Arnold Rimmer

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Arnold Judas Rimmer BSC, SSC
Red Dwarf character
Holoship (Red Dwarf).jpg
Arnold Rimmer on board the SS Enlightenment
First appearance "The End"
Created by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor
Portrayed by Chris Barrie
Nickname(s) Goal Post Head, Alphabet Head, - Smeg Head, Trans-Am Wheel-arch Nostrils, Bonehead
Species Human / Hologram
Gender Male
Occupation Technician, Second Class (series), Technician, First Class (books)
Family Lecturer Rimmer (stepfather)
John, Frank and Howard Rimmer (half-brothers)[note 1]
Relatives Dungo the Gardener (biological father)
Michael McGruder (son; Last Human continuity only)

Arnold Judas Rimmer[1] is a fictional character in the science fiction situation comedy Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. He is unpopular with his crew mates, and is often the target of insults or pranks. After he is killed off screen by a radiation leak during a timeskip in the series' first episode "The End" (1988), which is later shown on screen in "Me²" (1988), Rimmer is present for most of the series as a computer-generated hologram, indicated by the "H" symbol on his forehead. Rimmer is depicted as a living human in flashbacks set prior to the accident throughout the show along with situations where Rimmer travels back in time to his own past, and in series VIII in 1999, a flesh and blood version of Rimmer is shown having been resurrected by nanobots with no memory of the hologrammatic Rimmer's experiences. However, following a ten-year break between episodes, the character reappears as a hologram from the miniseries Back to Earth (2009) onwards.

The creators of the series acknowledge that Rimmer's surname comes from a snobby prefect with whom they attended school. They claim, however, that only the boy's name was used, and not his personality because that would imply he had one.[citation needed]


Early life[edit]

Young Rimmer was often the target of his brothers' bullying.

Within the fictional universe of Red Dwarf, Rimmer was born on Io[citation needed] somewhere during the 21st through 23rd centuries.[note 2] He was christened Arnold Judas Rimmer.[1] He was given the middle name "Judas" not as some sort of cruel omen, but because his mother was a member of a denomination of Christianity that venerates Judas as Jesus' twin brother.[6] He suffered an unhappy childhood growing up in the shadow of his three older brothers, John, Frank, and Howard.[citation needed] Arnold's brothers played practical jokes on him while he grew up, but Rimmer claims they were "nothing sinister".[2] His stepfather had been rejected from the Space Corps in his youth for being an inch below regulation height, and was thus fixated on all his sons succeeding where he had failed; to this end, he refused to allow them to eat unless they could answer complicated astronavigation questions. He also stretched them on a traction machine to make them taller, causing Frank to be 6'5" by the time he was eleven.[1] Rimmer says that some considered his mother to be cold and aloof, but himself believes that she had no time for fools. Rimmer believes this to be "tragic", because they would otherwise have got on "famously".[2] Rimmer's mother was having an affair with Rimmer's uncle Frank[7] and Porky Roebuck's father.[8] The Series III DVD booklet speculates that Arnold's three brothers were actually Frank's children.[citation needed]

Arnold was also bullied by other children at school — where he was known as "Bonehead"[9] — and his best "friend", Porky Roebuck, once spearheaded a plan to eat him during a Space Scouts survival course.[8] Rimmer later recounted an occasion on which Roebuck threw Arnold's favourite shoes into the school septic tank whilst Arnold was wearing them.[10] Rimmer attended a boarding school from age 8 to 18,[citation needed] where he used to sleep wearing boxing gloves and was visited by his future self (this being the Hologram Rimmer telling him to plagiarise a future invention);[11] when he was 18[citation needed] he joined a Polytechnic and studied maintenance.

