Arlberg railway

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Arlberg Railway
662 Pians.jpg
An ÖBB train on the Arlberg Railway in 2007
Overview
Native nameArlbergbahn
TypeHeavy rail, Passenger/Freight rail
Intercity rail, Regional rail, Commuter rail
StatusOperational
LocaleTyrol
Vorarlberg
TerminiInnsbruck
Bludenz
Stations31
Line number101 05
Operation
OpenedStages between 1883–1884
OwnerAustrian Federal Railways
Operator(s)Austrian Federal Railways
Technical
Line length136.7 km (84.9 mi)
Number of tracksDouble track
(Innsbruck–Ötztal,
Abzw Schönwies 1–Landeck-Zams,
Abzw Flirsch 1–Abzw Langen 1)
Single track
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Minimum radiusOstrampe: 300 m
Westrampe: 250 m
Electrification15 kV/16,7 Hz AC Overhead line
Operating speed160 km/h (99 mph)
Maximum inclineOstrampe: 2.6 %
Westrampe: 3.1 %
Route number400
Route map

Arlbergbahn.png

km
-0.434
Innsbruck Hbf
 S1   S2   S3   S4   S5 
582 m (1,909 ft)
Brenner Railway to Bolzano/Bozen (“Konzert curve”)
Connecting curve from Innsbruck Hbf goods station
1.325
Innsbruck West
 S1   S2   S4   S5 
583 m (1,913 ft)
6.910
Völs
 S1   S2   S4 
584 m (1,916 ft)
10.442
Kematen i. T.
 S1   S2   S4 
593 m (1,946 ft)
Unterperfuss
14.247
Zirl
 S1   S2   S4 
596 m (1,955 ft)
16.911
Inzing
 S1   S2 
601 m (1,972 ft)
19.163
Hatting
 S1   S2 
605 m (1,985 ft)
20.370
Üst (crossover) Zirl 2
21.412
Flaurling
 S1   S2 
609 m (1,998 ft)
25,000
25,085
Change of chainage (-85 m), start of relocated line
25,545
Oberhofen im Inntal
 S1   S2 
620 m (2,030 ft)
End of relocated line
26.800
Telfs-Pfaffenhofen
 S1   S2 
623 m (2,044 ft)
31.056
Rietz
 S1   S2 
635 m (2,083 ft)
34.647
Stams
 S1   S2 
639 m (2,096 ft)
36.223
Mötz
 S1   S2 
644 m (2,113 ft)
38.223
Silz
 S1   S2 
648 m (2,126 ft)
42.458
Haiming
 S1   S2 
669 m (2,195 ft)
45.420
Ötztal
 S1   S2 
692 m (2,270 ft)
46.152
46.320
Change of chainage (-168 m)
47.200
B171 Tiroler Straße
50.056
Roppen
 S1   S2 
706 m (2,316 ft)
54.698
Imst-Pitztal
 S1   S2 
716 m (2,349 ft)
L16 Pitztaler Straße
59.070
Imsterberg
 S1   S2 
724 m (2,375 ft)
63.015
Schönwies
 S1   S2 
736 m (2,415 ft)
65.570
Works siding
65.780
65.891
Change of chainage (-111 m)
65.911
Abzw Schönwies 1
Start of relocated line
66.550
Kronburg tunnel (330 m)
68.3
B180 Reschenstraße
68.580
Zammer tunnel (2335 m) eastern portal
70.980
Zams
768 m (2,520 ft)
Zammer tunnel western portal
End of relocated line
71.837
Landeck-Zams
 S1   S2 
776 m (2,546 ft)
72.150
Connection to Firma Donauchemie AG
72.406
72.650
Change of chainage (-244 m)
73.404
Inn (L 188 m / H 25 m)
73.800
Landeck Perfuchs
816 m (2,677 ft)
76.447
Zappelbach bridge (L 34 m / H 11,2 m)
77.981
Pians
911 m (2,989 ft)
78.277
Ganderbach bridge (L 22 m / H 14,8 m)
78.918
Mayenthal bridge (L 53 m / H 15,0 m)
79.495
Burgfried bridge (L 72 m / H 10,0 m)
79.680
Wolfsgruberbach bridge (L 50 m / H 14,3 m)
79.949
Wiesberg
953 m (3,127 ft)
80.253
Trisanna bridge (L 207 m / H 87,4 m)
80.486
Weinzierl tunnel (212 m)
80.700
Start of relocated line
80.810
Moltertobel tunnel (1643 m)
82.308
82.200
Change of chainage (+108 m)
82.500
End of relocated line
82.496
Geigertobel bridge (L 81 m / H 11,5 m)
83.073
Strengen
1,027 m (3,369 ft)
85.114
Süßwald bridge (L 59 m / H 11,0 m)
85.308
Klausbach aqueduct (20 m)
87.274
Flirsch
1,122 m (3,681 ft)
87.564
