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Armenian Genocide recognition

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Armenian Genocide memorial complex, the eternal flame at the center of the twelve slabs

Armenian Genocide recognition is the formal acceptance that the systematic massacres and forced deportation of Armenians committed by the Ottoman Empire and subsequently the Turkish Republic from 1915 to 1923 constituted genocide. The overwhelming majority of historians as well as academic institutions on Holocaust and genocide studies recognize the Armenian Genocide.[1][2][3][4]

As of 2016 governments and parliaments of 28 countries, including Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Russia, as well as 44 states out of 50 of the United States of America, have recognized the events as a genocide.[5][6] The governments of Turkey and Azerbaijan are the only ones that directly deny the historical factuality of the Armenian Genocide.

International organizations[edit]

United Nations[edit]

In 1985, the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities received a report from Special Rapporteur and Sub-Commission member Benjamin Whitaker (United Kingdom) entitled Revised and Updated Report on the Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (commonly known as The Whitaker Report), in which the Ottoman systematic massacre of Armenians during the World War I was cited as meeting the criteria for the UN definition of genocide and as one of the genocides of the 20th century.[7] His report was received and noted by a resolution at the 38th session of the Sub-Commission in 1985. (E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/6, July 2, 1985)

Catholic church[edit]

In 2015, Pope Francis said that the Armenian Genocide was "considered the first genocide of the 20th century". The word was not used again, due to strong Turkish backlash, until June 2016, when he reaffirmed and solidified his stance on it constituting a genocide and strongly condemned the enduring denial of it.[8] Turkey responded by accusing the Pope of having a "crusader mentality" against the country. The Vatican strongly denied this, claiming that the Pope had actually called for reconciliation between Armenians and Turks.[9]

International Association of Genocide Scholars[edit]

In 1997 the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) passed a resolution unanimously recognizing the Ottoman massacres of Armenians as genocide:[10][11]

That this assembly of the Association of Genocide Scholars in its conference held in Montreal, June 11–13, 1997, reaffirms that the mass murder of over a million Armenians in Turkey in 1915 is a case of genocide which conforms to the statutes of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. It further condemns the denial of the Armenian Genocide by the Turkish government and its official and unofficial agents and supporters.

— Among the prominent scholars who supported the resolution were: Roger W. Smith (College of William & Mary; President of AGS); Israel Charny (Hebrew University, Jerusalem); Helen Fein (Past President AGS); Frank Chalk (Concordia University, Montreal); Ben Kiernan (Yale University); Anthony Oberschall (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Mark Levene (Warwick University, UK); Rhoda Howard (McMaster University, Canada), Michael Freeman (Essex University, UK), Gunnar Heinsohn (Bremen University, Germany)

The IAGS recognized the 1915 genocide in three different resolutions, on October 5, 2007 extending the recognition to also include the Assyrian Genocide and Pontian and Anatolian Greek Genocide among the affected minorities:[12]

WHEREAS the denial of genocide is widely recognised as the final stage of genocide, enshrining impunity for the perpetrators of genocide, and demonstrably paving the way for future genocides;

WHEREAS the Ottoman genocide against minority populations during and following the First World War is usually depicted as a genocide against Armenians alone, with little recognition of the qualitatively similar genocides against other Christian minorities of the Ottoman Empire;

BE IT RESOLVED that it is the conviction of the International Association of Genocide Scholars that the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks.

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Association calls upon the government of Turkey to acknowledge the genocides against these populations, to issue a formal apology, and to take prompt and meaningful steps toward restitution.[13]

The IAGS has consistently identified the Ottoman massacres of Armenians as genocide. For example, on March 7, 2009, in an open letter to President Obama, Gregory Stanton, President IAGS stated "we urge you to 'refer to the mass slaughter of Armenians as genocide in your commemorative statement,' as you urged President George W. Bush to do in a letter dated March 18, 2005".[14]

In February 2002 an independent legal opinion commissioned by the International Center for Transitional Justice, concluded that the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915–1918 "include[d] all of the elements of the crime of genocide as defined in the [Genocide] Convention, and legal scholars as well as historians, politicians, journalists and other people would be justified in continuing to so describe them".[15] From page 2 of the report:

This memorandum was drafted by independent legal counsel based on a request made to the International Center for Transitional Justice ("ICTJ"), on the basis of the Memorandum of Understanding ("MoU") entered into by The Turkish Armenian Reconciliation Commission ("TARC") on July 12, 2002 and presentations by members of TARC on September 10, 2002.

From page 18, D. Conclusion:

… Because the other three elements identified above have been definitively established, the Events, viewed collectively, can thus be said to include all of the elements of the crime of genocide as defined in the Convention, and legal scholars as well as historians, politicians, journalists and other people would be justified in continuing to so describe them.

In 2007 the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity wrote a letter[16] signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians constituted genocide.[17] Wiesel's organization also asserted that Turkish acknowledgement of the Armenian Genocide would create no legal "basis for reparations or territorial claims", anticipating Turkish anxieties that it could prompt financial or territorial claims.[18]

European Parliament[edit]

On April 15, 2015, the European Parliament backed a motion that calls the massacre a century ago of up to 1.5 million Armenians by Ottoman Turkish forces a genocide,[19] days after Pope Francis' message triggered an angry reaction in Turkey by using the same term.[20] It had previously done so in 1987,[21] 2000,[22] 2002[23] and 2005.[24]

The European Parliament commended the message the pontiff had delivered.[25][26][27]

Council of Europe[edit]

The Council of Europe recognized the Armenian Genocide on May 14, 2001.[28]

American Jewish organizations[edit]

On November 7, 1989 the Union for Reform Judaism passed a resolution on recognition of the Armenian Genocide.[29]

In 2007 the Anti-Defamation League declared the following press statement:

We have never negated but have always described the painful events of 1915–1918 perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire against the Armenians as massacres and atrocities. On reflection, we have come to share the view of Henry Morgenthau, Sr. that the consequences of those actions were indeed tantamount to genocide. If the word genocide had existed then, they would have called it genocide.[30]

In 2014 the American Jewish Committee recognized the Armenian Genocide as a historical fact.[31][32]

In October 2015, the Jewish Council for Public Affairs published a resolution calling on the U.S. government to recognize the World War I-era Turkish massacres of Armenians as a genocide.[33]

Central Council of Jews in Germany[edit]

The Central Council of Jews in Germany has called on the German government to recognize the World War I mass murder of over one million Armenians in what was then the Ottoman Empire as a genocide.

"One hundred years ago, in the government of the Ottoman Empire ordered the deportation of one million Armenians. They were murdered directly, or died of starvation and dehydration in the desert," Central Council President Josef Schuster told the newspaper 'Der Tagesspiegel'. He added: "These terrible events should be called what they were: a genocide."

Schuster said the Armenian genocide later served Adolf Hitler and his Nazis as a blueprint for the Holocaust.[34][35][36]

The Zentralrat is the German affiliate of the World Jewish Congress (WJC).