Rimmer left home when he was 16, hoping he would get into the Space Academy, which for an unknown reason (possibly his exam performance)[original research?] he could not do. His father would not pay for him to attend the Academy as he had done for Rimmer's brothers.[12] Rimmer also earned two swimming certificates: one Bronze Swimming Certificate, and one Silver Swimming Certificate (despite not being able to swim); he includes the titles for these certificates — "BSc" and "SSc", respectively — after his name in official correspondence.[12][additional citation needed]

Life on board Red Dwarf[edit]

Rimmer joined the Space Corps at an entry level as a third technician, and devoted his life to his career, engaging in few activities outside work.[citation needed] He was also rather unsuccessful with women, managing to have a sexual relationship with only one woman, Yvonne McGruder, the ship's female boxing champion. The entire encounter lasted little more than twelve minutes, including the time it took to eat a pizza,[13] and, according to Lister, only happened because she was concussed and thought Rimmer was someone else entirely.[14][note 3] Rimmer claimed that he lost his virginity in the back of his brother's Bentley with a girl named Sandra,[10] though he said this in order to hide from Lister the fact that he actually lost it to Yvonne McGruder. The show's creators have also stated he was lying.[citation needed]

Despite serving in the Space Corps for fourteen years (obtaining four medals for three-, six-, nine and twelve years long service),[12] he never managed to become an officer, advancing only from third technician to second technician.[citation needed][note 4] He attempted to pass the astronavigation exam, required to become an officer, 11 times, but failed on every occasion, frequently because he spent the allotted revision time indulging his talent for calligraphy and design in the creation of elaborate timetables, leaving no time for actual preparation. In the ensuing panic, he often took up chain smoking and became dependent on stimulants in an attempt to condense months of complex learning into just a few days.[citation needed] This behaviour contributed to several psychotic episodes and breakdowns during exams,[citation needed] and on one occasion caused him to write "I am a fish" repeatedly on the exam paper.[note 5] However, he believed he was kept down due to an incident where he was invited to the captain's table and humiliated himself when served gazpacho, which he demanded be taken away and brought back hot.[disputed ]

During his service on Red Dwarf, he was assigned to both work with and share quarters with Third Technician Dave Lister,[18] the only crew member of Red Dwarf that he outranked.[citation needed] The two were notably different in personality: unlike the uptight and pompous Rimmer, Lister was unmotivated, slovenly, relaxed and well-liked.

Death and afterlife[edit]

Rimmer died in the radiation leak that wiped out the entire crew of Red Dwarf, with the exception of Lister, who was in stasis at the time, and Lister's pregnant cat, Frankenstein, who was safe in the ship's hold. Three million years later, when Lister was brought out of stasis, Rimmer was chosen by Holly to be reactivated as a hologram[18] in order to keep Lister company and prevent him from being driven insane by loneliness. He was chosen because only one hologram could be active at any given time and Rimmer was the person Lister spoke to most.[19]

In the episode "Timeslides" (1989), when the crew discover they can enter any photograph and change their future, Rimmer accidentally changes the past so that he is alive, and no longer a hologram. His happiness is short-lived, however, as he dies within minutes anyway after hitting a box containing explosives.[11] He is seen in the next episode, "The Last Day" (1989), once again as a hologram.[20]

Lister inspects Rimmer's "light bee", the device that projects his hologram.

As a "soft-light" hologram, Rimmer retains his memories and physical appearance, but is composed of light and has no tangible form[18] (other than the small "light bee" unit that projects his image by floating around inside him);[21] however, the "light bee", Rimmer's only physical presence, is contradicted on a few occasions by his ability to move completely through solid objects such as walls or by the ability of solid objects or living characters to pass completely through Rimmer.[4][18][22] He remains very unhappy with his lot after his death, frequently bemoaning his fate. Despite his dissatisfaction with his existence, he bitterly resists any move to turn him off. He remains as obnoxious and difficult to like for his crewmates as he was before his death, and gradually develops a pompous tendency to quote Space Corps regulations at any possible opportunity — despite his tendency to get the numbers wrong, for which Kryten often corrects him.

In "Legion" (1993), he encounters a being known as Legion, who upgrades Rimmer's projection unit from "soft light" to "hard light", giving him a physical form and the ability to interact directly with the world, in addition to making him virtually indestructible.[23] In "Stoke Me a Clipper" (1997), Rimmer is approached by a dying alternate version of himself, Ace Rimmer, who asks Rimmer to become a defender of the multiverse upon Ace's death. Although initially hesitant, Arnold finds himself rising to the challenge and leaves to start his new life.[24] Lister, for a time, desperately misses him, and it takes a therapeutic song by a simulation of Rimmer, shown in "Blue" (1997), to remind him what a horrible presence he could be.[25]

Return to life[edit]

