Armorial of the United States

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The coats of arms of the U.S. states are coats of arms, adopted by those states that have chosen, that are an official symbol of the state, alongside their seal. Eighteen states have officially adopted coats of arms. The former independent Republic of Texas and Kingdom of Hawaii each had a separate national coat of arms, which are no longer used.

Heraldic arms were worn (embroidered) on a coat which knights wore over their armor, hence coat of arms,[1] a term which dates back roughly 1,000 years[2] to jousting tournaments.[3] A state coat of arms may exist independently of the seal, but the reverse is not generally the case.[4] A seal contains a coat of arms or other devices[5][6] whereas a state coat of arms constitutes the bulk of a seal,[6][7] except for the wording identifying it as the "Great Seal of the State of..."[8] A "seal" has been described as the design impressed on public or legislative official documents,[9] whereas a coat of arms generally appears for illustrative purposes. Examples include flags and banners,[10] and state militia uniform caps[11] and buttons,[12] as well as specifically-designed regimental coats of arms for U.S. Infantry Regiments, and National Guard units.[13]

A coat of arms of a nation or state is usually the design or device of the obverse of its seal. It is an official emblem, mark of identification, and symbol of the authority of the government of a nation or state. A nation or state's coat of arms is oftentimes referred to as the national or state arms.[14]





Heraldic Coats of Arms[edit]

