Army Gold Medal
|Army Gold Medal and Cross|
Gold Medal, obverse (left), Gold Cross with clasp (right) and
|Awarded by United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|Eligibility||British Army field and general officers|
|Awarded for||Campaign commands (conspicuous service)|
|Campaign(s)||French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars 1793–1814, Anglo-American War of 1812.|
obverse Britannia with shield, laurel wreath and palm branch;
reverse name of first battle awarded, with laurel wreath;
cross: cross pattée with proud lion, battle names on arms;
clasps: laurel wreath with battle name
ribbon: broad crimson with blue border
The Army Gold Medal (1808–1814), also known as the Peninsular Gold Medal, with an accompanying Gold Cross, was a British campaign medal awarded in recognition of field and general officers' successful commands in campaigns, predominantly the Peninsular War. It was not a general medal, since it was issued only to those whose rank was no less than that of battalion commander.
The medal came in three styles: the Large Medal, the Small Medal, and the Peninsular Cross. Each style was supplemented with clasps identifying the battles involved. The Large Medal (2 inches (51 mm) diameter) was restricted to generals, while lower-ranking officers were awarded the Small Medal. The Peninsular Cross, in cross pattée style, was awarded to those with four or more actions. The first four actions were marked on the arms of the cross, while further actions were marked with clasps.
When the medal was first established, a new one was issued for each action. In 1813 an order was created, instructing that only one medal be worn, and instituting the use of clasps for each successive award. This was a new establishment of the bar tradition which was followed by all later medal awards. Another new development was the naming of the recipient on the rim of the medal.
The total of all styles awarded were 165 Peninsular Crosses and clasps, 88 Large Medals and clasps, and 596 Small Medals and clasps. The highest award was given to the Duke of Wellington: a Cross with nine bars for a total of 13 actions. It can be viewed on his uniform in the basement at Apsley House.
In 1847 the Military General Service Medal (MGSM) was authorised, to be retrospectively awarded to all surviving veterans of the campaigns, irrespective of rank. Holders of the gold medals, crosses or additional clasps were not eligible to claim identical clasps on the MGSM (or "silver medal"). The eligible engagements for the MGSM were identical, with the addition of Egypt.
- Gordon, p. 45
- "No. 16785". The London Gazette. 5 October 1813. p. 1985.
- Gordon, p. 46
- Gordon, p. 48
- Duckers, p. 12
- Iain Stewart (24 October 2007). "History of the Victoria Cross". Victoria Cross.org.
- Mark Simner. "Army Gold Cross". British Medals.
- "No. 16929". The London Gazette. 27 August 1814. pp. 1730–1731.
- "No. 16887". The London Gazette. 19 April 1814. pp. 835–837.
- "No. 16934". The London Gazette. 13 September 1814. pp. 1850–1854.
- Duckers, Peter (2005). The Victoria Cross. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7478-0635-6.
- Gordon, Lawrence (1979) . Joslin, Edward, ed. British Battles and Medals (5th ed.). London: Spink & Son Ltd.
- Leslie, J.H. (1924–25). "Medals which were awarded to Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery for Service in the Peninsular War - 1808 to 1814". Retrieved 29 May 2010.