Rosanna bridge I (L 28 m / H 7,9 m)
88.055
Rosanna bridge II (L 56 m / H 8,1 m)
S16 Arlbergschnellstraße
88.483
90.150
Flirsch 1 junction
Start of relocated line
90.176
Schnann
(old)
90.420
Schnann
1,162 m (3,812 ft)
91.028
Innere Maienbach gallery (354 m)
91.363
Siding
ÖBB-substation
91.528
Rosanna bridge III
92.330
Apres tunnel (189 m)
93.334
Pettneu
1,193 m (3,914 ft)
93.476
Pettneu
(old)
1,196 m (3,924 ft)
End of relocated line
93.767
Üst Flirsch 2
94.275
Vadisen gallery (579 m)
Start of new line
Rosanna bridge IV
96.271
St. Jakob
1,228 m (4,029 ft)
97.357
Wolfsgruben tunnel (1743 m), eastern portal
97.698
Rosanna bridge IV
97.923
Rosanna bridge V
99.100
Wolfsgruben tunnel, western portal
99.360
St. Anton am Arlberg
1,309 m (4,295 ft)
99.590
St. Anton am Arlberg
(old)
1,303 m (4,275 ft)
99.500
Arlberg tunnel (10.648 m), new eastern portal
100.127
Arlberg tunnel (formerly 10.250 m), old eastern portal
100.600
100.828
Change of chainage (-228 m)
End of new line
104.241
Apex of the Arlberg railway
1,311 m (4,301 ft)
107.622
Üst St. Anton 3
110.377
Arlberg tunnel, western portal
110.480
Alfenz bridge (L 52 m / H 17,2 m)
110.715
Langen am Arlberg
1,217 m (3,993 ft)
Start of relocated line
111.054
Blisadona tunnel (2411 m) eastern portal
111.120
Simastobel tunnel (140 m)
111.670
Großtobel tunnel (505 m)
112.464
Bridge (L 62 m / H 8,4 m)
112.663
Kleines Lawinendach (34 m)
112.744
Bridge (L 32 m /H 6,7 m)
112.934
Abzw Langen 1
112.973
Wälditobel bridge (L 59 m / H 35 m)
113.031
Klösterle
1,157 m (3,796 ft)
113.100
Connection to proposed tunnel extension
113.465
Blisadona tunnel, western portal
113.547
113.463
Change of chainage (+84 m), end of relocated line
113.604
Great avalanche shelter (510 m)
114.113
In der Hose avalanche shelter (53 m)
114.166
Avalanche shelter III (163 m)
114.200
Start of relocated line
114.374
Wildentobel tunnel (1158 m)
114.583
Wildentobel aqueduct (15 m)
115.452
Spreubach bridge
115.600
End of relocated line
116.074
Wald am Arlberg
(formerly Dannöfen)
1,074 m (3,524 ft)
116.630
Glongtobel bridge
117.995
Stelzitobel bridge (L 28 m / H 6,0 m)
118.342
Radonatobel bridge (L 80 m / H 21,0 m)
119.192
Bridge (L 23 m / H 6,1 m)
119.279
Mühltobel avalanche shelter (91 m)
119.531
Avalanche shelter IV (144 m)
119.692
Gipsbruchtobel avalanche shelter (35 m)
119.944
Avalanche shelter V (22 m)
121.253
Dalaas
932 m (3,058 ft)
121.563
Höllentobel bridge (L 96 m / H 24,2 m)
121.920
Röcken tunnel (68 m)
122.420
Schmiedtobel tunnel (94 m)
122.654
Schmiedtobel bridge (L 120 m / H 55,8 m)
122.954
Engelwand tunnel (280 m)
123.349
Engelwand avalanche shelter (31 m)
123.432
Brunntobel bridge (L 74 m / H 24,6 m)
123.722
Engelwäldchen tunnel (209 m)
124.856
Fünffingertobel gallery (32 m)
124.888
Fünffingertobel tunnel (78 m)
125.177
Hintergasse
824 m (2,703 ft)
125.666
Schanatobel bridge (L 70 m / H 18,8 m)
125.749
Böcktöbele avalanche shelter (36 m)
126.425
Pfaffentobel tunnel (97 m)
126.684
Plattentobel tunnel (162 m)
126.881
Rüfe viaduct (L 65 m / H 7,3 m)
127.970
Avalanche shelter VI (139 m)
127.109
Mason tunnel (147 m)
127.310
Arch (31,8 m)
127.528
Masonbach bridge
128.168
Mühltobel aqueduct (20 m)
129.543
Braz
705 m (2,313 ft)
132.685
Bings
614 m (2,014 ft)
136.286
Bludenz
559 m (1,834 ft)
Trisanna bridge and Castle Wiesberg
Zammer tunnel near Landeck
Inn bridge in Landeck