European People's Party[edit]

On March 3, 2015, the European People's Party (EPP) adopted a resolution recognising and condemning the Armenian Genocide as well as paying tribute to the victims in the 100th anniversary. The EPP, which is the largest European political party, has adopted the resolution following the initiative of its sister parties from Armenia. The EPP includes major parties such as the German Christian Democratic Union (CDU), the French Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), the Spanish Popular Party (PP) and it has member parties in all the EU Member States except for the United Kingdom.[37][38]

Other[edit]

Permanent Peoples' Tribunal[edit]

In 1984 the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal made a verdict that the Armenian genocide is "an 'international crime' for which the Turkish state must assume responsibility", and that the United Nations and each of its members "have the right to demand this recognition and to assist the Armenian people to that end".[45][46]

Presbyterian Church (USA)[edit]

On June 20, 2014, the Presbyterian Church (USA) adopted a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide and adopting the 2015 church calendar designating April 26 as the day for its observance.[47][48] It also directed the church's Mission Agency to prepare educational and liturgical resources for member churches in preparation for this event.[48] This resolution was the first of its kind for a major American church body.[48]

Parliaments and governments[edit]

  Countries which officially recognize the events as genocide.
  Countries where certain political parties, provinces or municipalities have recognized the events as genocide, independently from the government as a whole.

Countries[edit]

On May 24, 1915, during World War I, the Allied Powers (the United Kingdom, France and Russia) jointly issued a statement in which they said that for approximately a month, the Kurdish and Turkish populations of Armenia had been massacring Armenians, with the connivance and often assistance of Ottoman authorities, and that the Allied Powers would hold all officers of the Ottoman Government implicated in such crimes personally responsible for crimes against humanity.[49][50][51]

For about a month the Kurd and Turkish populations of Armenia has been massacring Armenians with the connivance and often assistance of Ottoman authorities. Such massacres took place in middle April at Erzerum, Dertchun, Eguine, Akn, Bitlis, Mush, Sassun, Zeitun, and throughout Cilicia. Inhabitants of about one hundred villages near Van were all murdered. In that city Armenian quarter is besieged by Kurds. At the same time in Constantinople Ottoman Government ill-treats inoffensive Armenian population. In view of those new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization, the Allied governments announce publicly to the Sublime-Porte that they will hold personally responsible [for] these crimes all members of the Ottoman government and those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres.[49]

— French Foreign Office to Turkish Government, May 24th

In the twentyfirst century parliaments of several countries have formally recognized the event as genocide. Turkish entry talks with the European Union were met with a number of calls to consider the event as genocide,[52][53][54] though it never became a precondition.

As of October 2015 29 states had officially recognized the historical events as genocide. Sovereign nations (i.e. UN member-states) officially recognizing the Armenian Genocide are:[55][56][57]

Country Year(s) of recognition Notes
 Argentina 1993, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2015[58]
 Armenian SSR
 Armenia
1988[59]
 Austria 2015[60][61]
 Belgium 1998,[62] 2015[63]
 Bolivia 2014 The resolution was approved unanimously by both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, with the approval of the Foreign Ministry.[64]
 Brazil 2015 The resolution was approved by the Federal Senate.[65][66]
 Bulgaria 2015 The declaration was adopted by the Bulgarian parliament on April 24, 2015, using the phrase "mass extermination of the Armenian People in the Ottoman Empire" and declares April 24 as a Victims Remembrance Day.[67][68][69]

Regarding the usage of "mass extermination" the Bulgarian Prime Minister Boiko Borisov has specified the following: "I said it very clearly: this is the Bulgarian word or the Bulgarian words, or the Bulgarian idiom for 'genocide," [69]

 Canada 1996, 2002, 2004[70]
 Chile 2007, 2015[71][72]
 Cyprus 1975, 1982, 1990 The first country to raise the issue to the UN General Assembly. Denial of the genocide is criminalized.[73]
 Czech Republic 2015[74][75][76][77][78] The foreign relations committee of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic passed on April 14, 2015 a resolution commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. On January 30, 2014 Czech Republic President Milos Zeman publicly recognized the Armenian Genocide. However Czech Republic has not yet recognized mass killings of Armenians officially as a genocide.
 France 1998, 2001[79]
 Germany 2005, 2016[80] Resolution passed first reading in April 2015. On June 2, 2016 German Bundestag almost unanimously (with one vote against and one abstention) passed a resolution qualifying the Ottoman Era Armenian killings 'genocide'.
 Greece 1996 Denial of the genocide is criminalized.
  • Punishable by up to 3 years in prison and a fine not to exceed 30,000 Euros, per 2014 act.[81]
 Italy 2000[79][82] Denial of genocides is criminalized. It stipulates 3-year imprisonment and a fine.[83][84][85]
 Lithuania 2005[86]
 Lebanon 1997, 2000[79]
 Luxembourg 2015[87] The Chamber of Deputies unanimously adopted a resolution on the recognition of the genocide of Armenian people.[88]
 Netherlands 2004, 2015[89][90]
 Ottoman Empire 1919[91] The verdict of the Turkish courts-martial of 1919–20 acknowledged the Armenian Genocide (then known as "war crimes"), and sentenced the perpetrators to death.[92] However, in 1921, during the resurgence of the Turkish National Movement, amnesty was given to those found guilty. Thereafter, the successive Turkish government, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, adopted a policy of denial.[92][93][94][95]
 Paraguay 2015 The Chamber of Senator in Paraguay unanimously adopted the resolution.[96]
 Poland 2005[97] Vice-President of the European Parliament Mr. Ryszard Czarnecki said he's proud Poland has already recognized and condemned the Armenian Genocide.
 Russia 1995, 2005, 2015[79]
 Slovakia 2004 Denial of the genocide is criminalized.
  • Punishable by up to 5 years in prison, per 2011 act.[98]
 Sweden 2010[99]
  Switzerland 2003 Denial of the genocide is criminalized.
 Syria 2015[100][101]
 Uruguay 1965, 2004[79][102] The first country to recognize the events as genocide.
 Holy See 2000, 2015[79][103]
 Venezuela 2005[104]

Regional governments[edit]

Regions, provinces and other government units recognizing the Armenian Genocide include:

Australia[edit]

  •  New South Wales: In 2007 the Parliament of the State of New South Wales passed a motion condemning the genocide and called on the Australian Federal Government to do the same,[105]
  •  South Australia: In March 2009 the Parliament of South Australia passed a similar motion to that passed in New South Wales in 2007.[106]

Additionally, the City of Ryde has adopted a unanimous motion dedicated to the centenary of the Armenian Genocide at its Council Meeting on April 14, 2015. The motion further calls on the Government of Australia to recognize and condemn all genocides.[107] The City of Willoughby passed a motion recognizing the Armenian Genocide on May 11, 2015.[108]

Iran[edit]

Spain[edit]

Parliaments of five regions recognize the Armenian Genocide:

Additionally, the cities of Santa Margalida,[115] Manises,[116] Mislata,[117] Xirivella,[118] Silla,[119] San Sebastián,[120] Burjassot,[121] Betera,[122] Pinto[123] Aldaia,[124] Alzira,[125] La Roda de Andalucía,[126] Puente Genil,[127] Carcaixent,[128] Alaquàs,[128] Elda,[128] Mérida,[129] Paiporta[130] and Alicante[131] have recognized the Armenian Genocide.

