Armed Forces of Liberia
|Armed Forces of Liberia
|Commander-in-Chief||President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf|
|Minister of Defense||Brownie Samukai|
|Chief of Staff||Brigadier General Daniel Dee Ziankahn|
|Active personnel||2,100 (establishment)
1,800 or less (actual after desertions)
|Budget||US$12.9 million (FY 2013-14)|
|Percent of GDP||0.74%|
The Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) are the armed forces of the Republic of Liberia. Tracing its origins to a militia that was formed by the first black colonists in what is now Liberia, it was founded as the Liberian Frontier Force in 1908, and retitled in 1956. For virtually all of its history, the AFL has received considerable materiel and training assistance from the United States. For most of the 1941–89 period, training was largely provided by U.S. advisers, though this assistance has not prevented the same generally low levels of effectiveness common to most of the armed forces in the developing world.
For most of the Cold War, the AFL saw little action, apart from a reinforced company group which was sent to ONUC in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the 1960s. This changed with the advent of the First Liberian Civil War in 1989. The AFL became entangled in the conflict, which lasted from 1989 to 1996–97, and then the Second Liberian Civil War, which lasted from 1999 to 2003.
The AFL is in the process of being reformed and retrained after being completely demobilized following the second civil war. The AFL currently consists of two infantry battalions, and a small Liberian National Coast Guard, which is being reformed. For several years after the war, a Nigerian Army officer served as head of the armed forces.
The New National Defense Act of 2008 was approved on August 21, 2008. It repeals the National Defense Act of 1956, the Coast Guard Act of 1959, and the Liberian Navy Act of 1986. The duties and functions of the AFL are officially stated as follows:
- Section 2.3(a): The primary mission of the AFL shall be to defend the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of Liberia, including land, air and maritime territory, against external aggressions, insurgency, terrorism and encroachment. In addition thereto the AFL shall respond to natural disasters and engage in other civic works as may be required or directed.
- Section 2.3(b): The AFL shall also participate in international peacekeeping peace enforcement and other by the UN, the AU, ECOWAS, MRU, and/or all international institutions of which Liberia may be a member. All such activities shall be undertaken only upon authorization of the President of Liberia with the consent of the Legislature.
- Section 2.3(c): The AFL shall provide command, communications, logistical, medical, transportation, and humanitarian support to the civil authority in the event of a natural or man-made disaster, outbreak of disease, or epidemic. Such assistance shall be authorized by the President of Liberia.
- Section 2.3(d): The AFL shall assist civil authorities in search, rescue, and saving of life on land, sea, or air; such assistance shall be authorized by the President for immediate response by specialized search and rescue units in conjunction with other Government Ministries and Agencies.
- Section 2.3(e): The duties of the AFL in peacetime shall include support to the national law enforcement agencies when such support is requested and approved by the President. Such support shall include exchange of information, personnel training, and mobilization and deployment of security contingents. At no time during peacetime however, shall the AFL engage in law enforcement within Liberia, such function being the prerogative of the Liberia National Police and other law enforcement agencies. Notwithstanding, the Military Police of the AFL may, on request of the Ministry of Justice made to the Ministry of National Defense, and approved by the President of Liberia, provide assistance to these law enforcement agencies as determined by prevailing situations. The AFL shall intervene only as a last resort, when the threat exceeds the capability of the law enforcement agencies to respond.
- Section 2.5: Standards of Conduct for the Armed Forces of Liberia: Members of the AFL shall perform their duties at all times in accordance with democratic values and human rights. They shall perform their duties in a non-partisan manner, obey all lawful orders and commands from their superior officers in ways that command citizen respect and confidence and contribute towards the maintenance and promotion of the respect for the rule of law.
The modern Armed Forces of Liberia grew out of a militia that was formed by the first black colonists from the United States. The militia was first formed when in August 1822 an attack was feared on Cape Mesurado (where Monrovia now is) and the agent of the settlements directed the mobilization of all "able-bodied males into a militia and declared martial law." By 1846, the size of the militia had grown to two regiments. Following independence in 1847, the militia continued to serve as the country's defense force. In 1900, Liberian men between the ages of sixteen and fifty were considered liable for service in the militia. The militia also had a navy consisting of two small gunboats. In the 1850s, the Liberian president requested naval support from the British government to transport Liberian troops to the Gallinas territory to punish Liberians there who persisted in slave trafficking.
On February 6, 1908, the militia was established on a permanent basis as the 500-strong Liberian Frontier Force (LFF). The LFF's original mission was "to patrol the border in the Hinterland [against British and French territorial ambitions] and to prevent disorders." The LFF was initially placed under the command of a British major, who was quickly replaced after he complained the Force was not being properly paid.
In 1912, the United States established military ties with Liberia by sending some five black American officers to help reorganize the force. The LFF in its early years was frequently recruited by inducing men from the interior forcibly. When dispatched to the interior to quell tribal unrest, units often lived off the areas that they were pacifying, as a form of communal punishment. The Force's officers were drawn from either the coastal aristocracy or tribal elites.
Liberia joined the Allies in both World War I and World War II. The only troops dispatched overseas were a few individuals to France during World War I, and Liberian volunteers under the command of the United States during World War II. During World War II, U.S. involvement in the country increased greatly. To guarantee a steady supply of rubber from the world's largest rubber plantation, operated at Harbel by the Firestone Company since 1926, the US government built roads throughout the country, created an international airport (known as Robertsfield), and transformed the capital by building a deep water port (the Freeport of Monrovia).
The necessary conditions for modern military training and equipment were set in 1940 at a meeting of the US admirals' LeBreton with the Liberian Secretary Clarence Simpson aboard the cruiser USS Omaha off the coast of Monrovia. During the war, funding provided by the United States allowed an increase in the Force's strength to around 1,500. The armed forces came to rely almost exclusively on American assistance in terms of training, with non-US training "tend[ing] to be brief and uninspired [with little] accomplished other than some desultory close-order drill."
U.S. forces also established an officer candidate school during the later part of the war, using instructors selected from the American troops in the country. The school conducted two courses and graduated nearly 300 new officers. Just under twenty years later in 1964, the group still made up over 50% of the officer corps of the AFL.
