, the use of steam locomotives on the Arlberg led to serious problems: Passengers and crews were exposed to the unhealthy effects of sulfurous acid, which condensed from the steam in the tunnel. Grade slopes of up to 3.1% on the western ramp and 2.6% on the eastern ramp caused traction troubles for the locomotives. Finally, in 1924, this problem was eliminated with the completion of electrification of the tunnel, followed by the ramp sections in 1925. This electrification of the railway was carried out with a 15 kV, 16.7 Hertz system, allowing heavy trains to be pulled over the route once the tracks and supporting structures, including the Trisanna bridge in 1964, had been upgraded for the increased axle weights.

Today, traffic through the Arlberg railway tunnel has increased considerably, despite competition from road transport through the Arlberg Road Tunnel. This has made it necessary to widen the approach ramps for double tracks. Many long-distance, high-speed EuroCity and Railjet trains ply the route from Vienna to Vorarlberg over the Arlberg. On the occasion of the World Ski Championships in 2001, the railway station of St. Anton on the eastern side of the Arlberg Tunnel was relocated from the town centre to a new site on the north side of the valley. This required the Arlberg tunnel be lengthened and the construction of the new Wolfsgruben tunnel.

St. Anton New station

Locomotives[edit]

Steam locomotives[edit]

From the universal locomotive, kkStB Class 73 with an operating weight of 55.1 tons, 436 pieces were ordered. Thanks to its capacity of 700 PS they could transport in the plane 1,650 tons with 30 km/h, on a slope of 10 ‰ a weight of 580t with 15 km/h and on a slope of 25 ‰ 220t, also with 15 km/h. They were mainly used for freight traffic.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arlberg railway at Zeno.org. Article by: Viktor von Röll (ed.): Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopaedia of the Railway), 2nd edition, 1912–1923, Vol. 1, S. 265–272

Coordinates: 47°15′48″N 11°24′04″E / 47.2633°N 11.4010°E / 47.2633; 11.4010