State Arms Adoption Blazon Article
Alabama Coat of arms of Alabama.svg Coat of arms of the state of Alabama, adopted March 14, 1939[15] 1819-12-14Statehood – 14 December 1819
Arms – 29 December 1868[16]
Quarterly, the first Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or; the second quarterly first and fourth Gules a triple-towered castle Or masoned Sable and ajoure the first [viz., Azure], second and third Argent a lion rampant the third [viz., Gules] crowned, langued and armed the second [viz., Or]; third the first [viz., Azure], the crosses-saltires of St. Andrew and St. Patrick quartered per saltire counter changed argent and the third [viz., Gules]; the latter fimbriated of the second, surmounted by the cross of St. George of the third, fimbriated as the saltire; fourth the third [viz., Gules] a saltire the first [viz., Azure] fimbrated the fifth [viz., Argent], in saltire ten stars the fifth; overall an escutcheon of the third [viz., Gules] six pellets the fifth [viz., Argent] under a chief of the first [viz., Azure]. Coat of arms of Alabama (Wikimedia Commons category)
Connecticut Connecticut state coat of arms 1788-01-09Statehood – 9 January 1788
Arms – October 1842[17] Arms of the state of Connecticut, adopted March 24, 1931[18]
On a shield of rococo design: Argent three grape vines Proper supported and fructed. Coat of arms of Connecticut (Wikimedia Commons category)
Delaware Coat of arms of Delaware.svg 1787-12-07Statehood – 7 December 1787
Arms – 18 January 1847[19] Coat of arms of the state of Delaware, adopted in 1777[20]
Coat of arms of Delaware (Wikimedia Commons category)
Hawaii Coat of arms of Hawaii.svg Coat of arms of the state of Hawaii Coat of arms of Hawaii (Wikimedia Commons category)
Louisiana Louisiana state coat of arms 1812-04-30Statehood – 30 April 1812
Arms – 23 December 1813[nb 1][nb 2]
Coat of arms of Louisiana (Wikimedia Commons category)
Maryland Coat of arms of Maryland.svg 1788-04-28Statehood – 28 April 1788
Arms – 18 March 1876[23][nb 3][nb 4]
Quarterly first and fourth, a paly of six Or and Sable, a bend counterchanged; quarterly second and third, quarterly Argent and Gules a cross bottony counterchanged. Above the shield an earl's coronet surmounted by a barred helm affronté Argent. Coat of arms of Maryland (Wikimedia Commons category)
Massachusetts Coat of arms of Massachusetts.svg 1788-02-06Statehood – 6 February 1788
Arms – 13 December 1780[26] Coat of arms of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, adopted in 1775 (by Legislature, re-affirmed by Governor Hancock and Cabinet on December 13, 1780)
Azure an Indian thereon dressed in a shirt and moccasins in his right hand a bow and in his left an arrow point downward Or, in chief dexter shield having a blue field or surface with an Indian thereon, dressed in a shirt and moccasins, holding in his right hand a bow, and in his left hand an arrow, point downward, all of gold; and, in the upper corner of the field, above his right arm, a silver star with five points. The crest is a wreath of blue and gold, on which in gold is a right arm, bent at the elbow, clothed and ruffled, with the hand grasping a broadsword. Coat of arms of Massachusetts (Wikimedia Commons category)
Mississippi Mississippi state coat of arms 1817-12-10Statehood – 10 December 1817
Arms – 6 February 1894[nb 5] Arms of the state of Mississippi, adopted February 7, 2001[29]
Coat of arms of Mississippi (Wikimedia Commons category)
Missouri Missouri state coat of arms 1821-08-10Statehood – 10 August 1821
Arms – 11 January 1822[30][nb 6] Coat of arms of the state of Missouri[32]
Coat of arms of Missouri (Wikimedia Commons category)
New Jersey Coat of Arms of New Jersey.svg 1787-12-18Statehood – 18 December 1787
Arms – 10 September 1776[33][nb 7] Coat of arms of the state of New Jersey
Azure, three ploughs Proper; supporters, Liberty and Ceres. The Goddess Liberty to carry in her dexter hand a pole, proper, surmounted by a cap gules, with band azure at the bottom, displaying on the band six stars, argent; tresses falling on shoulders, proper; head bearing over all a chaplet of laurel leaves, vert; overdress, tenne; underskirt, argent; feet sandaled, standing on scroll. Ceres: Same as Liberty, save overdress, gules; holding in left hand a cornucopia, or, bearing apples, plums and grapes surrounded by leaves, all proper; head bearing over all a chaplet of wheat spears, vert. Shield surmounted by sovereign's helmet, six bars, or; wreath and mantling, argent and azure. Crest: A horse's head, proper. Underneath the shield and supporting the goddesses, a scroll azure, bordered with tenne, in three waves or folds; on the upper folds the words "Liberty and Prosperity" ; on the under fold in Arabic numerals, the figures "1776" Coat of arms of New Jersey (Wikimedia Commons category)
North Dakota Coat of Arms of North Dakota.svg Coat of arms of the state of North Dakota, adopted in 1957 Coat of arms of North Dakota (Wikimedia Commons category)
Pennsylvania Coat of arms of Pennsylvania.svg 1787-12-12Statehood – 12 December 1787
Arms – 17 March 1875[35] Coat of arms of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, adopted 1778
Coat of arms of Pennsylvania (Wikimedia Commons category)
Rhode Island Coat of arms of Rhode Island.svg 1790-05-29Statehood – 29 May 1790
Arms – 24 February 1875[36][nb 8] Arms of the state of Rhode Island, adopted 1 February 1882[38]
Coat of arms of Rhode Island (Wikimedia Commons category)
Texas 1845-12-29Statehood – 29 December 1845
Arms – 25 January 1839[39] Arms of the state of Texas[40]
Coat of arms of Texas (Wikimedia Commons category)

Non-Heraldic Shields and Seals[edit]