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

  •  United States: 44 U.S. states have recognized the Armenian Genocide; as of February 2015.[135]

Other[edit]

  •  Bulgaria: Five provinces (oblasts) have recognized the Armenian Genocide – first in 2008 was the Plovdiv Province followed by the provinces of Burgas, Ruse, Stara Zagora, Pazardzhik. As of 2015 the Bulgarian Parliament officially recognises the "mass extermination of Armenian People".
  • Flag of Quindío.svg Quindío, Colombia: The department's current capital city, formerly named "Villa Holguín" at its foundation act in 1889, was after renamed Armenia as tribute to the genocide victims.[136]
  •  Republika Srpska:
  •  Nagorno-Karabakh Republic: The predominantly Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh recognizes the Armenian Genocide.[137] The self-proclaimed republic has declared April 24 as Genocide Memorial Day.[138]
  •  Quebec: Quebec was the first Province in Canada to recognize the Armenian Genocide in 1980.[139]
  •  British Columbia: The Legislative Assembly of British Columbia Recognizes The Armenian Genocide.[140]
  •  Flanders: The Parliament of Flanders adopted resolution recognizing Armenian Genocide and called on Turkey to come to terms with its past.[141]
  •  Vaud: Swiss Canton of Vaud recognized the Armenian Genocide of 1915 in Ottoman Turkey[142]
  •  Overijssel: The Dutch province of Overijssel adopted a motion recognizing the Armenian Genocide.[143]
  •  Corsica: The Corsican Assembly fully recognized the Armenian Genocide and further calls on Turkey to do the same.[144]
  •  Crimea: The Crimean Parliament recognized the Armenian Genocide in 2005.[145]
  •  Tuscany: On March 25, 2015 the Italian region of Tuscany passed a resolution on recognition of the Armenian Genocide.[146]
  •  Abruzzo: The Italian region of Abruzzo on October 27, 2015 passed a bill to recognize the Armenian Genocide.[147]
  •  Marche: The Regional Council of Marche, Italy, unanimously recognized the Armenian Genocide on October 6, 2015.[148]
  •  Sicily: The Sicilian Parliament in Italy unanimously recognized the Armenian Genocide on April 20, 2016.[149]
  •  Rio de Janeiro: The State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil recognized the Armenian Genocide on July 24, 2015 with a law, setting April 24 as "Day of recognition and memory of the victims of the Armenian Genocide".[150]
  •  São Paulo: The Legislative Assembly of the largest Brazilian state – São Paulo – passed a law recognizing April 24 "a Commemoration Day of the 1.5 million victims of the Armenian Genocide in 1915" in 2003.[151]
  •  Ceará: In 2006, The Legislative Council of State of Ceará, Brazil, unanimously passed a bill which recognizes April 24 as the Day of the Armenian People. The Armenian Genocide victims will be hence commemorated on this day.[152]
  •  Paraná: In 2013, Parliament of Brazilian state of Paraná adopted a bill recognizing the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire.[153]

Position of Turkey[edit]

A major obstacle for wider recognition of the genocide in the world is the official position of Turkey, which states that there was no will to exterminate Armenian population and the 1915 massacres were the consequences of Tehcir Law and World War I.[154]

In April 2006, the Turkish Human Rights Association has recognized this as a genocide.[155]

In December 2008, a group of Turkish intellectuals launched an online petition for people who want to apologize in a personal capacity. The writers of the petition used the word "the Great Catastrophe" regarding the events. The petition (Turkish for "We apologize"), gained upwards of 10,000 signatures in a matter of days. In the face of a backlash,[156] the Turkish president defended the petition, citing freedom of speech.[157] An opposition group soon launched a Web site raising an even higher number of signatures. The Prime Minister sided with the opposition, and a national debate ensued.[158]

Since the "I Apologize" campaign in 2008, every year on April 24, commemoration ceremonies for the genocide are held in several Turkish cities. They started at Taksim Square of Istanbul in 2008, mainly a result of the nationwide discussion that came after the Assassination of Hrant Dink and then spread to Ankara, Diyarbakır, İzmir, Malatya, and Mersin in the following years.[159] The commemorations draw increasing support each year.

Greens and the Left Party of the Future had announced that they recognized the Armenian genocide in 2014.[160]

Position of the United States[edit]

U.S. states that recognize the Armenian Genocide

Several official U.S. documents describe the events as genocide. The U.S. House of Representatives adopted resolutions commemorating the Armenian Genocide in 1975,[161][162] 1984[163] and 1996.[164] President Ronald Reagan also described the events as genocide in his speech on April 22, 1981.[165] The legislatures of 45 out of the 50 U.S. states have made individual proclamations recognising the events of 1915 to 1923 as genocide.[5][6] As of March 4, 2010, the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs has recognized the massacres of 1915 as genocide.[166]

The United States government first acknowledged the Armenian Genocide back in 1951, in a document it submitted to the International Court of Justice, commonly known as the World Court.[7]

House Joint Resolution 148, adopted on April 8, 1975, resolved: "Authorizes the President to designate April 24, 1975, as 'National Day of Remembrance of Man's Inhumanity to Man' for remembrance of all the victims of genocide, especially those of Armenian ancestry who succumbed to the genocide perpetrated in 1915."[162]

After the tenure of Ronald Reagan, later United States Presidents have refused to name the events as such because of concerns over alienating Turkey.[167]

The Armenian Assembly of America (AAA) and the Armenian National Committee of America (ANCA), advocacy organizations representing the views and values of the Armenian American community in the United States, have been urging Congress and the President of the United States to recognize the genocide by Ottoman Turkey in 1915.[168] They have also asked for an increase of economic aid to Armenia.

The United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs approved HR 106, a bill that categorized and condemned the Ottoman Empire for the Genocide, on October 10, 2007, by a 27–21 vote. However, some of the support for the bill from both Democrats and Republicans eroded after the White House warned against the possibility of Turkey restricting airspace as well as ground-route access for U.S. military and humanitarian efforts in Iraq in response to the bill.[167] In response to the House Foreign Affairs Committee's decision on the bill, Turkey ordered their ambassador to the United States to return to Turkey for "consultations".[169] The Turkish lobby worked intensely to block the bill's passage.[169]

Barack Obama's position[edit]

On January 19, 2008 United States Senator Barack Obama released a statement: "Two years ago, I criticized the Secretary of State for the firing of U.S. Ambassador to Armenia, John Evans, after he properly used the term genocide to describe Turkey's slaughter of thousands of Armenians starting in 1915. I shared with Secretary Rice my firmly held conviction that the Armenian Genocide is not an allegation, a personal opinion, or a point of view, but rather a widely documented fact supported by an overwhelming body of historical evidence. The facts are undeniable. An official policy that calls on diplomats to distort the historical facts is an untenable policy. As a senator, I strongly support passage of the Armenian Genocide Resolution (H.Res.106 and S.Res.106), and as President I will recognize the Armenian Genocide".[170]

Since becoming president he has retreated from those statements, stating only that his opinion has not changed but refusing to use the word genocide. Despite his previous public recognition and support of genocide bills, as well as the election campaign promises to formally recognize the Armenian Genocide,[171] Obama has thus far abstained from using the term "genocide".[172] On April 24, 2009, he stated as president:

I have consistently stated my own view of what occurred in 1915, and my view of that history has not changed. My interest remains the achievement of a full, frank and just acknowledgment of the facts.[173]

On April 24 commemoration speeches, Obama referred only to the Armenian synonym Metz Eghern ("Mec Eġeṙn"). On April 24, 2010 Obama stated:

On this solemn day of remembrance, we pause to recall that ninety-five years ago one of the worst atrocities of the 20th century began. In that dark moment of history, 1.5 million Armenians were massacred or marched to their death in the final days of the Ottoman Empire.