From 1945 to 1964, the officers appointed were nearly all college graduates. From 1951, there was a US military mission based in Liberia to assist in training the AFL. A Reserve Officers' Training Corps was established in 1956 with units at the University of Liberia in Monrovia and the Booker Washington Institute in Kakata. By 1978 the program had been redesignated the Army Student Training Program (ASTP) and had a total of 46 students at the University of Liberia, the Booker Washington Institute, and three smaller institutions. However it was not until the late 1960s that the Tubman Military Academy was established in Todee District, upper Montserrado County, as an officer training facility.
The LFF was renamed as the Armed Forces of Liberia under the Amended National Defense Law of 1956, though other sources say 1962, which appears to have been the date the land force became the Liberian National Guard. From this period, Liberia's armed forces consisted of the Liberian National Guard, the Liberian Militia, whose ostensible structure is depicted below, and the Liberian Coast Guard. Until 1980, by law every able-bodied male between the ages of 16 and 45 years was to serve in the militia, though this stipulation was not enforced.
In 1957, Armed Forces Day was designated. Speaking in 2012, the Jonathan B. B. Hart, the Bishop of the Espicopal Church of Liberia recalled that on Jan 26, 1957, the Liberian Legislature set aside Armed Forces Day as Feb 11, 1957, "the day we remembered the mutiny that was started in 1909." The bishop said that in 1909, "the army was put together under the name Frontier Force and one year after, it was established that it should be called the Liberian Frontier Force but with a foreign commander. He recalled how the Sierra Leoneans were sent to Liberia to take over the army by the British government because it had given Liberia a loan." .. "The Sierra Leonean commanders took orders from the British government and not the President of Liberia, then Arthur Barclay. When they began to misbehave, the army was turned over to a Liberian who refused. It was during that time that some soldiers took to the streets in demand of salary arrears, so soldiers getting in the streets.. in demand of salary is not new."
At the start of the 1960s, Liberia dispatched troops, including a movement control unit, to support ONUC during the Congo Crisis, and were airlifted into the Congo by the United States Air Force. The Liberian troops were initially in Équateur province. In 1961, during their first combat action in country, 300 Liberian troops repelled an attack by 5,000 Baluba tribesmen and their European officers.
The National Guard was not a high status force: "It was a skeleton brigade of soldiers who were predominantly from the lower economic and social stratum of society. They were poorly paid, and had less than decent facilities for accommodation and care." Despite this, a Liberian company, designated the Reinforced Security Company, was contributed to the United Nations Operation in the Congo in the early 1960s. Six rotations were made. The 1964 US Army Area Handbook described the company's actions as "...After a poor start, the performance of the contingent improved steadily; the last company, which returned home in May 1963, had performed creditably and, by its conduct and appearance, gave the impression of being a well-trained and disciplined military organization."
Liebenow writes that the head of the National Guard was arrested, along with others, in February 1963, to forestall an alleged coup, and that Tubman had announced that following the labour strikes of 1966, a foreign power had attempted to bribe army officers to stage a coup. In addition, Albert T. White, Commanding Officer of the LNG, was 'rusticated' by Tubman to become the Superindendent of Grand Gedeh in 1966, though he was later 'rehabilitated'.
In 1964 the US Army Area Handbook described the National Guard as 3,000 strong with a headquarters company, the Executive Mansion Guard Battalion in Monrovia, three infantry battalions and one engineer battalion (which was newly formed at Camp Naama in 1962 and only had one company organized). The three infantry battalions were the 1st Infantry Battalion, at Camp Schiefflin, situated on the airport road between Monrovia and Roberts International Airport, the 2nd Infantry Battalion, HQ at Barclay Training Center (BTC), Monrovia, and the 3rd Infantry Battalion, HQ at Baworobo, Maryland County.
By 1978, the LNG Brigade had been established and the Brigade was described as comprising a Headquarters and Headquarters Company at the Barclay Training Center, Monrovia, the Executive Mansion Guard Battalion on Capitol Hill, Monrovia, the Engineer Battalion and the First Field Artillery Battalion (both at Camp Jackson, Naama) two tactical combat battalions (the First Infantry Battalion, at Schiefflin and the Second Infantry Battalion which in the intervening period had moved from the BTC to Camp Tolbert, Todee) and three non-tactical battalions, tasked with providing guard services to government officials, tax collection, and 'other non-military duties'.
The Third Infantry Battalion covered Montserrado, Grand Cape Mount, and Grand Bassa counties from BTC. The Fourth Infantry Battalion covered Grand Gedeh, Sinoe County and Maryland counties from Camp Whisnant, Zwedru. The Fifth Infantry Battalion was at Gbarnga.
Other field units of the brigade were the Armoured Unit, at Camp Ram Rod, Paynesward City (possibly Paynesville), Monrovia), and the Bella Yella Special Detachment, Camp Bella Yella, Lofa. The Service Support Battalion was located at BTC, and comprised the Medical Company, the Brigade Band, the Brigade Special Unit (a parade unit) and the Military Police Unit. Also at BTC was the Logistical Command, consisting of a depot, arsenal (whose location had been declared unsafe), the AFL Quartermaster Corps, and the AFL Transportation Company. Strength was reported to be 4,822 in 1978.
While militia service was compulsory by law for all eligible males, the law was only enforced in a lax manner. From the mid-1960s, and in its later years, members of the militia met only quarterly for sparsely attended drill practice. Estimates of men enrolled over the years vary. The 1964 US Army Area Handbook said that "some 20,000 men are estimated to be enrolled." The IISS estimated militia numbers at 5,000 in 1967 and 6,000 in 1970.
By the early 1970s the militia reported a strength of some 4,000 poorly trained and ill-equipped men. The 1978 Annual Report of the Liberian Ministry of National Defense said that "The various militia regiments, in accordance with the law, held quarterly parades. ...Furthermore, the entire Regiments were out in full strength during burial occasions." By the time it was disbanded in 1980, the militia was considered to be completely ineffective as a military force.
The armed forces' third arm, the Liberian National Coast Guard, was established in 1959. Throughout the Tubman period the coastguard was little more than a few sometimes unserviceable patrol craft manned by ill-trained personnel, though its training improved in the 1980s to the point where it was considered the best trained of the armed services.