The Arlberg Railway (German: Arlbergbahn), which connects the Austrian cities Innsbruck and Bludenz, is Austria's only east-west mountain railway. It is one of the highest standard gauge railways in Europe and the second highest in Austria, after the Brenner. The 135.7 km line is a highly problematic mountain railway, in part because it is threatened by avalanches, mudslides, rockfalls and floods.[1] It is operated by the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) and frequented by international trains, including the Orient Express.[2]

History and Construction[edit]

As early as 1842 a railway over the Arlberg Pass was under discussion, as the British sought a rail connection for traffic from England to Egypt.[3] Two years later, in 1847, Carl Ganahl - a textile industrialist from Feldkirch - decided to privately support construction of the railway, despite the many technical challenges involved. On the other hand, the opening of the Semmering Railway in 1854 showed that mountain railways were basically possible and feasible. Trade Minister Anton Freiherr von Banhans presented on March 22, 1872, at the Chamber of Deputies a draft law on the execution of the Arlberg railway at government expense for a total amount of 42 million florins. In 1879 the protagonists of the Arlbergbahn with the intended 10,270 m long summit tunnel were successful. The submitted project had won confidence by the progress in the Gotthard Tunnel.[4] Julius Lott was appointed planning director of the Arlbergbahn.[5]

Arlbergbahn tunnel construction

The construction of the Arlberg Railway started on June 20, 1880, and proceeded at a faster pace than planned. Completion was originally not expected until the autumn of 1885, but already by May 29, 1883, the valley route from Innsbruck to Landeck in Tyrol was put into service.[6] On September 21, 1884 the entire stretch of the mountain railway was completed, including the then single-track, 10.25 kilometres (6.37 mi) long Arlbergtunnel.[7] The construction claimed 92 lives. The costs were totaled 38,165,282 crowns. The Arlberg tunnel rises from St. Anton on a length of approximately 4 km with 2 ‰. The highest point is at 1310.926 m in kilometer 104.241 m. Then it falls to Langen am Arlberg at 15 ‰.[8]

Station Langen am Arlberg

Operation[edit]

The transalpine Arlberg Railway opened up a completely new connection between Lake Constance and the Adriatic Sea. Traffic increased so rapidly that already by July 15, 1885 a second track through the tunnel was opened, as had been planned since the beginning of the project. The most renowned train on the Arlberg route was the Orient Express, from London to Bucharest, which had only first-class compartments and parlors.