Today is a day to reflect upon and draw lessons from these terrible events. I have consistently stated my own view of what occurred in 1915, and my view of that history has not changed. It is in all of our interest to see the achievement a full, frank and just acknowledgment of the facts. The Meds Yeghern is a devastating chapter in the history of the Armenian people, and we must keep its memory alive in honor of those who were murdered and so that we do not repeat the grave mistakes of the past.[174][175][176][177]

Also in 2012,[178] 2013,[179] 2014[180] 2015,[181][182] and 2016[183] he did not use the word 'genocide'. In April 2015, Obama sent a Presidential Delegation to Armenia to attend the Centennial Commemoration in Yerevan.[184] Susan E. Rice, Obama's National Security Advisor, encouraged the Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu of Turkey to take concrete steps to improve relations with Armenia and to facilitate an open and frank dialogue in Turkey about the atrocities of 1915.[185]

Kurdish position[edit]

Some Kurdish tribes played a role in the genocide, as they were an important tool used by the Ottoman authorities to carry out the killings.[186] Among modern Kurds, including major Kurdish parties like the HDP, KDP, and PKK, most of them acknowledge the killings and apologize in the name of their ancestors who committed atrocities toward Armenians and Arameans in the name of the Ottoman Empire.[187][188][189][190][190][191]

Position of France[edit]

France has formally recognized the Armenian massacres as genocide.[192]

In 2006, the French Parliament submitted a bill to create a law that would punish any person denying the Armenian genocide with up to five years' imprisonment and a fine [193] Despite Turkish protests,[194] the French National Assembly adopted a bill making it a crime to deny that Armenians suffered genocide in 1915 at the hands of the Ottoman Turks.[195] The bill had been criticized as an attempt to garner votes from among the 600,000 ethnic Armenians of France.[196] This criticism has come not only from within Turkey,[197] but also from Orhan Pamuk.[198] However, the bill was dropped in the summer of 2011 before coming to the Senate.[199]

Since then, France has urged Turkey to recognize the 1915 massacre as genocide.[200]

The French Senate passed a bill in 2011 that criminalizes denial of acknowledged genocides, which includes both the Holocaust and the Armenian Genocide. The bill was submitted by the parliament in 2012.[201] However, the bill was considered unconstitutional on February 28, 2012 by the French Constitutional Court: "The council rules that by punishing anyone contesting the existence of... crimes that lawmakers themselves recognized or qualified as such, lawmakers committed an unconstitutional attack on freedom of expression".[202]

Position of the United Kingdom[edit]

The devolved legislatures of Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have all formally recognised the Armenian genocide. In 2000, an Early Day Motion recognising the Armenian Genocide by the UK Parliament was signed by 185 MPs.[203][204]

Armenian memorial unveiled in Cardiff in 2007

However, in 2007, the position of the British government was that it condemns the massacres, but "neither this Government nor previous British Governments have judged that the evidence is sufficiently unequivocal to persuade us that these events should be categorised as genocide as defined by the 1948 UN Convention on Genocide, a convention which is, in any event, not retrospective in application."[205] In 2009 the lawyer Geoffrey Robertson QC revealed in a disclosure of Foreign Office documents entitled "Was there an Armenian Genocide?",[206] how the British Parliament has routinely been misinformed and misled by ministers who have recited FCO briefs without questioning their accuracy. As summarized by Robertson, "there was no 'evidence' that had ever been looked at and there had never been a 'judgment' at all."[207] A 1999 Foreign Office briefing for ministers said that the recognition of the Armenian Genocide would provide no practical benefit to the UK and goes on to say that "The current line is the only feasible option" owing to "the importance of our relations (political, strategic and commercial) with Turkey". The Foreign Office documents furthermore include advice from 1995 to the then Conservative foreign minister, Douglas Hogg, that he should refuse to attend a memorial service for the victims of the genocide.[208]

The historical paradoxicality of the British position is highlighted by the role of James Bryce (1838–1922), 1st Viscount Bryce, one of the first Britons to bring this issue to the fore.

Position of Australia[edit]

Australia does not view the events at the end of the Ottoman Empire as a genocide.[209] Australia is one of the countries who were in war against the Ottoman Empire at the time of the events, notably during the Gallipoli Campaign. Australia does acknowledge the tragic events had devastating effects on the identity, heritage, and culture of all the people in the areas that the events have occurred. Furthermore, in response to the motions of New South Wales and South Australia to recognize the events as genocide the Foreign Minister of Australia has clarified on June 4, 2014, that Australian states and territories have no constitutional role in the formulation of the Australian foreign policy, and that Australia does not view the tragic events at the end of the Ottoman Empire as a genocide.[209]

Position of Israel[edit]

Officially Israel neither recognizes nor denies the Armenian Genocide. This stems from a few geopolitical considerations. First, according to The Times of Israel, "Israel is a small country in a hostile neighborhood that can't afford to antagonize the few friends it has in the region. Even more powerful states refuse to employ the 'genocide' term for fear of alienating Turkey...."[210] Second, Israel shares a "budding friendship" with Azerbaijan, a "Shiite Muslim but moderate country bordering Iran" that also strongly opposes recognition.[210] Third, according to former Israeli minister Yossi Sarid (one of the country's most vocal supporters of Armenian Genocide recognition), Israel tends to follow policies set by the United States, which has not recognized it.[211] Despite these concerns, many prominent Israeli figures from different sides of the political spectrum have called for recognition.[210][211]

In 2003, the Catholicos of All Armenian Karekin II visited the then Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel Yona Metzger who accepted an invitation by Karekin II to visit Armenia,[212] a trip that he made in 2005, including a visit to the Tsitsernakaberd (the Genocide Memorial in Yerevan).[213] While doing so he formally recognised the[Armenian Genocide as a historical fact.[214]

Israel appeared to move closer to officially recognizing the genocide in 2011 when the Knesset held its first open discussion on the matter. By a unanimous vote of 20–0, the Knesset approved referring the subject to the Education Committee for more extensive deliberation.[215] Israel's speaker of the Knesset told an Israel-based Armenian action committee that he intended to introduce an annual parliamentary session to mark the genocide.[216] A special parliamentary session held in 2012 to determine if Israel would recognize the Armenian Genocide ended inconclusively. Then–Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin and Cabinet Minister Gilad Erdan were among those supporting formal recognition by the government.[217] The recognition was not approved at that time and in 2015, Rafael Harpaz, Israel's ambassador to Azerbaijan, said in an interview that Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman has made it clear that Israel will not recognize the Armenian genocide, given Israel's hopes that its political and economic relationship with Turkey can improve.[218] Another great concern is Azerbaijan, which is Israel's main oil supplier, a buyer of Israeli arms, and a Muslim ally in the global coalition against Iran.[219]