From 1952 onwards, Chiefs of Staff of the AFL included Major General Alexander Harper (1952–54), Lieutenant General Abraham Jackson (1954–60), Albert T. White (1964–65), Lieutenant General George T. Washington (late 1960s), Lieutenant General Henry Johnson (1970–74), Lieutenant General Franklin Smith, and Lieutenant General Henry Dubar (1980–1990).
When William Tolbert replaced the long-serving William Tubman as President in 1971, he retired more than 400 aging soldiers. Sawyer comments that "retired soldiers were replaced by young recruits from urban areas, many of whom were then poorly trained at the Tubman Military Academy. This development dramatically changed the character of the military in Liberia." (Samuel Doe was among this group.) Amos Sawyer also comments that "recruitment of such individuals for the military was part of Tolbert's efforts to replace aging, illiterate soldiers with younger, literate men who were capable of absorbing technical and professional training."
Doe regime (1980–1990)
The AFL became involved in politics when seventeen soldiers launched a coup on April 12, 1980. The group was made up of Master Sergeant Samuel Doe, two staff sergeants, four sergeants, eight corporals, and two privates. They found President Tolbert sleeping in his office in the Executive Mansion and there they killed him. While then-Sergeant Thomas Quiwonkpa led the plotters, it was the group led by Samuel Doe that found Tolbert in his office, and it was Doe, as a master sergeant the highest ranking of the group, who went on the radio the next day to announce the overthrow of the long-entrenched True Whig Party government.
Doe became Head of State and co-chair of the new People's Redemption Council government. Quiwonkpa became commander of the army and the other co-chair of the PRC. (In the aftermath of the coup, the title of LNG Brigade commanding general was confusingly changed to commanding general of the AFL, reporting to the chief of staff, and it was this position that Quiwonkpa inherited.)
Henry Dubar (who had helped recruit Doe personally years before) was promoted in one leap from captain to lieutenant general as Chief of Staff. From 1980 onward, Doe's systematic promotion of ethnic Krahn to sensitive posts in the government and military, began to drive deepening divisions within the AFL, among others with Quiwonkpa's Gio tribe, and to hamper morale.
"... Military discipline was an early casualty of the coup. The revolt had been an enlisted men's affair, and one of the first instructions broadcast over the radio had ordered soldiers not to obey their officers. Over four years later, according to observers, the reluctance of most officers to impose discipline had combined with the unwillingness of more than a few enlisted men to accept it."
The launch of Doe's coup meant that Major William Jarbo, another soldier with political ambitions who was said to have excellent connections to U.S. security officials, had had his takeover plans forestalled. He tried to escape abroad but was hunted down and killed by the new government. The junta started to split in 1983, with Doe telling Quiwonkpa that he was planning to move Quiwonkpa from command of the army to a position as secretary-general of the People's Redemption Council. Unhappy with this proposed change, Quiwonkpa fled into exile in late 1983, along with his aide-de-camp Prince Johnson.
In 1984 the AFL included the Liberian National Guard (LNG) Brigade and related units (6,300 men), and the Liberian National Coast Guard (about 450 men). The brigade, formed between 1964 and 1978, was based at the Barclay Training Center (BTC) in Monrovia, and was composed of six infantry battalions, a military engineer battalion (which circa 1974 under the command of Colonel Robert M. Blamo completed an airstrip at Belefania Town), a field artillery battalion (the First Field Artillery Battalion, reportedly at Camp Naama in Bong County) and a support battalion.
Three of the infantry units—the First Infantry Battalion, stationed at Camp Schieffelin, the Second Infantry Battalion at Camp Todee in northern Montserrado County, and the Sixth Infantry Battalion at Bomi Hills—were tactical elements designed to operate against hostile forces. The other battalions, the Third Infantry Battalion based at the Barclay Training Centre in Monrovia, the Fourth Infantry Battalion at Zwedru in Grand Gedeh County, and the Fifth Infantry Battalion at Gbarnga in Bong County served mostly as providers of personnel for non-military duties. Soldiers in these units were used extensively as policemen, customs and immigration officials, and as tax collectors.
Attempted coup (1985)
In the aftermath of the rigged elections of 1985, which Doe manipulated to solidify his power, Quiwonkpa returned from his U.S. exile to enter Liberia from Sierra Leone. On November 12, 1985 he entered Monrovia with a group of dissident soldiers, took over the national Liberia Broadcasting System radio station and announced that the 'National Patriotic Forces of Liberia' had seized power. Adekeye says that Quiwonkpa erred in 'fail[ing] to establish control over the country's communications system and resisted a frontal attack on the Executive Mansion.'
These mistakes allowed Doe the time to rally the Krahn-dominated Executive Mansion Guard and 1st Infantry Battalion from Camp Schiefflin to reestablished control. Quiwonkpa was captured, killed, and mutilated, his body being dismembered and parts eaten. In the aftermath of the attempted coup, purges took place in Monrovia and in Nimba County, Quiwonkpa's home, against those who had rejoiced after the coup announcement. As many as 1,500 people may have been killed. The AFL was purged of Gio soldiers.
Under Samuel Doe the Coast Guard was retitled the Liberian Navy in 1986 through the passage of The Liberian Navy Act of 1986. The Aviation Unit was founded in 1970 with the delivery of three Cessna U-17C light aircraft. An Aviation Unit aircraft crashed at Spriggs-Payne in 1984. In 1985 it operated three fixed-wing aircraft from Spriggs Payne Airport in Monrovia, including Cessna 172s. Their duties included reconnaissance and transport of light cargo and VIPs. The Aviation Unit was expanded in the 1980s with the delivery of more Cessna aircraft: three 172s, a 206, 207 and two single engined turboprop 208s.
The Liberian Air Force was established from the Aviation Unit by an Act of Legislature on August 12, 1987. Its statutory responsibilities were to: protect and defend the air space of the Republic of Liberia; protect lives and properties; provide air mobility for military and civil personnel; assist in search and rescue operations; undertake emergency operations; conduct reconnaissance patrols; participate in joint military operations and perform other duties as may be designated by the Ministry of Defense. The LAF was to be headed by a colonel in his capacity as Assistant Chief of Defense Staff for the Air Force and was mandated to do the following: to train personnel and develop doctrine; advise the Chief of Staff of the AFL on matters relating to the Air Force. In 1989 two refurbished DHC-4 Caribou, a single Piper Aztec light twin and three IAI Arava STOL twins were delivered.