Right from the beginning, the use of steam locomotives on the Arlberg led to serious problems: Passengers and crews were exposed to the unhealthy effects of sulfurous acid, which condensed from the steam in the tunnel.[9] Grade slopes of up to 3.1% on the western ramp and 2.6% on the eastern ramp caused traction troubles for the locomotives. Finally, in 1924, this problem was eliminated with the completion of electrification of the tunnel, followed by the ramp sections in 1925. This electrification of the railway was carried out with a 15 kV, 16.7 Hertz system, allowing heavy trains to be pulled over the route once the tracks and supporting structures, including the Trisanna bridge in 1964, had been upgraded for the increased axle weights.

Today, traffic through the Arlberg railway tunnel has increased considerably, despite competition from road transport through the Arlberg Road Tunnel. This has made it necessary to widen the approach ramps for double tracks. Many long-distance, high-speed EuroCity and Railjet trains ply the route from Vienna to Vorarlberg over the Arlberg. On the occasion of the World Ski Championships in 2001, the railway station of St. Anton on the eastern side of the Arlberg Tunnel was relocated from the town centre to a new site on the north side of the valley. This required the Arlberg tunnel be lengthened and the construction of the new Wolfsgruben tunnel.[10]

St. Anton New station

Locomotives[edit]

Steam locomotives[edit]

From the universal locomotive, kkStB Class 73 with an operating weight of 55.1 tons, 436 pieces were ordered.[11] Thanks to its capacity of 700 PS they could transport in the plane 1,650 tons with 30 km/h, on a slope of 10 ‰ a weight of 580t with 15 km/h and on a slope of 25 ‰ 220t, also with 15 km/h. They were mainly used for freight traffic.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bern, Peter Hug, Junkerngasse 34, CH-3011. "Arlberg | eLexikon | Geographie - Oesterreich-Ungarn - Gebirge etc". peter-hug.ch (in German). Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  2. ^ "Arlbergbahn". www.alpenbahnen.net. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  3. ^ "Der Bau der Arlbergbahn 1/2 – Die Arlbergbahn". www.arlbergbahn.at (in German). Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  4. ^ Arlberg railway at Zeno.org. Article by: Viktor von Röll (ed.): Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopaedia of the Railway), 2nd edition, 1912–1923, Vol. 1, S. 265–272
  5. ^ www.zmart.at, ZMART Kreativstudio Zangerl Martin,. "die Arlberg-Bahn". Themenweg Schnann am Arlberg / Glaube und Geschichte. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  6. ^ Schuchter, Bernd (2017). Gebrauchsanweisung für Tirol. ISBN 978-3-492-97754-8.
  7. ^ "BAHNERLEBNIS-Club: 125 Jahre Arlbergbahn". www.bahnerlebnis-club.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  8. ^ "www7.dict.cc/wp_examples.php?lp_id=1&lang=de&s=Arlbergtunnel". dict.cc.
  9. ^ "Geschichtliche Bildreihe, 100 Jahre Arlbergbahn (1884 – 1984) (3500121)" (PDF).
  10. ^ "Sankt Anton am Arlberg". Bahnbilder von unterwegs (in German). Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  11. ^ "Drehscheibe Online Foren :: 06 - Modellbahn-Forum :: Micro Metakit KKStB 73 - kkArlbergbahn BF IV". www.drehscheibe-online.de. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  12. ^ Kirchner, Michael. "ÖBB 55 (kkStB 73 / BBÖ 73 / DRB 55.57–58 /...)". www.bahnspezl.de. Retrieved 2017-10-28.

Coordinates: 47°15′48″N 11°24′04″E / 47.2633°N 11.4010°E / 47.2633; 11.4010