MKs supporting recognition have acknowledged the effect it could have on Israel–Azerbaijan and Israel–Turkey relations. As then Knesset Spokesperson Rivlin said, "Turkey is and will be an ally of Israel. The talks with Turkey are understandable and even necessary from a strategic and diplomatic perspective. But those circumstances cannot justify the Knesset ignoring the tragedy of another people" and Ayelet Shaked (of the religious-nationalist Jewish Home party) said: "We must confront our silence and that of the world in the face of such horrors."[220][221] In 2000, then–education minister Yossi Sarid, chairman of the dovish Meretz party, announced plans to place the Armenian genocide on Israel's history curricula.[210] As a result of Sarid's 2000 speech to an Armenian church in Jerusalem recognizing their genocide, he became persona non grata in Turkey.[211] Meretz has long fought for recognition of the genocide.[219] Zehava Galon, a successor of Sarid as Meretz leader, has initiated several motions in the Knesset calling for the government to recognize the Armenian Genocide. In 2013 she said, "Reconciliation with Turkey is an important and strategic move, but it should not affect the recognition."[221] Her 2014 motion also enjoyed much support on the Knesset floor, including that of Knesset Speaker Yuli Edelstein.[222] Galon has also paid her respects at local Armenian memorial services.[223]

Rivlin, now president of Israel, was one of the Knesset's most outspoken proponent's of recognition. It was reported in 2014 that due to the sensitivities of Israel's relationship with Turkey, Rivlin was quietly distancing himself from the Israeli campaign to recognize the Armenian Genocide and chose not to sign the annual petition, which he had previously done.[224] Still, Israel has taken greater steps toward Armenian Genocide recognition under Rivlin's presidency. Rivlin was the first Israeli president to speak at the United Nations on the issue.[225] During the United Nations Holocaust Memorial on January 28, 2015, President Rivlin spoke about the Armenian tragedy.[226] It was observed that in his speech he used the phrase רצח בני העם הארמני reẓaḥ bnei haʿam haArmeni, which means "the murder of the members of the Armenian nation," coming close to the Hebrew term for genocide, רצח עם reẓaḥ ʿam.[227] In addition, 2015 marked the first time that Israel sent a delegation—Nachman Shai (Zionist Union) and Anat Berko (Likud)—to Yerevan for the official memorial event. In an event billed as the first to be held by an Israeli president to commemorate the tragedy, Rivlin also invited Armenian communal and religious leader's to his official residence on April 26, 2015. He said we are "morally obligated to point out the facts, as horrible as they might be, we must not ignore them." As he skirted using the term "genocide," some Armenian leaders were disappointed, though still thankful for the event.[227] However, it was later reported that earlier that same month, while briefing foreign journalists in English, Rivlin had in fact referred to the killings as genocide, saying:

It was Avshalom Feinberg, one of my eldest brothers, who said 25 years before the Holocaust that if we do not warn against what is going on with the Armenians, what will happen afterwards when they try to do to us…? There is a saying that the Nazis used the Armenian genocide as something that gave them permission to bring the Holocaust into reality, according to their belief that they have to discriminate against the Jewish people. 'Never again' belongs to every one of you, all the nations. We cannot allow something like that to happen."[225]

In 2015, a group of distinguished Israeli academics, artists, and former generals and politicians signed a petition calling on Israel to follow the Pope's lead and recognize the genocide.[211] The signatories included author Amos Oz, historian Yehuda Bauer, Major General (ret.) Amos Yadlin, former Likud minister Dan Meridor and about a dozen former MKs and ministers.[210]

Israeli President Reuven Rivlin visited the Armenian Patriarchate in Jerusalem on May 9, 2016. Concluding his speech he said, that "the Armenians were massacred in 1915. My parents remember thousands of Armenian migrants finding asylum at the Armenian Church. No one in Israel denies that an entire nation was massacred."[228]

Position of other countries[edit]

The Armenian Heritage Park in downtown Boston
Armenian genocide monument in Larnaca, Cyprus. Cyprus was among the first countries to recognize the genocide.

Azerbaijan, which is in a strategic alliance with Turkey and diplomatically hostile towards Armenia, shares the position of Turkey. However, the scientific circles of Soviet Azerbaijan recognized the Armenian Genocide, in particular, a brief description of the Armenian Genocide was placed in the Azerbaijani Soviet Encyclopedia.[229]

The Ukrainian town Izyum recognized the killings as genocide on New Year's Eve 2009 but after lobbying by the Azerbaijani community of Crimea, their city council canceled that decision on April 1, 2010. This is the first case in the world when the decision on a recognition was cancelled.[230]

Denmark believes (2008) that the genocide recognition should be discussed by historians, not politicians.[231]

In Bulgaria activists first tried to persuade the parliament to acknowledge the genocide in 2008, but the proposal was voted down.[232] Shortly after the decision of the parliament, several of the biggest municipalities in Bulgaria accepted a resolution recognising the genocide.[233] The resolution was first passed in Plovdiv followed by Burgas, Ruse, Stara Zagora, Pazardzhik and others. In 2015 however, the Bulgarian parliament adopted a declaration recognising the "mass extermination of the Armenian People in the Ottoman Empire" in the period 1915–1922, but did not use the word "genocide".[67][234]

Diaspora and the genocide recognition[edit]

Armenian Genocide memorial, Kolkata
Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day, Kolkata

The Armenian National Committee of America (ANCA) and the Armenian Assembly of America (AAA) lobby for recognition in the United States Congress, often in opposition to the Turkish lobby.[168][235]

During the later stages of the Cold War, fringe militant movements among Armenians arose. One of the goals of these Armenian militants was to agitate world governments for Turkish and international recognition of the Armenian Genocide. Attacks on Turkish diplomats were committed in Europe, Asia and America. Of these were active the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) and the Armenian Revolutionary Army (ARA);[235] both organizations stopped their military activities in the late 80's.

The Armenian community in Kolkata, India, numbering approximately 150 people,[236] travel to the St John's Church in Chinsurah, annually, to observe Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day.[237] The community, along with visitors from countries such as Iran, Lebanon and Moscow held a memorial service at the 300-year-old Armenian Holy Church of Nazareth in Kolkata to mark the 100th anniversary of the genocide.[238] Armenian students at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi organized a candle lighting ceremony in the university campus and at the Sacred Heart Cathedral in the city to mark the anniversary. A commemoration ceremony was also held at the Armenian Church in Chennai.[239]

Developments since 2000[edit]

On March 29, 2000 the Swedish parliament approved a report, recognizing the Armenian Genocide and calling for Turkey's greater openness and an "unbiased independent and international research on the genocide committed against the Armenian people".[240] On June 12, 2008, the Swedish parliament voted by 245 to 37 (with 1 abstention, 66 absences) to reject a call for recognition of the 1915 genocide of the Ottoman Empire. On June 11 a long debate took place in the Swedish Parliament in regard to the Foreign Committee report on Human Rights, including five motions calling upon the Swedish Government and Parliament to officially recognize the genocide.[241] The MPs adhered to the recommendation by the Swedish Foreign Ministry and Foreign Committee, arguing that there are "disagreements among scholars" in regard to the nature of the World War I events in Turkey, the non-retroactive nature of the UN Genocide Convention, and that the issue "should be left to historians". However, the Foreign Committee report stated that "the Committee understands that what happened to Armenians, Assyrians/Syrians and Chaldeans during the Ottoman Empire's reign would probably be regarded as genocide according to the 1948 convention, if it had been in power at the time of the event".[242] Three days prior to the debate in the Parliament, a petition, signed by over 60 renowned genocide scholars was published, calling on politicians in general, and the Swedish parliamentarians in specific, not to abuse the name of science in denying a historic fact.[243] On March 11, 2010, the Swedish parliament recognized the genocide.[244]