First Liberian Civil War (1989–1997)
Charles Taylor invaded the country at Butuo in Nimba County on Christmas Eve 1989 with a force of around 150 men, initiating the First Liberian Civil War. Doe responded by sending two AFL battalions to Nimba in December 1989 – January 1990, under then-Colonel Hezekiah Bowen. The Liberian government forces assumed that most of the Mano and Gio peoples in the Nimba region were supporting the rebels. They thus acted in a very brutal and scorched-earth fashion which quickly alienated the local people. Taylor's support rose rapidly, as the Mano and Gio flocked to his National Patriotic Front of Liberia seeking revenge. Many government soldiers deserted, some to join the NPFL. The inability of the AFL to make any headway was one of the reasons why Doe changed his field commander in the area five times in the first six months of the war.
Field commanders apparently included Brigadier General Edward Smith. By May 1990 the AFL had been forced back to Gbarnga, still under the control of Bowen's troops, but they lost the town to a NPFL assault by the end of May 1990, at which time the NPFL also captured Buchanan on the coast. The NPFL had now gathered an estimated 10,000 fighters while the AFL, splintering, could only summon 2,000.
The revolt reached Monrovia by July 1990, and General Dubar left the country for exile in the United States. In place of Dubar, Brigadier General Charles Julu, former commander of the Executive Mansion Guard Battalion, was appointed Chief of Staff. Two Liberian Coast Guard vessels were sunk in the battles for the city. The NPFL had been distributing weapons to Gio civilians after it arrived in Nimba, where many were very interested in taking their revenge on the government after Doe had punished Nimba country for its support of Quiwonkpa in 1983 and 1985.
By July 1990 the government began to distribute weapons to civilians in turn, to Krahn and Mandingo who wished to protect themselves. These hastily enlisted civilians became known as '1990 soldiers.' A '1990 soldier' which the President had personally picked, Tailey Yonbu, led a massacre of refugees, mostly Gio and Mandingo civilians, on the night of July 29/30, 1990 at St. Peter's Lutheran Church in Sinkor, Monrovia. Some 600 were killed. Because of the previous ethnic purges carried out by Doe's forces, the conflict took on characteristics of an ethnic pogrom.
In August 1990 the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) despatched a peacekeeping force, ECOMOG, to Liberia. The force arrived at the Freeport of Monrovia on August 24, 1990, landing from Nigerian and Ghanaian vessels. By the time ECOMOG arrived, Prince Johnson's INPFL and Taylor's NPFL were fighting on the outside bounds of the port. A series of peacemaking conferences in regional capitals followed. There were meetings in Bamako in November 1990, Lome in January 1991, and Yamoussoukro in June–October 1991. The first seven peace conferences, including the Yamoussoukro I-IV processes and the Carter Center negotiation leading to the Cotonou Accords, failed due to lack of agreement between the warring factions. The NPFL launched an assault on Monrovia in 1992, which they named 'Operation Octopus.' The civil war lasted until the Abuja Accords of August 1996.
The AFL was confined to an enclave around the capital during the conflict, and did not play a significant part in the fighting. Elections in July 1997 finally brought Taylor to power. Under the accords, which led to a break in fighting in 1996 and the Liberian general election, 1997, ECOMOG was to retrain a new national army based on fair ethnic and geographical representation. Yet Taylor denied ECOMOG any role in the restructuring of the AFL, and the force eventually left Liberia by the end of 1998.
During the 1990–99 period, Chiefs of Staff included Lieutenant Colonel Davis S. Brapoh, Lieutenant General Hezekiah Bowen (later Minister of Defense), Lieutenant General A.M.V. Doumuyah, and Lieutenant General Kalilu Abe Kromah, appointed during the interim rule of the Council of State in 1996, who was chief of staff from May 1996 to April 1997. Following Kromah, Lieutenant General Prince C. Johnson was appointed, who died in October 1999 following a car accident.
Taylor regime (1997–2003)
Shortly after the induction of Taylor as elected president of Liberia in August 1997, the Ministry of National Defense determined that the strength of the AFL had risen during the war from 6,500 to 14,981 service members. To begin demobilization, the AFL Chief of Staff published Special Orders No. 1 on January 1, 1998, demobilizing and retiring 2,250 personnel. The demobilization process was delayed and badly managed, and only on April 22, 1998 did payments began to be issued to the demobilizing personnel, without prior explanation of what exactly the payments represented.
Demonstrations and protests by the demobilized personnel eventually led to a riot in which three died on May 5, 1998. As a result, Taylor authorised the formation of a commission to submit recommendations on how the AFL should be reorganized. The commission, led by Blamoh Nelson, Director of the Cabinet, submitted its report on December 17, 1998, recommending a 6,000-strong armed forces (5,160 Army, 600 Navy, and 240 Air Force) but the proposal was never implemented.
Instead Taylor ran down the Armed Forces, letting go 2,400–2,600 former personnel, many of whom were Krahn brought in by former President Doe, in December 1997 – January 1998, and building up instead the Anti-Terrorist Unit (ATU), the Special Operations Division of the Liberian National Police, and the Special Security Service. On November 19, 1999, Taylor named General Kpenkpah Konah as the new Chief of Staff of the AFL (where he would stay until 2006) and John Tarnue as head of the army. Tarnue was later implicated in a land dispute in 1999, while acting as AFL commander.
The International Crisis Group writes that the AFL was reduced practically to the point of non-existence by Fall 2001, by which time a total of 4,000 personnel had been retired. The Second Liberian Civil War, originated in clashes in April 1999 but was not a major threat to Taylor until 2000–01. However, on the government side the AFL played only a minor role; irregular ex National Patriotic Front of Liberia militias backed by more privileged Taylor partisans such as the Anti-Terrorist Unit saw most of the fighting.