When Red Dwarf is restored by Kryten's nanobots at the end of the episode "Nanarchy" (1997),[26] the entire crew is restored to life as well by a new set of nanobots created by Holly after Kryten's had gone missing, including Rimmer, as shown in Back in the Red (1999). Because he is resurrected as he was at the time of the accident, he lacks any of the growth that the "other" Rimmer has gone through since the series began, reverting him back to his original persona. In Back in the Red, Lister, Rimmer, Kryten, Cat and Kristine Kochanski are sentenced to two years in the ship's brig for misuse of confidential information.[27] In "Cassandra" (1999), Rimmer, along with the rest of the cast, are shown being signed up by Lister to the convict army the Canaries, after Lister mistakes them for a singing troupe.[28]

In "Only the Good..." (1999), when a chameleonic microbe is shown destroying Red Dwarf and everyone else evacuates to a mirror universe, Rimmer is trapped on the disintegrating ship. At the end of the episode, he encounters the Grim Reaper, who announces that Rimmer is dead and then tells him that they'll travel to the River Styx. Rimmer interrupts him, saying "Not today, matey!", knees him in the groin, says "Remember, only the good die young!", and flees.[29]

Back to Earth[edit]

In Red Dwarf: Back to Earth (2009), set nine years later, Rimmer is shown to be a hard light hologram again; how this has come about was not explained. In this special, a female "despair squid" whose ink causes joy and elation instead of despair to defend herself, causes Lister, Rimmer, the Cat and Kryten to share a hallucination where they believe they are fictional characters from a TV series called Red Dwarf, and their dimension is "invalid". This leads them to be shown being pulled into the nearest "valid" reality. They confront the "Creator" of Red Dwarf on a version of 21st century Earth who is ready to kill off the characters, and Lister accidentally kills him. The four subconsciously realise that they're hallucinating, and they wake up on board Red Dwarf. Kryten and Rimmer speculate that they were able to choose whether or not they wanted wake up because of the strengthened antibodies of the four from the previous encounter with the despair squid.[30]

Red Dwarf X[edit]

In "Trojan" (2012), Rimmer discovers that one of his brothers, Howard, serves as a hologram on a Space Corps vessel. Rimmer lies to his brother, telling him that he is the captain of the abandoned space vessel Trojan. To his surprise, he finds that Howard is, like him, a vending machine repairman who became the superior officer on his ship. In Howard's case this followed an attack by Simulants. Howard is mortally wounded during a skirmish with a rogue Simulant, and Rimmer takes the opportunity to further lie to Howard on his deathbed about his lifestyle.[31]

In "The Beginning" (2012), Rimmer is given the task of planning out a defensive strategy against a Simulant attack fleet; after failing to come up with one, Rimmer plays a recorded message from his father in an attempt to escape his feeling of being weighed down by his father's expectations. In the message Arnold's father, thinking that by now Arnold has achieved enough, reveals that Arnold is not his son, but that his real father was the family gardener Dungo. This revelation liberates Rimmer from the spectre of his lineage on the grounds that he has accomplished a great deal by the standards set by his biological father, and he is able to formulate a successful plan of attack that destroys the Simulant vessels.

It is strongly implied in this episode that this version of Rimmer remembers dying from the radiation leak but also remembers saving the ship from the corrosive micro-organism that was devouring it in the episode "Only the Good...". This is a combination of the respective memories of the hologram Rimmer, who later became Ace, and the resurrected Rimmer who faced Death in the Series VIII cliffhanger. However, attempts by Rimmer and Kryten to explain how he saved the ship at the end of that series are interrupted.[3]


Rimmer's primary character traits include anal-retentiveness, over-adherence to protocol, cowardice, bitterness and a severely inflated ego which is likely a coping mechanism for his deep-seated sense of self-loathing, which he tries but sometimes fails to hide from others. As the highest ranking survivor aboard the ship (despite being a hologram), Rimmer often deludes himself into believing that he is in charge and that he has somehow been moulding "his" crew into an effective spacegoing unit,[32] despite the fact that the others tend to take suggestions from Lister or Kryten in a crisis.