In 2001 Abd al-Qader Qaddura, speaker of the Syrian Parliament, became the first high-ranking Syrian official to acknowledge the Armenian genocide when he wrote in the Book of Remembrance of the Armenian Genocide Monument and Museum in Yerevan: "As we visit the Memorial and Museum of the Genocide that the Armenian nation suffered in 1915, we stand in full admiration and respect in front of those heroes that faced death with courage and heroism. Their children and grandchildren continued after them to immortalize their courage and struggle. … With great respect we bow our heads in memory of the martyrs of the Armenian nation — our friends — and hail their ability for resoluteness and triumph. We will work together to liberate every human being from aggression and oppression." In 2014 Syrian President Bashar al-Assad became the first Syrian head of state to acknowledge the mass murders of Armenians and identify the perpetrator as Ottoman Turkey, stating, "The degree of savagery and inhumanity that the terrorists have reached reminds us of what happened in the Middle Ages in Europe over 500 years ago. In more recent modern times, it reminds us of the massacres perpetrated by the Ottomans against the Armenians, when they killed a million and a half Armenians and half a million Orthodox Syriacs in Syria and in Turkish territory." Although Assad did not use the world genocide, two days after Assad's statement Bashar Jaafari, Syria's ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva, stated, "How about the Armenian Genocide where 1.5 million people were killed?" [245]

On September 9, 2004, President Mohammad Khatami of Iran visited the Armenian Genocide Memorial at Tsitsernakaberd in Yerevan.[246]

On June 15, 2005 the German Bundestag passed a resolution that "honors and commemorates the victims of violence, murder and expulsion among the Armenian people before and during the First World War". The German resolution also states:

The German parliament deplores the acts of the Government of the Ottoman Empire regarding the almost complete destruction of Armenians in Anatolia and also the inglorious role of the German Reich in the face of the organized expulsion and extermination of Armenians which it did not try to stop. Women, children and elderly were from February 1915 sent on death marches towards the Syrian desert.

The expressions "organized expulsion and extermination" resulting in the "almost complete destruction of Armenians" is sufficient in any language to amount to formal recognition of the Armenian Genocide, although of course the crime of 'genocide' had not been legally defined in 1915. The Resolution also contains an apology for German responsibility as a then ally of Turkey.[247][248]

On September 4, 2006, Members of the European Parliament voted for the inclusion of a clause prompting Turkey "to recognize the Armenian genocide as a condition for its EU accession" in a highly critical report, which was adopted by a broad majority in the foreign relations committee of the European Parliament.[249][250] This requirement was later dropped on September 27, 2006 by the general assembly of the European Parliament by 429 votes in favor to 71 against, with 125 abstentions.[251] In dropping the pre-condition of acceptance of the Armenian genocide, (which could not be legally demanded of Turkey), The European Parliament said: "MEPs nevertheless stress that, although the recognition of the Armenian genocide as such is formally not one of the Copenhagen criteria, it is indispensable for a country on the road to membership to come to terms with and recognize its past."

On September 26, 2006, the two largest political parties in the Netherlands, Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and the Labour Party (PvdA), removed three Turkish-Dutch candidates for the 2006 general election, because they either denied or refused to publicly declare that the Armenian Genocide had happened. The magazine HP/De Tijd reported that the number 2 of the PvdA list of candidates, Nebahat Albayrak (who was born in Turkey and is of Turkish descent) had acknowledged that the term "genocide" was appropriate to describe the events. Albayrak denied having said this and accused the press of putting words in her mouth, saying that "I'm not a politician that will trample my identity. I've always defended the same views everywhere with regard to the 'genocide'".[252] It was reported that a large section of the Turkish minority were considering boycotting the elections.[253] Netherlands' Turkish minority numbers 365,000 people, out of which 235,000 are eligible to vote.

On November 29, 2006, the lower house of Argentina's parliament adopted a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide. The bill was overwhelmingly adopted by the assembly and declared April 24, the international day of remembrance for the Armenian genocide as an official "day of mutual tolerance and respect" among peoples around the world.

On April 20, 2007, the Basque Parliament approved an institutional declaration recognising the Armenian Genocide. The Basque Parliament included six articles where it affirms the authenticity of the Armenian Genocide and declares sympathy to the Armenians, while at the same time denouncing Turkey's negation of the genocide and its economic blockade imposed on Armenia.[254]

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev laying a wreath at the Armenian Genocide Memorial, October 2008

On June 5, 2007, the Chilean Senate unanimously adopted a legislation recognising the Armenian Genocide and urging its government to support a key 1985 United Nations Subcommission report properly describing this crime against humanity as a clear instance of genocide.[255]

On November 23, 2007, the Mercosur parliament adopted a resolution recognising the "Armenian Genocide, perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire, which took 1.5 million lives from 1915 to 1923". The Mercosur resolution also expressed its support for the Armenian Cause and called on all countries to recognize the genocide.[256]

On March 5, 2010, the Catalonian Parliament recognized the Armenian Genocide on the initiative of the members of Barcelona's Friendship Union with Armenia.[111]

On March 11, 2010 the Swedish Parliament voted to describe the massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Empire in 1915 as genocide. The resolution was adopted with 131 deputies voting in favour of the resolution and 130 voting against it.

On March 25, 2010 the Serbian Radical Party submitted a draft resolution to the Serbian parliament condemning the genocide committed by Ottoman Turkey against Armenians from 1915 to 1923. SRS submitted the draft so that Serbia can join the countries which have condemned the genocide.[257] As of March 10, 2014, Serbia does not recognize the events as a genocide,[258] thus it can be said the draft has failed.

On February 17, 2011, Chinese foreign minister Yang Jiechi paid tribute to the memory of the Armenian Genocide victims during his visit to Armenia. He also met with the head of Armenia's national church, Catholicos of All Armenians Karekin II, and discussed the recognition of the Armenian Genocide.[259]

Despite the fact that the Czech Republic has not formally recognized the Armenian Genocide, during his meeting with Armenia's President Serzh Sargsyan in January 2014, the Czech President Miloš Zeman stated: "Next year marks the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. In 1915 1.5 million Armenians were killed."[260]

On June 20, 2014, the Presbyterian Church (USA) adopted a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide and adopting the 2015 church calendar designating April 26 as the day for its observance.[47][48] It also directed the church's Mission Agency to prepare educational and liturgical resources for member churches in preparation for this event.[48] This resolution was the first of its kind for a major American church body.[48]

On June 23, 2014 the parliament of Spain's autonomous community of Navarre adopted a measure recognizing the Armenian Genocide. The measure came after a series of visits by members of the Navarre parliament to Armenia and Artsakh.[261]

On March 11, 2015, American actor George Clooney showed solidarity and support in a day of remembrance marking the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide at an event in New York City. Clooney took to the stage and spoke about the significance of the centennial and of recognizing the genocide. Clooney was joined by his wife Amal Clooney, who went before Europe's top human rights court in January, representing Armenia, to argue against a man convicted of denying the 1915 Armenian genocide.[262]

On March 17, 2015, the People's Council of Syria -during a session dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the genocide-, condemned the Ottoman Empire for its responsibility for the Armenian Genocide. The speaker of the parliament Mohammad Jihad al-Laham issued a statement on behalf of the members, where he expressed solidarity with the Armenians worldwide in their struggle for justice.[263]

On March 27, 2015, Armenian and Greek youth held a protest in the Greek capital of Athens. Protesters demanded that European Union member states end denial policies, recognize the Armenian Genocide, and subject deniers to criminal liability. The protesters further called on the European Union to pressure Turkey to recognize the genocide and take action to compensate for the material and non-material losses and restoration of the historic rights of the Armenian nation.[264]

