Army of Raymond of Saint-Gilles

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The Army of Raymond of Saint-Gilles was one of the first to be formed after Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade. Raymond, better known as Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse (referred below as the Commander because of the large number of Raymonds under his command), formed a Provençal army and left Toulouse in October 1096, traveling over the land route. He was the only leader of a major army that did not swear an oath of fealty to Alexius I, Emperor of Byzantine.

The known members of the army, which numbered in the thousands, were almost all French[citation needed] and included the ones listed below, as reported in histories of the First Crusade. Unless otherwise noted, references are to the on-line database of Riley-Smith, et al.,[1] and the hyperlinks therein provide details including original sources.[2] The names below are also referenced in the Riley-Smith tome, Appendix I: Preliminary List of Crusaders.[3] Those references are not shown unless they appear elsewhere in the text of previously referenced book. Articles that are hyperlinked to a more detailed article in this encyclopædia rely on the latter for references.

The Commander’s Household[edit]

The known members of the Commanders’s household include the following:

Clergy[edit]

The members of the church traveling with the Commander included:

Historians[edit]

Two of the clergy recorded the activities of the army and included:

Nobles[edit]

The nobles and lords who fought with the Commander included:

Knights and other Soldiers[edit]

While many thousands of knights and other fighting men joined the army, the following were noted:

  • Arnold Tudebode[19] and his brother Arvedus (Arfan) Tudebod, both killed at the siege of Antioch. They were brothers of Peter Tudebode the cleric and historian.
  • Bernard Raymond of Béziers, likely the son of Bertrand II of Provence, the father-in-law of Bernard Ato IV
  • Farald of Thouars[20]
  • Brothers Gerald, Raymond and Pons. Little is known about the brothers except that they each donated their part of the tithes pertaining to the castle of Rocha Martina to the abbey of St. Victor of Marseilles.
  • Isoard of Ganges, who distinguished himself at the siege of Antioch
  • Isoard I, Count of Die, a comrade of Peter Desiderius and under the command of Raymond Pilet d’d’alas
  • Peter the Bastard, Lord of Mezenc, brother of First Crusaders Pons, Lord of Mezenc, and Guy and William (expedition unclear)
  • Peter of Roaix[21]
  • Peter Bartholomew, was servant to William Peyre of Cunhla, and was sent as a messenger to the Turkish emir Kerbogha. His vision of the Holy Lance led to his trial by fire. He was pulled from the fire by Raymond Pilet d’Alès, but subsequently died.
  • Pons the Red,[22] died shortly after returning from the Crusade
  • Pons Rainard (Raynouard), died during the Crusade
  • Raymond of Curemonte
  • Raymond Pilet d’Alès, a well known knight
  • Raymond Bertrand of l’Isle-Jourdan
  • William Hugh of Monteil I,[23][24] occupier of Crak des Chavaliers, brother of Adhemar of Le Puy.

Major Battles[edit]

The army of Raymond took part in most of the major battles in the First Crusade, including:

He and his army also participated in the doomed Crusade of 1101.

Sources[edit]

Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The First Crusaders, 1095-1131, Cambridge University Press, London, 1997

Runciman, Steven, A History of the Crusades, Volume One: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Cambridge University Press, London, 1951

Bury, J. B., Editor, The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III: Germany and the Western Empire, Cambridge University Press, London, 1922

Prof. J. S. C. Riley-Smith, Prof, Jonathan Phillips, Dr. Alan V. Murray, Dr. Guy Perry, Dr. Nicholas Morton, A Database of Crusaders to the Holy Land, 1099-1149 (available on-line)

Tudebode, Peter, Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere, John and Laurita Hill, Editors, Paris, 1977

Raymond d'Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, John and Laurita Hill, Editors, Paris, 1969

France, John, Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade, Cambridge University Press, 1996 (available on Internet Archive)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Command of Raymond of Saint-Gilles".
  2. ^ "Sources of Participants in the First Crusade".
  3. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "The First Crusaders, 1095-1131".
  4. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. p. 94.
  5. ^ "A Database of Crusaders to the Holy Land".
  6. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 87, 104, 148.
  7. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 45, 196.
  8. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 86, 150.
  9. ^ Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, Volume One. pp. 273, 284.
  10. ^ Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, Volume One. pp. 244, 252, 273.
  11. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 63, 67, 112, 117, 197.
  12. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 3, 93, 155, 209.
  13. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 65, 94, 217.
  14. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 3–4, 104, 209.
  15. ^ Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, Volume One. p. 270.
  16. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 86–87, 216.
  17. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 75, 225.
  18. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. p. 225.
  19. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 94, 199, 200.
  20. ^ France, John (1994). Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. Farald, Viscount of Thouars.
  21. ^ Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, Volume One. p. 192.
  22. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 147, 218.
  23. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders. pp. 86, 225.
  24. ^ Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, Volume One. p. 90.