Rimmer's poor repair work on the drive plate was responsible for the radiation leak that killed the crew, and Rimmer bore the guilt of this (although he also partly blamed Lister for the accident, as he was unable to help repair the drive plate due to being in stasis at the time).[18] However, in "Justice" (1991), after Rimmer is jailed for over 9000 years for the accident, Kryten successfully argues at his appeal that Rimmer's guilt is misplaced – as a second technician (and one who "couldn't outwit a used teabag"), he could not possibly have been responsible for (and indeed would not have been trusted with) work that might endanger the crew if not performed correctly. Kryten further argues that Rimmer only felt guilty for causing the accident because of his delusions about his importance to the mission, comparing him to a front-gate security guard who considers himself corporate head. Kryten then went on to state that Rimmer's only crime is that of being Arnold J. Rimmer, which should also serve as a punishment. In keeping with his defective personality, Rimmer continually objects to his own defence (despite its effectiveness) on the grounds that he believes he is being portrayed unfairly.[33]

Rimmer was finally able to live his fantasy of commanding an army in the episode "Meltdown" (1991), leading an army of "good" wax-droids against a much larger force of "evil" wax-droids. Although Rimmer ultimately succeeds in destroying the opposing army, his forces are completely wiped out when he uses most of them as a diversion and then has Kryten turn up the heating to melt all the droids.[21] In addition to his fondness for militarism,[10] elitism and Hammond organ music,[34] Rimmer also enjoys Morris dancing and is an authority on 20th century telegraph poles,[34] especially those observed while train spotting.[citation needed] Rimmer has also been attempting to learn Esperanto for eight years, but has failed miserably.[35]

Many episodes of Red Dwarf focus on the conflict between Rimmer's ego and his neuroses. In "Confidence and Paranoia" (1988), Rimmer manages to trick Lister into generating a hologram duplicate in order to provide him with a companion;[14] however, as a consequence of Rimmer's self-loathing, in the follow-up episode "Me²" (1988), the two Rimmers are incapable of getting along, and their interaction becomes so bitter and hate-filled that the duplicate must be turned off.[12] In "Terrorform" (1992), a "psi-moon" sculpted to reflect Rimmer's psychological make-up becomes a desolate, swampy hell-hole dominated by Rimmer's Self-Loathing, personified as a sadistic beast, with a metaphysical graveyard marking the "demise" of his various virtuous qualities.[36] Despite his cowardice, and tendency to run from any kind of danger or fight, Rimmer is the member of the crew most willing to kill, preferably in the safest and most cowardly way possible, although, due to a mixture of cowardice, and the fact that for much of the series he cannot physically harm anyone, he seldom manages to. He attempts to coerce Lister to shoot a dangerous Simulant (Nicholas Ball) in the back (bemoaning the fact that said Simulant was currently awake),[33] suggests shooting Kryten and Lister into space when they appeared on the ship in a timeline where they had been erased from history,[37] suggests that he and Kryten eject Lister and Cat from Starbug when it is revealed that the ship lacks fuel to reach the nearest planet — although this is also prompted by the discovery that the ship only had air for seven minutes and was ended when Rimmer learned that his projection unit only had enough power for four minutes[38] — and in a despair squid-induced hallucination of 21st century Earth, casually pushes a fellow hologram (Sophie Winkleman) into traffic after she repeatedly threatens to have him "erased" and claims that hologram-killing is "morally, ethically [...] fine".[30]

Rimmer's personality flaws are in fact almost completely a result of his hang-ups. An alternative version of Rimmer, Ace Rimmer, who was kept back a year in school, learned humility and inner strength and grew up to become a charming and well liked Space Corps test pilot, interstellar hero, and sexual seducer.[39]

Surprisingly, however, Rimmer is still capable of nobility, honour and love. When Red Dwarf encounters a holoship with an all-hologram crew composed of the "best and brightest" in the episode "Holoship" (1991), Rimmer desperately wants to join. A female officer aboard the ship, Nirvanah Crane, played by Jane Horrocks, falls in love with him and sacrifices her place on the ship for Rimmer, only for Rimmer to do the same in return for her. This act of nobility surprises even Rimmer himself.[40] Furthermore, in the episode "Out of Time" (1993), Rimmer is disgusted by his corrupt future self to the point where he'd rather do battle with him than surrender, Rimmer later frantically risking his life to save the others after their future selves kill them.[41] He is also able to show respect for viewpoints in conflict with his own. In "The Last Day" (1989), he tries to convince Lister that he should respect Kryten's right to believe in Silicon Heaven in spite of it conflicting with Lister's own beliefs.[20]