State Arms Blazon Article
Alaska State Seal of Alaska.svg 1959-01-03Statehood – 3 January 1959
Arms – 3 January 1959
Seal of Alaska (Wikimedia Commons category)
Arizona Coat of arms of Arizona.svg Coat of arms of Arizona (Wikimedia Commons category)
Arkansas Arkansas state coat of arms from the reverse of the National Bank Note Series 1882BB 1836-06-15Statehood – 15 June 1836
Arms – 3 May 1864[41]
Coat of arms of Arkansas (Wikimedia Commons category)
California Coat of arms of California.png 1850-09-09Statehood – 9 September 1850
Arms – 2 October 1849[16]
Coat of arms of California (Wikimedia Commons category)
Colorado Colorado state coat of arms 1876-08-01Statehood – 1 August 1876
Arms – 13 June 1877[42]
Coat of arms of Colorado (Wikimedia Commons category)
Florida Florida state coat of arms 1845-03-03Statehood – 3 March 1845
Arms – 6 August 1868[43]
Coat of arms of Florida (Wikimedia Commons category)
Georgia Georgia state coat of arms 1788-01-02Statehood – 2 January 1788
Arms – 8 February 1799[44]
Coat of arms of Georgia (U.S. state) (Wikimedia Commons category)
Idaho Idaho territory coat of arms 1863-03-03Organic Act – 3 March 1863[45]
Arms – 13 March 1866[46]
Statehood – 3 July 1890
Coat of arms of Idaho (Wikimedia Commons category)
Illinois Illinois state coat of arms from the reverse of the National Bank Note Series 1882BB 1818-12-03Statehood – 3 December 1818
Arms – 7 March 1867[47]
Coat of arms of Illinois (Wikimedia Commons category)
Indiana Indiana state coat of arms 1816-12-11Statehood – 11 December 1816
Arms – 13 December 1816[48]
Coat of arms of Indiana (Wikimedia Commons category)
Iowa Iowa state coat of arms 1846-12-28Statehood – 28 December 1846
Arms – 25 February 1847[49]
Coat of arms of Iowa (Wikimedia Commons category)
Kansas Kansas state coat of arms 1861-01-29Statehood – 29 January 1861
Arms – 25 May 1861[50][nb 9]
Coat of arms of Kansas (Wikimedia Commons category)
Kentucky Kentucky state coat of arms 1792-06-01Statehood – 1 June 1792
Arms – 20 December 1792[51][nb 10]
Coat of arms of Kentucky (Wikimedia Commons category)
Maine Coat of arms of Maine.svg 1820-03-15Statehood – 15 March 1820
Arms – 9 June 1820[23][53] Coat of arms of the state of Maine, adopted June 9, 1820[54]
Coat of arms of Maine (Wikimedia Commons category)
Michigan Coat of arms of Michigan.svg 1837-01-26Statehood – 26 January 1837
Arms – 2 June 1835[33] Coat of arms of the state of Michigan, adopted 1835, modified 1911[55]
Coat of arms of Michigan (Wikimedia Commons category)
Minnesota Minnesota state coat of arms 1858-05-11Statehood – 11 May 1858
Arms – 16 July 1858[56]
Coat of arms of Minnesota (Wikimedia Commons category)
Montana Montana territory coat of arms 1864-05-26Organic Act – 26 May 1864[45]
Arms – 9 February 1865[57][nb 11]
Statehood – 8 November 1889
Coat of arms of Montana (Wikimedia Commons category)
Nebraska Nebraska state coat of arms 1867-03-01Statehood – 1 March 1867
Arms – 15 June 1867[59][nb 12]
Coat of arms of Nebraska (Wikimedia Commons category)
Nevada Nevada state coat of arms 1864-10-31Statehood – 31 October 1864
Arms – 24 February 1866[60]
Coat of arms of Nevada (Wikimedia Commons category)
New Hampshire New Hampshire state coat of arms 1788-06-21Statehood – 21 June 1788
Arms – 12 February 1785[61]
Coat of arms of New Hampshire (Wikimedia Commons category)
New Mexico New Mexico territory coat of arms 1912-01-06Organic Act – 9 September 1850[62]
Arms – 1 February 1887[63]
Statehood – 6 January 1912
Coat of arms of New Mexico (Wikimedia Commons category)
New York 1788-07-26Statehood – 26 July 1788
Arms – 27 March 1809[64] Coat of arms of the state of New York
Coat of arms of New York (Wikimedia Commons category)
North Carolina North Carolina state coat of arms 1789-11-21Statehood – 21 November 1789
Arms – 1835[65]
Coat of arms of North Carolina (Wikimedia Commons category)
Ohio Ohio state coat of arms 1803-03-01Statehood – 1 March 1803
Arms – 1 March 1803[nb 13] Arms of the state of Ohio, adopted 1953, modified 1996[66]
Coat of arms of Ohio (Wikimedia Commons category)
Oklahoma Insigne incognitum.svg Adopted in XXXX Coat of arms of Oklahoma (Wikimedia Commons category)
Oregon Oregon state coat of arms 1859-02-14Statehood – 14 February 1859
Arms – 2 June 1859[67]
Coat of arms of Oregon (Wikimedia Commons category)
South Carolina South Carolina state coat of arms 1788-05-23Statehood – 23 May 1788
Arms – 2 April 1776[68]
Coat of arms of South Carolina (Wikimedia Commons category)
South Dakota South Dakota state coat of arms from the reverse of the National Bank Note Series 1882BB 1889-11-02Statehood – 2 November 1889
Arms – 1 October 1889[69]
Coat of arms of South Dakota (Wikimedia Commons category)
Tennessee Tennessee state coat of arms 1796-06-01Statehood – 1 June 1796
Arms – 24 April 1802[70][nb 14]
Coat of arms of Tennessee (Wikimedia Commons category)
Utah Utah territory coat of arms 1850-09-09Organic Act – 9 September 1850[62]
Arms – 9 September 1850[71]
Statehood – 4 January 1896 Coat of arms of the state of Utah
Coat of arms of Utah (Wikimedia Commons category)
Vermont Coat of arms of Vermont.svg 1791-03-04Statehood – 4 March 1791
Arms – 20 February 1779[72][nb 15] Coat of arms of the state of Vermont, adopted 1862 (by Act No. 11)
Coat of arms of Vermont (Wikimedia Commons category)
Virginia Virginia state coat of arms 1788-06-25Statehood – 25 June 1788
Arms – 1776[nb 16][nb 17]
Coat of arms of Virginia (Wikimedia Commons category)
West Virginia Coat of arms of West Virginia.svg 1863-06-20Statehood – 20 June 1863
Arms – 26 September 1863[76][nb 18] Arms of the state of West Virginia, adopted September 26, 1863
Coat of arms of West Virginia (Wikimedia Commons category)
Wisconsin Coat of arms of Wisconsin.svg 1848-05-29Statehood – 29 May 1848
Arms – 29 December 1851[77] Coat of arms of the state of Wisconsin[78]
Coat of arms of Wisconsin (Wikimedia Commons category)
Washington Washington state coat of arms the reverse of the National Bank Note Series 1882BB 1889-06-04Organic Act – 2 March 1853[62]
Arms – 28 February 1854[79]
Coat of arms of Washington (Wikimedia Commons category)
Wyoming Wyoming territory coat of arms 1868-07-25Organic Act – 25 July 1868[80]
Statehood – 10 July 1890
Coat of arms of Wyoming (Wikimedia Commons category)