As a result of the Civil War, all aircraft, equipment, materiel, and facilities belonging to the Liberian Air Force were badly damaged, rendering the force inoperable. During the Civil War the Taylor government made a variety of different air support arrangements; a seemingly inoperable Mil Mi-2 and Mil Mi-8, one in Anti-Terrorist Unit markings, could be seen at Spriggs Payne Airport in central Monrovia in mid-2005, apparently a hangover from the war. Meanwhile, during the Taylor era, the Navy consisted of a couple of small patrol craft. However, on shore, both late 1990s and 2005 sources indicate the Navy included the 2nd Naval District, Buchanan, the 3rd Naval District, Greenville, and the 4th Naval District, Harper.
Rebuilding the AFL
Part 4 (Articles VI and VII) of the August 2003 Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) which ended the Second Liberian Civil War addressed security sector reform. It declared that future recruits for the new AFL would be screened for their fitness for service as well as prior human rights violations, that the new force would be ethnically balanced and without political bias, and that the new force's mission would be to defend national sovereignty and "in extremis" respond to natural disasters.
By March 1, 2005, over a year after the war ended, the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) had disarmed and demobilized 103,018 people who claimed to have fought for former president Charles Taylor or the two rebel groups, Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) or the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL). That year most former AFL elements were concentrated at Camp Schiefflin. The previous AFL personnel, including those of the Navy and Air Force, were slowly retired with pensions obtained by the MND and international partners from a number of international donors.
In 2005, the United States provided funding for DynCorp International and Pacific Architects & Engineers, private military contractors, to train a new 4,000-man Liberian military. DynCorp was made responsible for individual training and PA&E unit training. In June–July 2005 the projected force strength was reduced to 2000 men. DynCorp and the U.S. Embassy scrutinized the personnel for the new armed forces thoroughly. Recruits had to pass a literacy test, an aptitude test, a drug test and an HIV test, and their names and faces were put on posters which are distributed to try to make sure none have a history of war crimes or other human rights violations. A new batch of 500 screened personnel started to arrive at the Camp Ware base at VOA Careysburg, inland from Monrovia, for initial training in early November 2007, joining 608 others who had graduated earlier.
There appears to be some lack of coordination, at least according to the Wall Street Journal, between the Ministry of National Defense and DynCorp, who is training the new army. The newspaper said in an August 2007 report:
Mr. Samukai also complains that he feels sidelined from the formation of an army that, as defense minister, he is supposed to oversee. Neither the State Department nor DynCorp will let him see the company's contract, for instance. And the U.S. insists that instead of talking directly to DynCorp managers, he go through Major Wyatt [chief of the Office of Defense Cooperation at the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia] on all matters related to the training.
Whether well regarded or not, Samukai has been accused of misusing his power; there have been allegations that he has ordered soldiers to manhandle other senior Liberian government officials—the Comptroller General of the Ministry of Finance in August 2008.
On January 11, 2008 a total 485 soldiers graduated from Initial Entry Training class 08-01. The addition of this third class of soldiers, consisting of 468 men and 17 women, raised the total strength of the AFL from 639 to 1,124. As the new Liberian force developed, UNMIL started winding down its initially 15,000 strong peacekeeping mission; by 2008 the force had been reduced to 11,000.
In the interim buildup period, President Johnson-Sirleaf decided that a Nigerian officer would act as the Command Officer-In-Charge of the new armed forces. Major General Suraj Alao Abdurrahman succeeded the previous incumbent, Lieutenant General Luka Yusuf, in early June 2007; Lieutenant General Yusuf had been posted home to Nigeria to become Chief of Army Staff.
Luka had succeeded the previous Liberian Chief of Staff, Kpenkpa Y. Konah, in 2006. In mid-July 2008, five reinstated AFL officers returned from the Nigerian Armed Forces Command and Staff College after training there. These officers include Lt Cols. Sekou S. Sheriff, Boakai B. Kamara, Aaron T. Johnson, Daniel K. Moore and Major Andrew J. Wleh. Subsequently Aaron T. Johnson was promoted to colonel and confirmed by the Liberian Senate as Deputy Chief of Staff of the AFL, immediately subordinate to General Abdurrahman. A number of the current senior AFL officers have been drawn from the ranks of the previous 1993–94 Interim Government of National Unity paramilitary police force, the 'Black Berets.'
Facility reconstruction has not been limited to VOA/Camp Ware and Schiefflin/EBK. The Chinese Government offered in 2006 to rebuild Camp Tubman in Gbarnga, and the new facility was opened in April 2009. There is also a plan to rebuild Camp Todee in Todee District, upper Montserrado. The Barclay Training Center (BTC) was handed back to the Government of Liberia on July 31, 2009 at a ceremony attended by the Minister for National Defense and the United States Ambassador after four years of management by DynCorp.
In October 2009 a State Partnership Program relationship was begun between the AFL and the U.S. state of Michigan's Michigan National Guard. Of the other large number of security agencies, plans exist as of mid-2008 at least to dissolve the Ministry of National Security, the National Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Agency. The 2009–2010 budget appears to indicate however that this consolidation has not taken place.
In 2013, the AFL deployed a platoon as part of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali, marking the first time that the AFL had operated abroad since the United Nations Operation in the Congo in the early 1960s. Initially under Nigerian command, the AFL platoon came under Togo Contingent Command when Nigeria withdrew from the mission. Despite some initial logistical problems the platoon performed admirably, performing patrols and VIP escort duties. The platoon has now seen three 'rotations':
Platoon 1 (Capt.? Nathaniel Waka) – 45 pers; 23 June 2013 to June 2014
Platoon 3 (Capt Stephen T. Powo) – June 2015 to June 2016?
The Liberian ground forces currently consist of two infantry battalions and supporting units. The 1st Battalion, 23rd Infantry Brigade, was formed on August 29, 2008, at the Barclay Training Center in Monrovia, and the 2nd Battalion, 23rd Infantry Brigade in December that year. Both battalions are currently based at the former Camp Schiefflin, which has now been renamed the Edward Binyah Kesselly Barracks, often known simply as 'EBK Barracks.'
As a result of the concentration of troops at EBK, the camp is overcrowded, and disturbances among the soldiers have occurred. As of mid-2009, the Ministry of Defense is attempting to alleviate the problem by relocating some personnel to Camp Tubman in Gbarnga.