Rimmer's status as a hologram in most episodes of Red Dwarf is shown by the "H" on the centre of his forehead, leading to nicknames from the Cat, such as "alphabet head" and "goalpost head". Rimmer keeps his unmanageable hair[37] relatively short, deciding that it makes him feel like more of a man.[42] When Lister and the Cat respond to a drill too slowly, Rimmer argues for increased discipline and sensible haircuts, believing that "every major battle in history has been won by the side with the shortest haircuts" (resulting in the Cat insulting his hair-do by saying that he has hair like his, just not on his head).[43]

Rimmer's Space Corps uniform changes several times during the course of the show. In the first two series it is a grey-and-beige shirt-and-tie ensemble; in Series III and IV this becomes a green suit with a shiny high-collared jacket, which is changed to red in Series V; in Series VI and VII, Rimmer's jacket becomes quilted and is red when he is in soft-light form and blue for hard-light; the alive Rimmer in Series VIII wears an all-beige uniform similar in design to the original. In the 2009 three-part special Back to Earth, Rimmer wears a blue suit similar to his Series III and VI green suit but with the addition of a plain waist-high belt worn over the jacket and a quilted collar.[30]

The hologram "H" on his forehead also changes from series to series: it starts as a grey colour and a blocky shape, then, in Series III, it becomes bright blue and reflective, and then, in Series V, its shape is changed to a thinner and more stylised font. His "H" also briefly changes to a reflective red colour set inside a circle when he temporarily joins the holoship SS Enlightenment.


Rimmer encounters his "female opposite" Arlene.

Among the actors who auditioned for Rimmer were Norman Lovett (who went on to play Holly instead), David Baddiel, Hugh Laurie, and Alfred Molina.[44] Initially Molina was cast as Rimmer,[45][46] however, the role was recast and filled by Chris Barrie, a professional voice-actor and impressionist. Barrie, who had originally auditioned for Lister,[44] was familiar with Rob Grant and Doug Naylor having worked together on Son of Cliché and Spitting Image, and with the producers on Happy Families and various Jasper Carrott productions.[46] He has appeared in all but four episodes of the show, which he missed in series VII due to scheduling conflicts.[47]

Rimmer was played by Chris Eigeman in the first American pilot and then by Anthony Fuscle in the second pilot. The character's distinctive "H" was replaced with a marble-shaped object in the first pilot, but the "H" returned in the second one. Chris Barrie was given an offer to reprise his role, but turned it down for fear of being tied into a restrictive, long-term contract, which is common in American television production.[48]

The female Rimmer in the Series II episode "Parallel Universe" was played by Suzanne Bertish, an actress primarily known for her classical stage work. She had been asked by director Ed Bye to play the part.[49] "Young Rimmer", who had minor speaking roles in three episodes in Series III and IV, was played by child actor Simon Gaffney.[50] The 6th episode of series X features another "Young Rimmer", this time at college on Io, who was played by Philip Labey.[51]


  1. ^ Frank is first named as Rimmer's brother in "Better Than Life" (1988),[1] while John and Howard are named in "Polymorph" (1989).[2] In "The Beginning" (2012), the man Rimmer thought was his father (played by Simon Treves) confirms in a recorded message that he is not in fact Rimmer's father.[3]
  2. ^ "Stasis Leak" (1988) shows a calendar from 2077, the year that Rimmer died,[4] which conflicts with "DNA" (1991) when Lister describes himself as a "23rd century guy".[5]
  3. ^ In the 1995 novel Last Human, Rimmer's one-night stand with Yvonne McGruder led to the birth of a son. Also, apparently there truly was mutual attraction, but both decided to wait for the other to make the first move after that one night, leading to their going separate ways. Yvonne transferred off Red Dwarf.[15]
  4. ^ In Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers (1989), Rimmer was a First Technician and leader of "Z Shift".[16]
  5. ^ This behaviour was described in the 1989 novel as the result of his becoming so stressed that he subconsciously denied his own existence.[17]


