Zetterström first described the use of hydrogen as a breathing gas in 1943. From 1943 to 1944, a total of six ocean dives were made utilising this mixture with the deepest to 160 metres (96% hydrogen and 4% oxygen).
On 7 August 1945 Zetterström experienced technical problems diving from HSwMS Belos. His support divers misread his signals and this was followed by a rapid ascent that resulted in fatal decompression sickness and hypoxia.
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