Armadale (novel)

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For other uses, see Armadale (disambiguation).
Armadale 1866 1st ed.jpg
First edition cover
Author Wilkie Collins
Country England
Language English
Genre Mystery novel, Sensation novel
Publisher Cornhill Magazine
Publication date
Media type Print (hardback & paperback)
Preceded by My Miscellanies
Followed by No Thoroughfare

Armadale (1866) is a mystery novel by Wilkie Collins.

Plot summary[edit]

The novel has a convoluted plot about two distant cousins both named Allan Armadale. The father of one had murdered the father of the other (the two fathers are also named Allan Armadale). The story starts with a deathbed confession by the murderer in the form of a letter to be given to his baby son when he grows up. Many years pass. The son, mistreated at home, runs away from his mother and stepfather, and takes up a wandering life under the assumed name of Ozias Midwinter. He becomes a companion to his distant cousin, the other Allan Armadale, who throughout the novel never discovers the relationship. But Ozias is constantly haunted by feeling that he might harm Allan, first after he reads the letter left for him, and then again after they spend the night on a shipwreck off the Isle of Man—the ship turning out to be the same one which the murder took place (the murderer locked his victim in a cabin as the boat filled with water). On the boat, Allan has a mysterious dream involving three characters. This dream fills Ozias with foreboding, justifiably so as its three scenes become fulfilled in the course of the novel.

Allan inherits estates at Thorpe Ambrose in Norfolk after the mysterious death of three of the family. He is unused to wealth, and falls in love with the sixteen-year-old daughter of Major Milroy, to whom he has rented a cottage. This love affair is for a period thwarted by the machinations of Miss Milroy's governess, Lydia Gwilt.

Lydia, who is thirty-five but looks twenty-something, is the villain of the novel and her colourful portrayal takes up much of the rest of the story. Originally Allan's mother's maid, and a contributor to the conflict between Allan's and Ozias's fathers, she is a fortune-hunter and, it turns out, a murderess. Unable to alienate Allan's affections from Miss Milroy, she settles for marrying Midwinter, having discovered his name is the same. She plots to murder Allan—or to have him killed by her ex-husband, a Cuban desperado—and, since she is now "Mrs. Armadale," to impersonate his widow. Allan escapes the desperado's attempt on his life—he is supposed to have drowned in a shipwreck—and returns to England. Lydia's plans are thus foiled. Her last shot is to murder Allan herself—the weapon being poison gas, the scene being a sanatorium run by a quack called Doctor Downward—but she is thwarted by her own conscience. Midwinter and Allan have switched rooms, and she can't bring herself to murder her true husband, for whom she does have genuine feelings of love. After rescuing Midwinter and writing him a farewell note, she goes into the air-poisoned room and kills herself. Allan marries Miss Milroy; Midwinter, still his best friend, becomes a writer.

Some linking passages consist of letters between the various characters, or of extracts from Lydia's journal, but the great majority of the text narrates the events as they occur. The novel is enlivened by many minor characters including Mr Bashwood, an old failure of a clerk who is infatuated with the beautiful Lydia; his son, James Bashwood, a private detective; Mrs Oldershaw, an unscrupulous associate of Lydia's; the Pedgifts (father and son), Allan's sometime lawyers; and the Rev Decimus Brock, a shrewd (but not quite shrewd enough) clergymen who brings Allan up but who is kept out of the way for much of the book.

Is the dream to be interpreted rationally or superstitiously, as Midwinter does? The question is never resolved.

“The distortions of the plot, the violent and irrational reactions of the characters, reflect and dramatise the ways in which his readers’ perceptions were distorted by the assumptions and hypocrisies of the society in which they lived," writes Catherine Peters.

In the end, the novel is a story of redemption that teaches that the sins of the fathers are not necessarily visited on the children, and the son of a murderer can turn out good. Collins was to take this up again later in The Legacy of Cain.


A play by Jeffrey Hatcher based on the novel premiered on 23 April 2008 at the Milwaukee Repertory Theater.

BBC Radio 4 broadcast a three-part adaptation by Robin Brooks of the novel between Sunday 7 and Sunday 21 June 2009. The cast was Lydia, Lucy Robinson; Allan, Alex Robertson; Midwinter, Ray Fearon; Neelie, Perdita Avery; Bashwood, Richard Durden; Downward, Geoffrey Whitehead; Jemmy, Grant Gillespie; Vincent, Robin Brooks.

In this adaptation, Lydia Gwilt is the narrator, and her character is emphasised rather than Midwinter's forebodings.

Major Characters in Armadale[edit]

  • Allan Armadale
  • Ozias Midwinter – His friend
  • Lydia Gwilt – Forger and laudanum addict, the anti-heroine of the novel

Minor characters in Armadale[edit]

There are many minor characters who, besides advancing the plot, add complexity or comic relief to the novel. They include:

  • Decimus Brock – A minister and friend of Alan Armadale and Ozias Midwinter. He is a correspondent of Ozias Midwinter and privy to his secret
  • Mrs Maria Oldershaw – owner of the Ladies' Toilet Repository and Lydia Gwilt's co-conspirator
  • Allan Armadale (1st) – Father of Allan Armadale (2nd)
  • Allan Armadale (2nd) – Son of Allan Armadale (1st) and father of the main character Allan Armadale
  • Allan Armadale (3rd) – Father of Ozias Midwinter and murderer of Allan Armadale (2nd)
  • Mr. Neal – Stepfather to Ozias Midwinter
  • Mr. Bashwood; Lydia Gwilt's admirer and Allan Armadale's steward
  • Miss Milroy; resident of Thorpe Ambrose and neighbor to Allan Armadale, later to be Armadale's fiancée
  • Augustus Pedgift, Sr. – lawyer and adviser to Allan Armadale
  • Augustus Pedgift, Jr. – Pedgift's son, a junior lawyer and friend to Allan Armadale
  • Dr. Downward – criminal associate of Mrs. Oldershaw, later the founder & operator of Friendvale Sanatorium
  • Captain Manuel – one of Lydia's Gwilt's former husbands

Publication history[edit]

Armadale was first published in serial form in Cornhill Magazine in 20 monthly instalments. The first instalment appeared in the November 1864 issue and the last in the June 1866 issue. It also appeared in Harper's New Monthly Magazine in America in serial form between December 1864 and July 1866. It first appeared in book form as a two volume literary edition in May 1866.

External links[edit]