  1. ^ a b c d Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (13 September 1988). "Better Than Life". Red Dwarf. Series II. Episode 2. BBC. BBC2. 
  2. ^ a b c Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (28 November 1989). "Polymorph". Red Dwarf. Series III. Episode 3. BBC. BBC2. 
  3. ^ a b Naylor, Doug (writer/director) (8 November 2012). "The Beginning". Red Dwarf. Series X. Episode 6. Dave. 
  4. ^ a b Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (27 September 1988). "Stasis Leak". Red Dwarf. Series II. Episode 4. BBC. BBC2. 
  5. ^ Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (21 February 1991). "DNA". Red Dwarf. Series IV. Episode 2. BBC. BBC2. 
  6. ^ Naylor, Doug (writer/director) (18 October 2012). "Lemons". Red Dwarf. Series X. Episode 3. Dave. 
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  9. ^ Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (6 September 1988). "Kryten". Red Dwarf. Series II. Episode 1. BBC. BBC2. 
  10. ^ a b c Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (21 November 1989). "Marooned". Red Dwarf. Series III. Episode 2. BBC. BBC2. 
  11. ^ a b Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (12 December 1989). "Timeslides". Red Dwarf. Series III. Episode 5. BBC. BBC2. 
  12. ^ a b c d Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (21 March 1988). "Me²". Red Dwarf. Series I. Episode 6. BBC. BBC2. 
  13. ^ Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (20 September 1988). "Thanks for the Memory". Red Dwarf. Series II. Episode 3. BBC. BBC2. 
  14. ^ a b Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (14 March 1988). "Confidence and Paranoia". Red Dwarf. Series I. Episode 5. BBC. BBC2. 
  15. ^ Naylor, Doug (1995). Last Human. Viking Books. 
  16. ^ Naylor, Grant (2 November 1989). Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers. London: Penguin Books. p. 46. ISBN 0-14-012437-3. 
  17. ^ Naylor, Grant (2 November 1989). Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-012437-3. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (15 February 1988). "The End". Red Dwarf. Series I. Episode 1. BBC. BBC2. 
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  20. ^ a b Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (19 December 1989). "The Last Day". Red Dwarf. Series III. Episode 6. BBC. BBC2. 
  21. ^ a b Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (21 March 1991). "Meltdown". Red Dwarf. Series IV. Episode 6. BBC. BBC2. 
  22. ^ Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (29 February 1988). "Balance of Power". Red Dwarf. Series I. Episode 3. BBC. BBC2. 
  23. ^ Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); de Emmony, Andy (director) (14 October 1993). "Legion". Red Dwarf. Series VI. Episode 2. BBC. BBC2. 
  24. ^ Alexander, Paul; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (24 January 1997). "Stoke Me a Clipper". Red Dwarf. Series VII. Episode 2. BBC. BBC2. 
  25. ^ Fuller, Kim; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (14 February 1997). "Blue". Red Dwarf. Series VII. Episode 5. BBC. BBC2. 
  26. ^ Alexander, Paul; Hendrie, James; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (7 March 1997). "Nanarchy". Red Dwarf. Series VII. Episode 8. BBC. BBC2. 
  27. ^ Naylor, Doug (writer); Bye, Ed (director) (18 February – 4 March 1999). Back in the Red. Red Dwarf. BBC. BBC Two. 
  28. ^ Naylor, Doug (writer); Bye, Ed (director) (7 March 1999). "Cassandra". Red Dwarf. Series VIII. Episode 4. PBS. 
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  30. ^ a b c Naylor, Doug (writer/director) (10–12 April 2009). Red Dwarf: Back to Earth. Dave. 
  31. ^ Naylor, Doug (writer/director) (4 October 2012). "Trojan". Red Dwarf. Series X. Episode 1. Dave. 
  32. ^ Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); May, Juliet (director) (20 February 1992). "Holoship". Red Dwarf. Series V. Episode 1. BBC. BBC2. Rimmer: Captain, I've been in effective command of Red Dwarf now for nearly four years. I've guided that ragamuffin, ragtail crew of whacked out crazies and hippy peace-niks through hell and back. If I gave the order, those guys would crawl on their bellies across broken glass with their flies unzipped. So don't tell me I'm not an officer, Captain, just because in deep space there's no academy around to award me my pips. 
  33. ^ a b Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (28 February 1991). "Justice". Red Dwarf. Series IV. Episode 3. BBC. BBC2. 
  34. ^ a b Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (14 February 1991). "Camille". Red Dwarf. Series IV. Episode 1. BBC. BBC2. 
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  50. ^ "IMDb: Simon Gaffney". Retrieved 10 December 2007. 
  51. ^ "IMDb: Philip Labey". Retrieved 6 November 2013. 

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