|Armadillo repeat domain|
Structure of the armadillo domain of beta-catenin.
An armadillo repeat is the name of a characteristic, repetitive amino acid sequence of about 40 residues in length that is found in many proteins. Proteins that contain armadillo repeats typically contain several tandemly repeated copies. Each Armadillo repeat is composed of a pair of alpha helices that form a hairpin structure. Multiple copies of the repeat form what is known as an alpha solenoid structure.
The term armadillo derives from the historical name of the β-catenin gene in the fruitfly Drosophila where the armadillo repeat was first discovered. Although β-catenin was previosuly believed to be a protein involved in linking cadherin cell adhesion proteins to the cytoskeleton, recent work indicates that β-catenin regulates the homodimerization of alpha-catenin, which in turn controls act branching and bundling . But, the armadillo repeat is found in a wide range of proteins with other functions. This type of protein domain is important in transducing WNT signals during embryonic development.
The 3-dimensional fold of an armadillo repeat was first observed in the crystal structure of beta-catenin, where the 12 repeats form a superhelix of alpha helices with three helices per unit. The cylindrical structure features a positively charged groove, which presumably interacts with the acidic surfaces of the known interaction partners of beta-catenin.
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- Nusse, Roel, and Hans Clevers. “Wnt/Î²-Catenin Signaling, Disease, and Emerging Therapeutic Modalities.” Cell, vol. 169, no. 6, 1 June 2017, pp. 985–999., doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.05.016.
- "Armadillo (IPR000225)". InterPro. EMBL-EBI.
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_NLS_Bipartite_1
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_NLS_MonoCore_2
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_NLS_MonoExtC_3
- Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_NLS_MonoExtN_4
- Armadillo Domain Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Armadillo/plakoglobin ARM repeat in PROSITE
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