On April 2, 2015, the popular American band System of a Down embarked on their Wake Up The Souls Tour, which kicked off April 6 and culminates with the band's first performance in Armenia's capital city of Yerevan on April 23. "The goal is to raise awareness about the Armenian Genocide, and also to put the idea into people's minds that justice can prevail, even if it's been a hundred years," said band member Serj Tankian. The group will visit a total of 14 cities across the world.[265]

On April 4, 2015, Forty-nine members of the United States House of Representatives have written a letter to U.S. President Barack Obama urging him to recognize the mass killings of the Armenians at the hands of the Ottomans in 1915 as genocide, claiming that the move will help improve Turkish-Armenian relations. The lawmakers said a clear recognition of the 1915 events as genocide, as Armenians mark its centennial this year, would affirm that it is not an allegation but a "widely documented fact supported by an overwhelming body of historical evidence." [266]

On April 6, 2015, Armenian-American reality stars Kim Kardashian and Khloé Kardashian travelled to the Republic of Armenia. During their stay, the sisters visited the Tsitsernakaberd Genocide Memorial in Yerevan and in-doing so, brought global media attention to the recognition of the Armenian Genocide. Kim Kardashian's husband Kanye West also visited the Republic.[267]

On April 7, 2015, the Ngāpuhi leader David Rankin has called for Māori people to boycott this year's centennial ANZAC commemorations because the Turkish Government is using the event to deflect attention from the Armenian Genocide. Mr Rankin stated that "the Armenian population was slaughtered by the colonizing Turks and our involvement in the ANZAC centennial at Gallipoli is supporting the genocide of the colonizer. Mr Rankin is calling on the Maori of New Zealand and other indigenous groups to boycott this year's ANZAC Day events and as a sign of their solidarity with the Armenians, to stop wearing poppies this year.[268] The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand also supports the move to recognize the Armenian Genocide. The Green Party human rights spokesperson Catherine Delahunty stated that New Zealand should be using its spot on the United Nations Security Council to advocate for genocide recognition.[269]

On April 12, 2015, Pope Francis described the massacres of 1.5 million Armenians in Ottoman Turkey as "the first genocide of the 20th century" during an unprecedented Vatican Mass dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the tragedy. Francis remembered the victims of "that immense and senseless slaughter" at the start of the Mass at St. Peter's Basilica, which was attended by President Serzh Sarkisian, the supreme heads of the Armenian Apostolic Churches and hundreds of Armenian Catholics.[270] Turkey responded by recalling its ambassador to the Holy See.[271]

On April 14, 2015, the Parliament of Corsica adopted a resolution recognizing the fact of the Armenian Genocide. With this resolution, the Corsican Assembly urged Turkey to recognize the Genocide and normalize relations with Armenia. The resolution was introduced by the Femu a Corsica political coalition.[272]

On April 15, 2015, the European Parliament adopted a resolution by a majority vote that calls the massacre a century ago of up to 1.5 million Armenians by Ottoman Turkish forces a genocide. The motion, which garnered support from all political groups, encouraged Turkey to "use the commemoration of the centenary of the Armenian Genocide as an important opportunity" to open its archives, "come to terms with its past" as well as recognize the genocide. By doing so, Turkey would pave the way for a "genuine reconciliation between the Turkish and Armenian peoples". The document calls on Turkey to restore its diplomatic ties with Armenia, open the border and strive for economic integration.[273] The European Parliament further called on all European Union member states to recognize the Armenian Genocide.[274]

On April 17, 2015, Armenian religious and secular organizations in Georgia have petitioned the country's parliament to begin formal debates on the recognition of the Armenian Genocide.[275] On April 24, 2015, thousands marched in the province of Javakheti demanding that Turkey recognize the genocide. Another rally took place near the Turkish embassy in Tbilisi.[276]

On April 18, 2015, the Austrian People's Party and the Social Democratic Party of Austria presented a resolution that condemns the Armenian Genocide to the Parliament of Austria.[277] On April 21, 2015 the Austrian parliament officially adopted a statement condemning the Armenian Genocide and called on Turkey to face its past. All six factions of the Austrian parliament signed up to the statement that also emphasizes the responsibility of Austria-Hungary, as an ally of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, in the Armenian Genocide.[278]

On April 20, 2015, German Chancellor Angela Merkel's spokesman Steffen Seibert said the government of Germany would support a resolution in parliament on Friday declaring the Armenian Genocide an example of genocide. Chancellor Angela Merkel and her coalition, including the Christian Democratic Union of Germany will vote on April 24 to label the murders as genocide as defined by the United Nations in 1948. The lower house vote is on the same day as leaders meet in the Armenian capital of Yerevan to commemorate the massacre that began in April 1915. Germany has been under pressure from some of its European partners to follow their example and more fully recognize the depth of the Armenian tragedy.[279]

On April 21, 2015, members of the opposition political group New Party (Serbia), submitted a draft resolution on the recognition and condemnation of genocide perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire to the Parliament of Serbia. New Party is calling on the Serbian government and citizens to observe April 24 as a day of remembrance of the victims of the Armenian Genocide. The draft resolution also calls on other countries, including Turkey, and international organizations to recognize and condemn the genocide against the Armenian people in the hopes to prevent such crimes from happening in the future.[280]

On April 22, 2015, Israeli President Reuven Rivlin spoke out strongly on the question of the Armenian Genocide in a closed session with journalists in Jerusalem. Rivlin drew a direct historical link between the world's failure to prevent the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. "The Nazis," he said, "used the Armenian Genocide as something that gave them permission to bring the Holocaust into reality." [281]

On April 22, 2015, the President of Armenia, Serzh Sargsyan expressed his gratitude to the People's Council of Syria for its steps aimed at the recognition of the Armenian Genocide. The speaker of the People's Council of the Syrian Arab Republic, Mohammad Jihad al-Laham, stated that Syria recognizes the Armenian Genocide committed by the Ottoman Empire.[282]

On April 23, 2015, Russian President Vladimir Putin described the 1915 Armenian massacres in Ottoman Turkey as genocide ahead of his participation in upcoming official ceremonies in Yerevan to mark the 100th anniversary of the tragedy. "One century on, we bow our heads in memory of all victims of this tragedy which our country has always perceived as its own pain and calamity," he said.[283]

On April 23, 2015, the Flemish Parliament of Belgium unanimously adopted a resolution to fully recognize the Armenian Genocide. The motion was put forward by all political parties of Flanders including the Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams party. The motion further called on Turkey to recognize the massacres as a genocide.[284]

On April 24, 2015, The President of Serbia, Tomislav Nikolić, stated that the people of Serbia realize what happened to the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and that a monstrous genocide did occur. The President, along with other world leaders, travelled to the Armenian capital of Yerevan to commemorate the centennial of the genocide. The denial of historical truth adversely affects the level of awareness," the Serbian president stressed, and added: "We have not come here to be against or for someone, but to honor the memory of the victims of the people of Armenia." [285]

On April 24, 2015, more than 130,000 people took to the streets of Los Angeles to mark the centennial of the Armenian Genocide. Demonstrators started the march from the Little Armenia neighborhood and proceeded to walk six miles to the Turkish consulate. Demonstrators demanded that the killing of around 1.5 million Armenians by Ottoman Turks in 1915 be recognized as a genocide.[286]