The two battalions and supporting units went through training and preparation for an assessment exercise, a modified US Army Readiness Training Evaluation Program (ARTEP), which was held in late 2009. When declared operational, the 23rd Infantry Brigade was planned to be commanded by a colonel with a headquarters of 113 personnel. Supporting units were to include a band platoon (40 members), engineer company (220 strong), Brigade Training Unit (162 strong, now retitled the Armed Forces Training Command, located at Camp Ware under Major Wleh), and a military police company (105 strong). The force operates according to slightly modified United States Army practices, and uses U.S. doctrine.
"..The first battalion started the United States Army Training and Evaluation Programme, which it will complete in September , while the second battalion will complete the programme in December . At that time, the United States contractors currently training and equipping the force will hand over to the Ministry of National Defense, which will assume responsibility for training and standing up the new army. The United States has indicated that it plans to assign as many as 60 United States serving military personnel to continue mentoring the Armed Forces of Liberia, beginning in January 2010."
As of December 2010, a Logistics Command is being established within the AFL, taking the same name as a pre-Civil War AFL formation.
Colonel Eric W. Dennis, the Deputy Chief of Staff, died of natural causes in early August 2016. His replacement has not yet been named. Dennis was a pre-Civil War officer who rejoined in 2006 and re-rose to the rank of colonel.
The Coast Guard was reactivated on the 53rd Armed Forces Day on February 11, 2010, with an initial strength of 40 personnel who had been trained in the United States. A United States Coast Guard officer is now serving at the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia supporting efforts to reestablish the Liberian Coast Guard.
A detachment from SeaBee Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 7, based at Naval Station Rota, Spain, constructed a United States Africa Command-funded boat ramp and concrete perimeter wall for the Coast Guard, which was handed over in December 2010. In February 2011, the United States turned over two donated USCG Defender class boats to the Coast Guard.
The Liberian Air Force (LAF) was formally dissolved in 2005 as part of the armed forces demobilization programme, though it had effectively ceased to exist during the civil war. Currently, only the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) operates military aircraft in Liberia, Mi-8s and Mi-24s based at Roberts International Airport.
- Liberian Congress, New National Defense Act of 2008, approved August 21, 2008. Published by authority Ministry of Foreign Affairs Monrovia, Liberia, September 3, 2008
- Sawyer, Amos (1992). The Emergence of Autocracy in Liberia: Tragedy and Challenge. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies. p. 79. Sawyer was an interim president of Liberia in the mid-1990s.
- Sawyer, Amos (1992). The Emergence of Autocracy in Liberia: Tragedy and Challenge. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies. pp. 79–80.
- Keltie, J.S., ed. The Statesman's Year Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1900. New York: MacMillan, 1900. p 794. (Retrieved via Google Books March 3, 2011.)
- Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (1859). Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons. Ordered to be printed. pp. 225–.
- Aboagye and Rupiya (2005). Institute for Security Studies. Pretoria. p. 258.
- See http://newliberian.com/?p=137 for the Cadell affair.
- Harrison Akingbade, "U.S. Liberian relations during World War II," Phylon, Vol. XLVI, No.1, 1985, p.25
- Keegan, John. World Armies. p. 435. ISBN 0-333-17236-1.
- Thomas Duval Roberts (1972). Area Handbook for Liberia. U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Susan Curtis (2008). Colored memories: a biographer's quest for the elusive Lester A. Walton. Columbia (MS): University of Missouri Press. pp. 188–230.
- John Keegan, "World Armies" page 435, ISBN 0-333-17236-1. See also Harrison Akingbade's article in Phylon.
- Roberts, 1964, pp.392–3
- Robert Kappel; Werner Korte; R. Friedegund Mascher (1986). Liberia: Underdevelopment and Political Rule in a Peripheral Society. Institut für Afrika-Kunde. p. 134. ISBN 978-3-923519-65-1.
- T.D. Roberts et al., US Army Area Handbook 1964, pp.389–90
- 1978 Annual Report, p.7
- Brownie J. Samukai, Armed Forces Of Liberia: Reality Check For A New Military With A Redefined Constitutional Mission, February 17, 2004. Retrieved August 2010
- NewLiberian.com. "Brief History of the Armed Forces Of Liberia". Retrieved August 22, 2010.
- Roberts, T.D.; et al. (July 1964). US Army Area Handbook for Liberia. United States Army. p. 387. says the LFF was redesignated the LNG in February 1962. Gus Liebenow, in Liberia: The Evolution of Privilege says that the LFF was 'restyled the National Guard in 1962.' (p.109).
- "Library of Congress Liberia Country Study 1984". Washington DC. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved April 2008. Check date values in:
|access-date=(help) Accessed via GlobalSecurity.org
- C. Winnie Saywah, Espicopal Bishop Urges AFL Soldiers. theinquirer.com.lr. Tuesday, February 7, 2012. This mutiny is also known as the 'Caddell affair.'
- Aviation Week and Space Technology. McGraw-Hill. 1960. p. 33.
- Eric Berman; Katie E. Sams; Institute for Security Studies (South Africa) (2000). Peacekeeping in Africa: Capabilities and Culpabilities. United Nations Publications UNIDIR. pp. 240–. ISBN 978-92-9045-133-4.
- Peter Abbott (20 February 2014). Modern African Wars (4): The Congo 1960-2002. Osprey Publishing. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-1-78200-076-1.
- The West African Review. West African review,Limited. 1961. p. 57.
- Roberts et al. 1964, p.394
- Liebenow, Liberia: The Evolution of Privilege, 1969, 110.
- Lowenkopf, Politics in Liberia: The Conservative Road to Development, 1976, 179.
- Roberts et al. 1964, p.394. See also International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Armed Forces of African States, 1967 and 1970, Adelphi Papers 27 and 67, pages 11 and 22 respectively.
- Baworobo appears to be in Barrobo District, Maryland County.
- Annual Report of the Ministry of National Defense to the Fourth Session of the Forty-Eighth Legislature of the Republic of Liberia, Year Ending December 31, 1978. Monrovia: Government of Liberia. pp. 10–13., Accessed at New York Public Library, October 2007
- Thomas Jaye (compiler) (February 2008). "National Defense Law 1956, § 70-A. Composition of the Armed Forces, via Liberia's Security Sector Legislation". Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. p. 66. Retrieved 14 August 2009. Another reference to the 9th Regiment AFL is at Liberian Observer, Former AFL Colonel Remembered
- T.D. Roberts et al., 1964, p.395
- IISS, Adelphi Papers 27 and 67, op. cit.