Origin and history[edit]

View of Mount Logan as depicted on the Ohio state coat of arms
Ohio's seal depicts Mount Logan (elevation 1,243 ft (379 m)[81]) and nearby summits in Chillicothe.[82]

The coats of arms of the U.S. states date back to the admission of the first states to the Union. Despite the widely accepted practice of determining early statehood from the date of ratification of the United States Constitution, many of the original colonies referred to themselves as states shortly after the Declaration of Independence was signed on 4 July 1776. Committees of political leaders and intellectuals were established by state legislatures to research and propose a seal and coat of arms. Many of these members were signers of the Articles of Confederation, Declaration of Independence, and United States Constitution. Several of the earliest adopted state coats of arms and seals were similar or identical to their colonial counterparts.

State Arms of the Union, illustrated by Henry Mitchell and published by Louis Prang (known as the father of the lithographic industry), offers historically accurate renderings of the state's coats of arms as they existed in 1876. An accomplished engraver with the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for 40 years, Mitchell was responsible for engraving several coats of arms for official state use as well as arms for well-known educational and philanthropic organizations. The illustrations are presented alongside proof impressions from the engraved dies used to print the state arms on the first issue of United States National Bank Notes.

Published in 1876 by Louis Prang and illustrated by Henry Mitchell, State Arms of the Union contains a chromolithographed title page depicting the Great Seal of the United States and seven color plates with 45 state and territorial coats of arms. The book was likely published for the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.[83]

Louis Prang was born 12 March 1824 in Breslau. At the age of 13 he began apprenticing for his father[84] and learned to dye and print calico, as well as wood and metal engraving.[85] Prang emigrated to Boston in 1850 and became an illustrator for a number of local publications.[86] Starting a business partnership in 1856 to manufacture copper and lithographic plates, Prang became sole proprietor in 1860 and named the company L. Prang & Co.[85] He specialized in color printing, more specifically "chromolithography"[84] Prang spent over four decades studying and creating a standard of colors[87] and engraved and printed maps, prints of contemporary celebrities, and color reproductions of famous works of art.[86] In 1875 Prang was responsible for introducing the Christmas card to America.[85] He created an annual design competition for his Christmas cards (run between 1880 and 1884), and judges included John La Farge, Samuel Colman, Stanford White, and Louis Comfort Tiffany.[84] Some of the notable winners included Elihu Vedder, Rosina Emmet Sherwood, Edwin Blashfield,[84] Thomas Moran, and Will Hicok Low.[86] Prang has become known as the "father of the American Christmas card",[84][85][86] as well as the "father of the lithographic industry".[87][88]

