Armenian calendar

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The Armenian calendar uses the calendar era of AD 552, reflecting the separation of the Armenian Apostolic Church from the Roman Church due to the Monophysite schism.

The calendar traditionally used in medieval Armenia was based on an invariant year length of 365 days. As a result, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian 2010/2011) completed the first full cycle; Armenian year 1 began on 11 July 552 of the Julian calendar, and Armenian year 1462 began on 24 July 2012 of the Gregorian calendar (corresponding to Julian 11 July).

The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (epagomenal) five days are called aveleacʿ ("superfluous"). Years are usually given in Armenian numerals, i.e. letters of the Armenian alphabet, preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ for t’vin "in the year" (e.g. ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ "in the year 1455").

Months[edit]

The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar,[1] and, as noted by Antoine Meillet,[citation needed] Kartvelian influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system.

Months of the year
# Armenian H-M
Romaniz.
Meaning Etymology/Notes
1 նաւասարդ nawasard new year Avestan*nava sarəδa
2 հոռի hoṙi two Georgian ori
3 սահմի sahmi three Georgian sami
4 տրէ trē Zoroastrian Tïr
5 քաղոց kʿałocʿ month of crops Zoroastrian Ameretat (the deity Ameretat was also considered a protector of plants)
6 արաց aracʿ
7 մեհեկան mehekan festival of Mithra Iranian *mihrakān- ; Zoroastrian Mitrō
8 արեգ areg sun month Zoroastrian Āvān
9 ահեկան ahekan fire festival Iranian *āhrakān- ; Zoroastrian Ātarō
10 մարերի mareri mid-year Avestan maiδyaīrya ; Zoroastrian Dīn
11 մարգաց margacʿ Zoroastrian Vohūman
12 հրոտից hroticʿ Pahlavi *fravartakān ; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰
13 Ավելյաց[2] epagomenê Epagomenal days (days of the Fravashi)

Days of the month[edit]

The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them – a peculiarity also found in the Avestan calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in at least five names.

Days of the month
# Name Meaning/derivation
1 Areg sun
2 Hrand
3 Aram
4 Margar prophet
5 Ahrank’ half-burned
6 Mazdeł
7 Astłik Venus
8 Mihr Mithra
9 Jopaber
10 Murç triumph
11 Erezhan hermit
12 Ani
13 Parkhar
14 Vanat
15 Aramazd Ahura Mazda
16 Mani beginning
17 Asak beginningless
18 Masis Mount Ararat
19 Anahit Anahita
20 Aragats Mount Aragats
21 Gorgor
22 Kordvik 6th province in Armenia Major
23 Tsmak east wind
24 Lusnak half-moon
25 Tsrōn dispersion
26 Npat Apam Napat
27 Vahagn Zoroastrian Vahrām ; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day
28 Sim mountain
29 Varag
30 Gišeravar evening star

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ L. H. Gray, "On Certain Persian and Armenian Month- Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar," JAOS 28 (1907), 339.
  2. ^ Հին հայկական տոմար

External links[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • V. Bănăţeanu, “Le calendrier arménien et les anciens noms des mois”, in: Studia et Acta Orientalia 10, 1980, pp. 33–46
  • Edouard Dulaurier, Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne technique et historique (1859), 2001 reprint ISBN 978-0-543-96647-6.
  • Jost Gippert, Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems in The Annual of The Society for The Study of Caucasia“, 1, 1989, 3-12.[1][2]
  • Louis H. Gray, On Certain Persian and Armenian Month-Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1907)
  • P'. Ingoroq'va, “Jvel-kartuli c'armartuli k'alendari” (“The Old Georgian pagan calendar”), in: Sakartvelos muzeumis moambe (“Messenger of the Museum of Georgia”), 6, 1929–30, pp. 373–446 and 7, 1931–32, pp. 260–336
  • K'. K'ek'elije, “Jveli kartuli c'elic'adi” (“The Old Georgian year”), in: St'alinis saxelobis Tbilisis Saxelmc'ipo Universit'et'is šromebi (“Working papers of the Tbilisi State University by the name of Stalin”) 18, 1941, reprinted in the author's “Et'iudebi jveli kartuli lit'erat'uris ist'oriidan” (“Studies in the history of Old Georgian literature”) 1, 1956, pp. 99–124.