Arms embargo

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An arms embargo is a restriction or a set of sanctions that applies either solely to weaponry or also to "dual-use technology." An arms embargo may serve one or more purposes:

  • to signal disapproval of behavior by a certain actor
  • to maintain neutrality in an ongoing conflict
  • as a peace mechanism that is part of a peace process to resolve an armed conflict[1]
  • to limit the ability of an actor to inflict violence on others
  • to weaken country's military capabilities before foreign intervention

Historical examples[edit]

Argentina[edit]

US President Jimmy Carter imposed an arms embargo on the military government of Argentina in 1977 in response to human rights abuses.[2]

An arms embargo was put in place with other economic sanctions by the European Economic Community (EEC) within a week of the 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentina, two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic, an EEC member.[3] The European nations ended the embargo after the end of the ensuing Falklands War, and Argentina looked to Western European countries and Israel for arms supplies during the US embargo until it was lifted in 1989.[2]

Indonesia[edit]

The US government imposed an arms embargo against Indonesia in 1999 because of human rights violations in East Timor. The embargo was lifted in 2005.

Iran[edit]

The United States imposed economic sanctions against Iran following the Iranian Revolution in 1979. However, to secure the release of American hostages, several senior Reagan administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran in the 1980s in a scandal called the Iran–Contra affair.[4] In 1995, the US expanded sanctions to include firms dealing with the Iranian government.[5]

In March 2007, UN Security Council Resolution 1747 tightened the sanctions imposed on Iran in connection with the Iranian nuclear program. The UN sanctions were lifted on 16 January 2016.

In September 2020, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced the imposition of an arms embargo on the Iranian Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics and other entities involved in Iran's nuclear program, including the government of the disputed Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro for providing weapons to Iran.[6]

On 18 October 2020, Iran announced that the United Nations conventional arms embargo imposed on the country in 2007 had expired. The embargo barred Iran from purchasing arms, including tanks and fighter jets, from foreign nations. The embargo was lifted as per the conditions under Iran’s 2015 nuclear deal with world leaders, despite the objections from the United States.[7] [8]

People's Republic of China[edit]

The United States and the European Union stopped exporting arms to China after 1989 after the Chinese government's violent suppression of protests in Tiananmen Square. In 2004-05, there was some debate in the EU over whether to lift the embargo.[9] [10]

South Africa[edit]

The arms embargo of South Africa from 1977 extended to dual-use items. The embargo was lifted by Resolution 919 in 1994.

United States[edit]

To protest the Vietnam War, Sweden imposed an arms embargo on the United States in 1966.[11] That notably deprived Navy SEALs of the Carl Gustav m/45 submachine gun, which resulted in the creation of the Smith & Wesson M76.

List of current arms embargoes[edit]

The countries included in the list are under arms embargo of the UN or another international organization such as the EU and the OSCE and others) or a country. In some cases the arms embargo is supplemented by a general trade embargo, other sanctions (financial), or travel ban for specific persons. In some cases, the arms embargo applies to any entity residing or established in the country, but in others. it is partial with the recognized government's forces and international peacekeepers being exempted from the embargo.

Arms embargo by UN[edit]

Former embargos[edit]

Arms embargo by others[edit]

Former embargos[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Remarks of SRSG Ghassan Salamé to the United Nations Security Council on the situation in Libya 29 July 2019". UNSMIL. 2019-07-29. Archived from the original on 2019-09-09. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  2. ^ a b "WORLD : U.S. Ends Argentine Arms Embargo - Los Angeles Times". Los Angelete Times. 21 February 1989.
  3. ^ R.w. Apple Jr. (11 April 1982). "EUROPEANS ENDING ARGENTINE IMPORTS IN FALKLAND CRISIS". The New York Times.
  4. ^ The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On Archived 2015-03-20 at the Wayback Machine. The National Security Archive (George Washington University), 2006-11-24
  5. ^ Ariel Zirulnick (24 February 2011). "Sanction Qaddafi? How 5 nations have reacted to sanctions: Iran". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 15 November 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  6. ^ "Trump administration sanctions Iranian Defense Ministry, Venezuela's Maduro for aiding Iran's weapons programs". CNBC. 21 September 2020.
  7. ^ "Iran says UN arms embargo lifted, allowing it to buy weapons". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  8. ^ "UN arms embargoes on Iran expire despite US objections". Associated Press. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  9. ^ http://www.sldinfo.com/the-eu-arms-embargo-repeal-debate/ Archived 2015-06-07 at the Wayback Machine The EU Arms Embargo Repeal Debate
  10. ^ https://www.academia.edu/5475879/The_EU_Arms_Embargo_on_China_a_Swedish_Perspective_2010_/ Archived 2018-09-28 at the Wayback Machine Hellström, Jerker (2010) "The EU Arms Embargo on China: a Swedish Perspective", Swedish Defence Research Agency
  11. ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (2013). The Big Book of Gun Trivia: Everything you want to know, don't want to know, and don't know you need to know. https://books.google.com/books?id=qEnDCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT54: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-78200-949-8.CS1 maint: location (link)
  12. ^ Security Council arms embargo Archived July 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ DR Congo arms embargo Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Ivory Coast embargo Archived May 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Iraq embargo Archived June 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "UN Security Council keeps Libya arms embargo in place". Al Jazeera English. March 28, 2015. Archived from the original on July 9, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  17. ^ "Embargoes and sanctions on Democratic People's Republic of Korea". GOV.UK. 4 June 2013. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  18. ^ Lebanon embargo Archived February 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Somalia embargo Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Sudan embargo Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ EU Sanctions measures Archived March 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Iran embargo Archived November 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Iran says UN arms embargo lifted, allowing it to buy weapons". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  24. ^ Rwanda embargo Archived February 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ edwina.wontner@berr.gsi.gov.uk, Edwina Wontner, BDAU, ECO (3 March 2010). "Export Controls: Sanctions and Embargoes: Sierra Leone". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  26. ^ "UN lifts arms embargo on Sierra Leone". foxnews.com. 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  27. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 713
  28. ^ "EU arms embargo on the former SFR of Yugoslavia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) | SIPRI". www.sipri.org. Archived from the original on 2018-08-31. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  29. ^ "EU arms embargo on the former SFR of Yugoslavia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) - SIPRI". www.sipri.org. Archived from the original on 2018-08-31. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  30. ^ OSCE Nagorno Karabakh arms embargo Archived June 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ OSCE Nagorno Karabakh arms embargo Archived June 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ US Cuba arms embargo
  33. ^ EU Myanmar arms embargo Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ EU China arms embargo Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ US China arms embargo Archived October 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ EU Guinea embargo Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ EU Zimbabwe embargo Archived June 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Brussels, Associated Press in (9 May 2011). "EU imposes arms embargo on Syria". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  39. ^ Traynor, Ian (28 May 2013). "UK forces EU to lift embargo on Syria rebel arms". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  40. ^ "US Arms Embargo against Turkey – after 30 Years, An Institutional Approach towards US Policy Making" (PDF). sam.gov.tr. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  41. ^ EU Uzbekistan embargo Archived December 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-07. Retrieved 2015-11-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]