Henry Mitchell was born in New York in 1835 and went to school in Philadelphia.[89] At the age of 10 he began working with his uncle[90] to learn the trade of gem and steel engraving.[91] By the age of 20 (1855), Mitchell had engraved the official seals for the Kingdom of Hawaii.[91][92] In 1868 Mitchell joined the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and for 40 years engraved stamped envelopes.[93] Through his BEP work, Mitchell was also responsible for engraving the seal of the Secretary of the Navy and the Internal Revenue Service.[92] He also engraved the state seals for Massachusetts,[91] New York,[92] New Hampshire,[92] Vermont,[91] Rhode Island,[90] and Wisconsin.[94] Outside of state and federal government engraving, Mitchell engraved the seals and coats of arms for many well-known institutions which include Harvard University, Society of the Cincinnati, and Boston Public Library.[92] He engraved the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition award medal (1876) which was struck in the Philadelphia Mint.[95] In 1891, Mitchell was invited by the Secretary of the Treasury to join a committee to evaluate the artistic design proposals for a new issue of U.S. coins. The two other members were Charles E. Barber, Chief Engraver of the United States Mint, and Augustus Saint-Gaudens.[96][97]

In addition to being considered an expert on heraldry,[92] Mitchell was regarded as one of the best engravers[89][90] and medal designers in the United States.[98]

A state coat of arms provided an opportunity to convey the natural and industrial resources available to its residents.[99] Common themes depicted in state arms include farming, industry, transportation (e.g., boats, trains, and wagons), and nature (e.g., sunsets and mountains). The Ohio and Indiana state arms depict fairly substantial mountains in the distance. In reality, the highest points in Ohio and Indiana are Campbell Hill (1,550 feet (470 m))[100] and Hoosier Hill (1,257 feet (383 m))[101] respectively.

When State Arms of the Union was published in 1876, some existing arms were not included (e.g., Arizona and Washington Territory). At the time, Alaska was classified as the Department of Alaska (1867–84) and became the District of Alaska (1884–1912) before becoming the Territory of Alaska (1912–59). The Alaska territorial seal was designed in 1910[102] and adopted in 1913.[103] On 3 January 1959 Alaska became the 49th U.S. State.[104] The Oklahoma Territory (1890–1907) Organic Act was approved on 2 May 1890, and a territorial seal was adopted on 10 January 1893.[105] Hawaii, formerly the Kingdom of Hawaii (1795–1893), Republic of Hawaii (1894–98), and then Territory of Hawaii (1898–1959) became the 50th U.S. State on 21 August 1959.[106] None of the territories or states mentioned above had a coat of arms represented on national currency.


The design of a state coat of arms or seal has generally been authorized by a provision in the state constitution or a legislative act. In most instances a committee (more often than not consisting of three members)[107][108][109][110] was appointed to study the issue, seek advice from qualified artists, historians, legal scholars, etc., and report back to the authorizing legislative body with a design for their approval. Historically, this committee has consisted of notable members of society and elected officials.

The first committee to design the Great Seal of the United States was appointed on 4 July 1776 by the Second Continental Congress and consisted of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson.[111] Their design was rejected on 20 August 1776. The second committee (James Lovell, John Morin Scott, and William Churchill Houston) design met with the same fate.[107] It was the third committee (Arthur Middleton, Elias Boudinot, John Rutledge, who consulted with William Barton) that submitted a design which was approved on 20 July 1782.[107]

Individual states approached their coats of arms and seals in a similar manner (i.e., seeking direction from the statesmen and scholars of their community). A few of those involved in the design of state arms and seals include (but is not limited to): John Jay and Gouverneur Morris (New York);[108] Francis Hopkinson (New Jersey);[112] David Rittenhouse and George Clymer (Pennsylvania);[110] and George Mason, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin West, and Thomas Jefferson (Virginia).[113]