- Annual Report of the Ministry of National Defense to the Fourth Session of the Forty-Eighth Legislature of the Republic of Liberia, Year Ending December 31, 1978. Monrovia: Government of Liberia. p. 21.
- "Library of Congress Liberia Country Study 1984: Manpower". Washington DC. Retrieved August 2007. Check date values in:
- "Library of Congress Liberia Country Study 1984: Organization and Strength". Washington DC. Retrieved June 2009. Check date values in:
|access-date=(help)Accessed via GlobalSecurity.org
- Ministry of National Defense (Liberia), Armed Forces Today, Vol. 2, No.1, February 11, 2008, p.63
- Amos Sawyer, The Emergence of Autocracy in Liberia: Tragedy and Challenge, Institute for Contemporary Studies, San Francisco, California, 1992, p.287, drawing on Martin Lowenkopf, Politics in Liberia: The Conservative Road to Development, 1976.
- Amos Sawyer, 1992, footnote 74 at p.375
- Adebayo, 2002, p. 24
- Ellis, Stephen (2001). The Mask of Anarchy. London: Hurst and Company. p. 53.
- Ellis, Stephen (2001). The Mask of Anarchy. London: Hurst and Company. p. 56. ISBN 1-85065-417-4.
- Ellis, Stephen (2001). The Mask of Anarchy. London: Hurst and Company. pp. 57–58.
- 'Looking at the LNG Brigade,' Armed Forces Day Brochure, 1973–74, Ministry of National Defense (Liberia), via University of Liberia Library
- Ellis, Stephen (2001). The Mask of Anarchy. London: Hurst and Company. pp. 59–60.
- Adebayo, 2002, p. 29
- "Ellen Signs Anti-Corruption Act, Commissions Several Officials", The Inquirer (Monrovia), August 22, 2008
- Liberian Observer, Eviction Hangs Over 2,000 Wroto Town Dwellers, September 11, 2010
- Andrade, John (1982). Militair 1982. London: Aviation Press Limited. ISBN 0-907898-01-7, p.147
- 2006/2007 Budget, Republic of Liberia. Retrieved December 2008 – January 2009. (The link, which now does not work, was at http://www.mofliberia.org/budget0607.xls.)
- Charles Hartung, 'Peacekeeping in Liberia: ECOMOG and the Struggle for Order,' Liberian Studies Journal, Volume XXX, No.2, 2005
- Hubard, Mark. The Liberian Civil War. pp. 115, 118–119. Then Lieutenant General Hezekiah Bowen was later mentioned in the Abuja Accords of 1996.
- Ellis, Stephen (2001). The Mask of Anarchy. London: Hurst and Company. p. 78.
- Adebajo, 2002, p.58. See also Hubard, pp.118–125.
- Adebajo, 2002, p.58
- Krauss, Y Clifford (July 3, 1990). "Rebel forces in Liberia surround the capital and begin an attack". New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- Smith, Jack (20 July 1990). "Liberian Rebels Tighten Grip on North of Monrovia". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- Stephen Ellis, Mask of Anarchy, 2001, p.80
- Adebajo, 2002, p.75
- See also IRIN, LIBERIA: Soldiers refuse to quit camp needed for new army, January 4, 2006, mirrored at GlobalSecurity.org
- Adebayo, 2002, pp. 233–235
- Kromah was a former police officer, and promoted again, like Dubar, in one leap to lieutenant general. He now appears to be in the United States. (http://www.felmausa.org/felmausa178.htm).
- AFL Restructuring Commission Report submitted to H.E. Charles Taylor, President of Liberia. Monrovia, Liberia. December 17, 1998. pp. 3–4.
- AFL Restructuring Commission Report submitted to H.E. Charles Taylor, President of Liberia. Monrovia, Liberia. December 17, 1998. p. 34.
- Adebayo, Adekeye (2002). Liberia's Civil War. London & Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner. p. 235. ISBN 1-58826-052-6.
- Anon. (November 19, 1999). "World: Africa Liberia names new army chief". BBC News. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- "UN Lutheran Massacres Victim Testifies". Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Retrieved February 2009. Check date values in:
- International Crisis Group (April 24, 2002). "Liberia: The Key to Ending Regional Instability". Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- Annual Report of the Ministry of National Defense. Monrovia: Government of Liberia. 2002(?). Check date values in:
- Link to Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement, August 18, 2003, reproduced by the United States Institute of Peace
- National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration, DDRR Consolidated Report Phase (Status of Disarmament and Demobilization Activities as at January 16, 2005). 1,2 & 3, cited in Ebo, 2005. The UN Secretary-General's 6th Report on UNMIL, S/2005/177, dated March 17, 2005, paragraph 22, gives 101,495.
- United Nations Mission in Liberia. "History". Retrieved October 3, 2009.
- "Liberia: US Hires Private Company to Train 4,000 strong military". IRINNEWS.org. February 15, 2005. Retrieved April 25, 2009. See funding for 2007–2009 at http://www.state.gov/t/pm/64675.htm
- Michael M. Phillips (August 14, 2007). "An Army unsullied by past". Wall Street Journal.
- D. Webster Cassell, Liberia: New AFL Recruits Go Into Training, allAfrica.com, November 8, 2007
- The Analyst Newspaper, Liberia : AFL Regaining Shape, September 2007 (Nonfunctioning link removed).