On April 24, 2015, the lights of the Eiffel Tower in Paris and the Coliseum in Rome went dark in recognition and remembrance of the Armenian Genocide. Several media outlets reported that Europe stood with Armenia at this time.[287]

On April 25, 2015, the entire political elite of Uruguay participated in commemorating the centennial of the Armenian Genocide in Montevideo. Among the participants were President Tabaré Vázquez and Vice-President Raúl Fernando Sendic Rodríguez. The high-ranking guests talked about the need for international recognition of the Armenian Genocide and criticized Turkey's denial. Uruguay was the first country to recognize the Armenian Genocide in 1965.[288]

Throughout April 2015, several American states have adopted resolutions on the occasion of the Armenian Genocide centennial. Wisconsin commemorated the "Day of Remembrance for the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide of 1915 to 1923 with a joint resolution. Pennsylvania unanimously passed H.R. 265 designating April 24, 2015, as "Pennsylvania's Day of Remembrance of the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. Tennessee passed HR 100 designating April 24 as the official day of remembrance for the Armenian Genocide. The New York State Assembly passed Res.374 "intended to counter the tide of revisionist history which purports that the Armenian Genocide never took place." The House of Representatives of Georgia (U.S. state) passed Resolution H.R. 904 which declares April 24 as Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day.[289] As of April 2015, 44 out of 50 U.S. states have, by legislation or proclamation, recognized the Armenian Genocide.[290]

On April 27, 2015, a call to recognize the killing of an estimated 1.5 million Armenians as "genocide", was supported by the leaders of the main Irish churches. Clergy from seven Christian denominations and a representative of the Jewish Community were among those calling on Republic of Ireland to recognize the genocide. Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Dublin Raymond Field said to the Armenians "I stand in solidarity with you, and we share your pain and sadness." Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin Dr Michael Jackson also described the killing as a "genocide" which demanded "recognition and response".[291] On the same day, Armenia called on Ireland to recognize the genocide, the call was made by the Armenian Consul to Ireland.[292]

On April 29, 2015, members of the Kurdistan Parliament in Iraq submitted a legislative proposal to recognize the events of 1915 as the Armenian Genocide. The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan extended its support of the proposal. The draft law also proposes to declare April 24 as an official non-working day in Iraqi Kurdistan.[293]

On May 30, 2015, the Young European Socialists gathered in Riga, Latvia where a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide was passed. The group also condemned Turkey's denial of the crime and called on Turkey to begin a process of reparations for the genocide.[294]

On November 30, 2015, the Parliament of South Ossetia will consider the issue of recognition of the Armenian Genocide, as announced by Speaker Anatoly Bibilov. "We regret that South Ossetia has not recognized the Armenian Genocide until now. The issue is on the parliament agenda now, and will be put on a discussion. It's necessary to give a proper assessment to the crime committed in the Ottoman Empire and condemn the policy of denial of genocide," he said. He added that South Ossetia is not afraid of damaging ties with Turkey, as there are no relations as such.[295]

On June 2, 2016, the Germany's Bundestag passed a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide and admitting its part of responsibility for it, as the main ally of the Ottoman Empire during WW I, which led to a furious reaction in Turkey.[296] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has said German lawmakers of Turkish origin who voted for the resolution have “tainted blood” and that their blood “must be tested in a lab.” The president of Germany's parliament, Norbert Lammert said he was shocked that threats against the parliamentarians had been backed by high-ranking politicians, and said parliament would respond with all legal options. Also, Martin Schulz, a member of Germany's Social Democrats (SPD) and president of the European Parliament condemned Erdoğan's comments.[297] German foreign ministry had warned lawmakers with Turkish origin against travel to Turkey because their safety could not be guaranteed and also they received increased police protection and further security measures for both their professional and private activities.[298]

On June 24, 2016, Pope Francis in a speech described the killing of Armenians as a genocide. Also, the Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi, told the reporters that "There is no reason not to use this word in this case," "The reality is clear and we never denied what the reality is." Turkey condemned the declaration as “very unfortunate” and also said that it bore traces of “the mentality of the Crusades.”[299][300]

On July 1, France's lower house of parliament has unanimously voted to criminalize the denial of all crimes against humanity. The amendment covered all events which the French law defined as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or slavery, including Armenian genocide. The law set out penalties of up to one year in prison and a 45,000-euro ($50,000) fine for those who contradicted it.[301][302][303] Turkish Foreign Ministry said that this law is a risk to freedom of expression[304]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide" (PDF). 
  2. ^ Monroe, Kristen Renwick (2012). Ethics in an age of terror and genocide : identity and moral choice. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-691-15143-1. 
  3. ^ Loytomaki, Stiina (2014). Law and the Politics of Memory: Confronting the Past. Routledge. p. 31. ISBN 1-136-00736-9. To date, more than 20 countries in the world have officially recognized the events as genocide and most historians and genocide scholars accept this view. 
  4. ^ Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009). Genocide and international justice. New York: Facts On File. p. 83. ISBN 0-8160-7310-4. 
  5. ^ a b The number of states in the United States recognising the Armenian Genocide. Armenian National Institute, Armenian National Institute, Inc.
  6. ^ a b Hadjilyra, Alexander-Michael (2009). The Armenians of Cyprus. Kalaydjian Foundation. p. 32. 
  7. ^ a b Sassounian, Harut (2010). "Genocide Recognition and a Quest for Justice". Loyola Law Review 32 (115). 
  8. ^ [https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/24/pope-francis-denounces-armenian-genocide-during-visit-to-yerevan
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ The Armenian Genocide Resolution Unanimously Passed By The Association of Genocide Scholars of North America Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., The Armenian Genocide Resolution was unanimously passed at the Association of Genocide Scholars' conference in Montreal on June 13, 1997.
  11. ^ Open letter to President Obama calling for acknowledgment of the Armenian Genocide Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., website of the IAGS, March 7, 2009. p. 2
  12. ^ International Association of Genocide Scholars Resolution, website of the IAGS 2007
  13. ^ IAGS, Resolutions & Statements Archived March 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Open letter to President Obama calling for acknowledgment of the Armenian Genocide Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., website of the IAGS, March 7, 2009. p. 1
  15. ^ "The Applicability of the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide to Events which Occurred During the Early Twentieth Century",The International Center for Transitional Justice
  16. ^ Letter from Nobel laureates published by Elie Wiesel Foundation, 9 April 2007 PDF
  17. ^ Nobel Laureates Call For Armenian–Turkish Reconciliation, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, April 10, 2007
  18. ^ David L. Phillips (April 9, 2007). "Nobel Laureates Call for Turkish–Armenian Reconciliation" (PDF). The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 9, 2007. 
  19. ^ "Texts adopted – Wednesday, 15 April 2015 – Armenian genocide 100th anniversary – P8_TA-PROV(2015)0094". europa.eu. Retrieved June 2, 2016. 
  20. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkey): 12 April 2015, Press Release Regarding the Statements Delivered During the Liturgy in Vatican on April 12, 2015
  21. ^ "European Parliament Resolution". armenian-genocide.org. Retrieved June 2, 2016. 
  22. ^ "European Parliament Resolution". armenian-genocide.org. Retrieved June 2, 2016. 
  23. ^ "European Parliament Resolution". armenian-genocide.org. Retrieved June 2, 2016. 
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