An impression of the Great Seal of a state (or its coat of arms) has long been required on official documents ranging from deeds to legislative acts. It was the emblem that certified the authenticity of a given document[14][114] or that the authority of the state was invested in said document.[114] Judicial decisions upheld the need for a valid seal and/or coat of arms on notarized documents.[nb 19]

One of the more compelling legislative actions recognizing the legal importance/authority of the state seal and arms occurred in February 1873 when a joint session of the United States Congress refused to recognize Arkansas's electoral votes in the November 1872 presidential election.[115] The official tally of the state's electoral votes was submitted with an invalid seal (bearing the coat of arms of the office of the Secretary of the State of Arkansas versus the seal of the state of Arkansas bearing the state arms).[115][116][117]

Courts and state legislatures also opined on the inappropriate uses of state seals and arms. Most states barred their use for any kind of advertising.[nb 20] Reproduction for corporate use was similarly prohibited[118] and such infractions were classified as offenses against public property.[119] The 2003 Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives prohibits the use of state seals or coats of arms in product branding so as not to mislead the public into thinking that a commercial product has been endorsed by a government organization.[120]

Special territories[edit]

State Arms Blazon Article
District of Columbia District of Columbia coat of arms 1790-02-21Organic Act – 21 February 1790[62]
Arms – 3 August 1871[121]
Coat of arms of the District of Columbia (Wikimedia Commons category)
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico coat of arms Coat of arms of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The illustrated Louisiana coat of arms represents a small design change in 1864, but the concept and design elements were in place since 1813.[21]
  2. ^ The Louisiana coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Louis Delnoce of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.[22]
  3. ^ The illustrated coat of arms of Maryland was the tenth version of the seal, and a restoration to the description offered by Lord Baltimore on 12 August 1648).[24]
  4. ^ The Maryland coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by W.W. Rice of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.[25]
  5. ^ In 1861 Mississippi adopted a coat of arms and state flag. However, in 1865 the approval was rescinded leaving Mississippi without official state arms until 1894.[27] On 6 February 1894 the proposed design for the state coat of arms was approved.[28]
  6. ^ The Missouri seal and arms were designed by Judge Robert William Wells.[31]
  7. ^ New Jersey coat of arms was designed by Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere.[34]
  8. ^ The Rhode Island state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.[37]
  9. ^ The Kansas state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.[37]
  10. ^ The Kentucky coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Alfred Jones of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.[52]
  11. ^ According to the State Constitution of Montana, in the event of a transition from a Territorial to State government, the Territorial Seal would remain effective until expressly changed by legislative action.[58]
  12. ^ The illustrated arms represent the change from the territorial to state arms. However, the BEP engraved arms were never updated.
  13. ^ While the seal of Ohio had experienced several unauthorized varieties in use, in 1868 legislature reverted the official design to the initial seal from the state constitution of 1803.[6]
  14. ^ The Tennessee state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.[37]
  15. ^ On 25 November 1862, Vermont legislature formally recognized the existing seal and coat of arms.[73]
  16. ^ The coat of arms was engraved in Paris and not ready until 4 September 1779.[74]
  17. ^ The Virginia coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by James Bannister of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.[75]
  18. ^ Drawings by Joseph H. Diss Debar.[10]
  19. ^ Tickner et al. v. Roberts, 11 La. 14 (Louisiana Supreme Court March 1837) ("...notarial instruments were required to be authenticated by a seal, containing the coat of arms of the territory, the name and surname of the notary, his official capacity, and the place in which he exercised his office...the protest in this case, lacking the seal, which the law of that State prescribed, it appears to us, ought not to be received in evidence in our courts."). .
  20. ^ For example, see Commonwealth v. R.I. Sherman Manufacturing Company, 189 Mass. 76 (Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court 8 Sep 1905) ("The Massachusetts statute prohibiting the use of its arms or seal for advertising or commercial purposes is not in conflict with the clause of the Constitution of the United States investing Congress with power to regulate commerce among the several states"). .



