Arta language

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Arta
Native toPhilippines
Regionnorthern Luzon
Ethnicity150 (no date)[1]
Native speakers
11 (2013)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3atz
Glottologarta1239[3]

Arta is a highly endangered Negrito language of the northern Philippines.

Distribution[edit]

Lawrence Reid's 1990 fieldwork revealed only 12 speakers in Villa Santiago, Aglipay, Quirino Province,[4] and in 1992 it was spoken by only three families. It is not closely related to other languages.

There are still small groups of Arta speakers in Maddela and Nagtipunan towns of Quirino Province (Lobel 2013:88).[5] Kimoto (2017)[6] reports that Arta has 10 native speakers and 35–45 second-language speakers living primarily in Pulang Lupa, Kalbo, and in Disimungal, Nagtipunan.

The Arta are found in the following places within Nagtipunan Municipality.[7]

  • Nagtipunan Municipality
    • Disimungal Barangay
      • Purok Kalbo
      • Pulang Lupa
      • Tilitilan
    • San Ramos Barangay
    • Pongo Barangay
    • Sangbay Barangay

Arta is in contact with Casiguran Agta, Nagtipunan Agta, Yogad, Ilokano, and Tagalog.[6]

Phonology[edit]

Arta is notable for having vowel length distinction, an unusual typological feature in the Philippines.[6]

Sound changes[edit]

Kimoto (2017: 56)[6] lists the following sound changes from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (PMP) to Arta. Long vowels in Arta are derived from PMP diphthongs.

PMP Arta
*p p
*t t
*k Ø ~ k
*q Ø
*b b
*d d
*j d
*z z
*g g
*s s
*h Ø
*R r
*l l
*m m
*n n
ŋ
*w w
*y y
*a a
*i i
*u u
ə
*ai
*au

Lexical innovations[edit]

Kimoto (2017: 4)[6] lists the following Arta lexical innovations (highlighted in bold). Lexical innovations in Casiguran Agta are also highlighted in bold.

Gloss Arta Casiguran Agta Ilokano Tagalog
excrement sirit attay takki taʔi
laugh əla ŋihit katawa tawa
banana bagat biget saba sagiŋ
back (body) sapaŋ adəg, səpaŋ likod likod
hair pulug buk buok buhok
body abiː bəgi bagi katawan
water wagət dinom danum tubig
house bunbun bilɛ balay bahay
male giləŋan ləlake lalaki lalaki
female bukagan bəbe babae babae

Reid (1994)[8] lists the following reconstructed forms as possible non-Austronesian lexical elements found exclusively in Arta. Forms from Kimoto (2018)[9] have also been included. Note the use of orthographic è [ə] and ng [ŋ].

Gloss Pre-Arta (Reid 1994) Arta (Reid 1994) Arta (Kimoto 2018)
afternoon (ma-)*lutəp malutəp malu:tèp
arrive *digdig dumigdig digdig
bone *sagnit sagnit sikrit 'small thin bones'
butterfly *pippun peppun -
drink *tim mattim ti:m
ear *ibəŋ ibəŋ ibeng
lime *ŋusu ŋusú nusu
man, male *gilaŋ(-an) gilaŋán gilèngan
mosquito *buŋur buŋúr bungor
old (man) *dupu dupú dupu:
one *sipaŋ sípaŋ si:pang
rain *punəd púnəd pu:nèd
run *gurugud maggurugúd gurugud
say, tell *bud ibud bud
sleep *idəm médəm idèm
two *təlip tallip tallip

Reid (1994)[8] lists the following reconstructed forms as possible non-Austronesian lexical elements found in both Arta and "North Agta" (i.e., various Northeastern Luzon languages spoken mostly in Cagayan Province). Forms from Kimoto (2018)[9] have also been included.

Gloss Reconstructed form
(Reid 1994)
Arta (Reid 1994) Arta (Kimoto 2018)
pity, kindness *Rəbi pagarbián arbi
thirst *pələk meɁipla iplèk
hunt *purab mamurab
‘hunt with bow and arrow’
purab
deer, buck *b[ia]dut bidut bidut
fingernail *[l]usip lusip lusip
penis *g[ia]ləŋ giləŋ gilèng
wall *gəsəd gisə́d gisèd
dog, puppy *lapul lappul lappul
fire *dukut dut dut
hair, feather *pulug pológ pulug

The forms *səlub 'fragrant' and *Rəbi 'pity, kindness' are found in both Arta and Alta.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arta at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ Arta at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arta". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Reid, L. (1989). "Arta, Another Philippine Negrito Language." Oceanic Linguistics, 28(1), 47-74.
  5. ^ Lobel, Jason William. 2013. Philippine and North Bornean languages: issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
  6. ^ a b c d e Kimoto, Yukinori / 木本幸憲. 2017. A Grammar of Arta: A Philippine Negrito Langage / フィリピンネグリート言語、アルタ語の文法. Ph.D dissertation, Kyoto University. doi:10.14989/doctor.k20639
  7. ^ Kimoto, Yukinori. A preliminary report on the grammar of Agta.
  8. ^ a b c Reid, Lawrence A. 1994. "Possible Non-Austronesian Lexical Elements in Philippine Negrito Languages." In Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Jun. 1994), pp. 37-72.
  9. ^ a b Kimoto, Yukinori. 2018. Arta vocabulary.

External links[edit]