- IRIN, LIBERIA: Sirleaf unveils first members of new peacetime government, January 17, 2006
- Michael M. Phillips, An Army unsuilled by past Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2007
- The Inquirer (Monrovia), Liberia: Prince Johnson wants investigation, August 22, 2008
- International Crisis Group, Liberia: Uneven Progress in Security Sector Reform, Africa Report No. 148, January 13, 2009, p.13, and Lieutenant Colonel William C. Wyatt's blog, Monrovia Daily Monitor
- Liberia: Govt pleads for UNMIL's full presence, February 22, 2008
- Charles B. Yates, Liberia: Army Gets New Commander, The Inquirer (Monrovia), June 11, 2007 See also AfriqueJet.com, Liberia gets new Nigerian Chief of Staff, 2009
- New Liberian, Five Reinstated AFL Officers Complete Senior Leadership Training in Nigeria, July 16, 2008
- Ministry of National Defense (Liberia), 'Profile of AFL Deputy Chief of Staff (DCOS),' Armed Forces Today, Vol. 3, No. 1, February 11, 2009
- Thomas Kai Toteh, Progressive Deception to create Black Berets and their trail of violence. Retrieved August 18, 2010
- AllAfrica, Liberia: Chinese to Build Camp Tubman, link verified April 2009, and AllAfrica, Liberia: GOL breaks ground for military barracks, July 2007
- 'Citizens of Todee Celebrate Road Rehabilitation and Development Initiatives Gifts from American People,' Monrovia Daily Observer, Wednesday, May 27, 2009, p.6b
- The Informer (Monrovia), Barclay Training Center to be handed over to Defense Ministry, July 31, 2009
- TSgt Dan Heaton (127th Wing), Multi-State Efforts Support West African Partner, Air Force Print News Today, April 12, 2010, and The Inquirer, Defense Minister hosts Michigan National Guard's Adjutant General, June–July 2011
- 'AFL Peacekeepers Return Today', Heritage (Monrovia), 26 June 2014
- 'AFL Peacekeepers Return Today', Heritage (Monrovia), 26 June 2014
- Kwanue, C.Y., 2015, 'A Profile: Commander Of AFL 2nd Batch From Mali', Daily Observer (Liberia), 07/02/2015, accessed 2 October 2016, <http://liberianobserver.com/news/profile-commander-afl-2nd-batch-mali>
- Petty Officer 1st Class Daniel P. Lapierre, Liberia's President Johnson-Sirleaf, U.S. General Ward Attend Historic Activation of Liberian Military Unit, United States Africa Command. Retrieved August 3, 2010
- Colin Robinson, Military or hybrid solutions for border patrolling in Liberia, Comments on Africa No. 13, Conflict, Security, and Development Group, King's College London, March 2012.
- Rebecca Murray, New Army Faces Greatest Challenge, Inter Press Service, December 26, 2009
- Jefferson Massah, Liberia: UNMIL Provides training for 60 AFL Military Engineers, The Informer, September 16, 2009
- United States Marine Corps, Diggin' In, March 2009
- Molinaro, Kristin (August 6, 2009). "Liberian delegation visits Fort Benning". United States Army. Archived from the original on August 9, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.(The Bayonet)
- PDF (374 KB), pages 36–37
- UN Secretary-General's Report on UNMIL, released 10 August 2009
- Photo 2 of 9 covering senior officials visit: “United States Marine Brig. Gen. Paul W. Brier, commander, U.S. Marine Forces Africa, and Michelle Stefanick, foreign policy advisor, U.S. Marine Forces Africa, learn about the progress of Operation ONWARD LIBERTY.” http://www.dvidshub.net/image/319273/marine-forces-africa-commander-visits-liberia-gauges-progress-onward-liberty-mentorship. Retrieved December 2, 2010.
- Liberian Observer (see talk page)
- Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President's Annual Message, January 25, 2010
- Chief Petty Officer Jason Morris, APS, Seabees Bolster Liberia's Coast Guard, Africa Partnership Station Public Affairs, October 20, 2009
- NMCB 7 Liberia Detachment Receives Commendation, May 30, 2010. Retrieved June 2010, and Liberian Coast Guard Ready for 24/7 Ops, December 29, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2011
- http://www.liberianobserver.com/node/10592 US Equip AFL with 2 Boats
- Aboagye, Festus B, and Rupiya, Dr Martin R, (2005). Enhancing post-Conflict Democratic Governance through effective Security Sector Reform in Liberia, Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, RSA, (Chapter 11 of larger book)
- AFL Restructuring Commission Report submitted to H.E. Charles Taylor, President of Liberia. Monrovia, Liberia. December 17, 1998.
- Adebajo, Adekeye (2002). Liberia's Civil War. London & Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner. ISBN 1-58826-052-6.
- Ebo, Adedeji, (2005). The Challenges And Opportunities Of Security Sector Reform in post-conflict Liberia, Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces,
- Ellis, Stephen (2001). The Mask of Anarchy. London: Hurst and Company. ISBN 1-85065-417-4.
- International Crisis Group, Liberia: Uneven Progress in Security Sector Reform, Africa Report No. 148, January 13, 2009
- International Crisis Group, Liberia: Staying Focused, Africa Report No. 36, January 13, 2006
- International Crisis Group (April 24, 2002). "Liberia: The Key to Ending Regional Instability". Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies, Adelphi Papers 27 (1967) and 67 (1970), The Armed Forces of African States
- Nelson, Harold D., ed., (September 1984). Liberia: A Country Study, Area Handbook Series, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
- Sean McFate, Building Better Armies: An Insider's Account of Liberia, Strategic Studies Institute, November 2013
- Roberts T.D., et al., (1964). US Army Area Handbook Liberia, Foreign Area Studies Division, American University, Department of the Army Pamphlet 550-38
- Colin Robinson, Military or hybrid solutions for border patrolling in Liberia, Comments on Africa No. 13, Conflict, Security, and Development Group, King's College London, March 2012
- Samukai, Brownie J., (February 17, 2004). Armed Forces Of Liberia: Reality Check For A New Military With A Redefined Constitutional Mission,
- Sawyer, Amos (1992). The Emergence of Autocracy in Liberia: Tragedy and Challenge. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies.
- United Nations Mission in Liberia, United Nations Secretary-General's Report on UNMIL, released August 10, 2009
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military of Liberia.|
- Bekoe, Dorina, and Parajon, Christina, Security Sector Reform in Liberia: Domestic Considerations and the Way Forward, United States Institute of Peace, April 2007
- Dunn, D. Elwood, 'Liberia and the United States during the Cold War: Limits of Reciprocity,' Palgrave McMillian, 2009, ISBN 978-0-230-61735-3
- Global Witness, Taylor-made: The Pivotal Role of Liberia's Forests and Flag of Convenience in Regional Conflict, September 2001
- McFate, Sean, PDF (1.55 MB) Military Review, July–August 2007.
- Ahadzi, 'Failure of Domestic Politics..,' in Omeje, Kenneth. "War to peace transition: conflict intervention and peacebuilding in Liberia." (2009).