  1. ^ Pinnock, William (1840). A Catechism of Heraldry: Explaining the Nature and Use of Arms and Armoury. Whittaker and Co. p. 3.
  2. ^ Clark, Hugh; Wormull, Thomas (1854). An Introduction to Heraldry. Henry Washbourne & Co. p. 1. arms heraldry.
  3. ^ Clark, Hugh; Wormull, Thomas (1854). An Introduction to Heraldry. Henry Washbourne & Co. p. 3. arms heraldry.
  4. ^ Nainfa, John A. (1909). "Costume of Prelates of the Catholic Church: According to Roman Etiquette". John Murphy Company. John Murphy: 139.
  5. ^ Crabb, George (1823). Universal Technological Dictionary or Familiar Explanations of the Terms Used in All Arts and Sciences. 2. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. p. 466.
  6. ^ a b c Tannehill, Joseph W. (1917). Ohio Interrogation Points. Vic Donahey (Auditor of the State). pp. 19–20.
  7. ^ Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau (1985). State of Wisconsin Blue Book (1985-1986). Department of Administration (Wisconsin). pp. 958–960.
  8. ^ Moore, Opha (1907). "The Great Seal of Ohio". The Ohio Illustrated Magazine. The Ohio Magazine Publishing Company. 2 (1): 252–53.
  9. ^ Crabb, George (1823). Universal Technological Dictionary or Familiar Explanations of the Terms Used in All Arts and Sciences. 2. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. p. 466.
  10. ^ a b Harris, John T. (1916). West Virginia Legislative Handbook and Manual and Official Register. The Tribune Printing Co. pp. 350–51.
  11. ^ Utah Military Department (1902). Regulations for the National Guard of Utah. p. 79.
  12. ^ Adjutant General's Office (1901). Rules and Regulations Governing the Kansas National Guard. W.Y. Morgan, State Printer. p. 108.
  13. ^ Swinton, William (1870). History of the Seventh Regiment, National Guard, State of New York. Fields, Osgood, & Co. p. 3. coat of arms state militia regimental.
  14. ^ a b "The Texas State Seal". Texas Secretary of State. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ "Official Symbols and Emblems of Alabama". State Government. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  16. ^ a b Zieber, 1895, p. 112.
  17. ^ Zieber, 1895, p. 118.
  18. ^ "The Amoral Bearings". State Government. Official State Website. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  19. ^ "An Act to Authorize... the Great Seal..." Laws of the State of Delaware. S. Kimmey (Printer). 10 (2): 106. 1847.
  20. ^ "Civic Heraldry of the United States (Delaware)". State Government. Heraldry of the World. Archived from the original on August 5, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  21. ^ Society, Louisiana Historical (1898). "The State Seal". Publications of the Louisiana Historical Society. 2: 20.
  22. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 99.
  23. ^ a b Shankle, 1941, p. 196.
  24. ^ Bateman, Wilfred (1902). "The Great Seal of Maryland". Maryland Manual. Wm. J. C. Dulany Co.: 100.
  25. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 250.
  26. ^ Willson, 1864, p. 99.
  27. ^ Stone, J.M. (1894). "Eighteenth Day". Mississippi Legislature (House). Clarion-Ledger Publishing Company: 194–195.
  28. ^ Stone, J.M. (1894). "Thirty-First Day". Mississippi Legislature (House). Clarion-Ledger Publishing Company: 351.
  29. ^ "State Symbols". State Government. Mississippi.Gov. Archived from the original on August 14, 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  30. ^ Stevens, Walter B. (1921). "Missouri's "Armorial Achievement"". Centennial History of Missouri. The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company: 195.
  31. ^ "The Great Seal of Missouri". Missouri Secretary of State Website. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. ^ "The Missouri State Flag". State of Missouri. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
  33. ^ a b Zieber, 1895, p. 144.
  34. ^ Barlow, Catherine B. (1915). "State Arms of New Jersey". Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine. 46/47.
  35. ^ "Report of the Commissioners to Correct the Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania". Miscellaneous Documents Read in the Legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. B.F. Meyers, State Printer. 3: 1113. 1875.
  36. ^ Shankle, 1941, p. 210.
  37. ^ a b c Hessler, 1993, p. 175.
  38. ^ "State Symbols". State Government. RI.Gov. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
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