Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene

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Artavasdes I
King
ArtavasdesICoinMedia.jpg
Coin of Artavasdes I
Reign Media Atropatene 56 BC–30 BC, Kingdom of Sophene 30 BC–20 BC
Predecessor Ariobarzanes I
Successor Asinnalus
Consort Athenais
Issue One daughter Iotapa and two sons: Ariobarzanes II, Darius II
Father Ariobarzanes I
Mother Unnamed
Born About 59 BC
Died About 20 BC (Aged 39)
Rome

Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene, also known as Artavasdes I of Atropatene,[1] Artavasdes I[2] and Artavasdes[3] (before or about 59 BC[4]-about 20 BC[4]) was a Prince who served as a King of Media Atropatene.[5] Artavasdes I was an enemy of King Artavasdes II of Armenia and his son Artaxias II. He was a contemporary with the Ptolemaic Greek Queen Cleopatra VII and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony,[3] as Artavasdes I was mentioned in their diplomatic affairs.[6]

Family Background & Early Life[edit]

Artavasdes I was of Median and possibly of Armenian, Greek descent. He was the child born to Ariobarzanes I by an unnamed wife.[4] His probable paternal uncle could have been Darius I.[7] He was born and raised in the Kingdom of Media Atropatene. Artavasdes I is the namesake of his ancestor, Artabazanes a previous ruling King of Media Atropatene in the 3rd century BC, as the name Artavasdes is a variation of the name Artabazanes (see Asha).

According to modern genealogies the father of Artavasdes I, Ariobarzanes I was a son of a previous ruling King Mithridates I of Media Atropatene and his wife, an unnamed Armenian Princess from the Artaxiad Dynasty who was a daughter of the Armenian King Tigranes the Great and his wife, Cleopatra of Pontus,[8][9] which can explain the claims of Mithridates I’s descendants to the Armenian Kingship in opposition to the lasting ruling monarchs of the Artaxiad Dynasty. Another possibility in linking Artavasdes I to the marriage of Mithridates I and his wife is through his name. The name Artavasdes bears as a typical Armenian royal name and therefore, in all likelihood, Artavasdes I is a descendant of this marriage.[3]

Reign as King[edit]

Artavasdes I succeeded his father as King, when Ariobarzanes I died in 56 BC.[4] When Mark Antony led his campaign against the Parthian Empire in 36 BC, Artavasdes I was an ally of the King Phraates IV of Parthia. Antony led his troops from Zeugma northward into Armenia and then invaded the domain of Artavasdes I. Antony did not want to attack Parthia from the west, which was the shortest way, but surprisingly from the north. Antony allegedly used this strategy on the advice of Artavasdes II of Armenia, the enemy of Artavasdes I.[10] Antony moved with his army in fast marches to Phraaspa, the strong fortified capital of Media Atropatene, where Artavasdes I had got his family to safety. Meantime Artavasdes I had joined the army of Phraates IV.

Antony was not able to take Phraaspa and besieged the city, but Artavasdes I and the Parthian commander Monaeses destroyed two legions of Antony's general, Oppius Statianus, who had slowly followed with the siege machines of the Antony's troops. Antony could not capture Phraaspa without these machines. Therefore he had to withdraw to Armenia and Parthia was not invaded.[11]

So Artavasdes I had maintained his ground against the Romans but his domain had been severely ravaged. Besides his stronger ally Phraates IV treated him condescending and gave him only little booty and was near depriving him of his dominion. Therefore in 35 BC Artavasdes I offered Antony an alliance against Parthia, and Antony gladly accepted.[12] To deepen this friendship Alexander Helios, the son of Antony and Cleopatra VII, was betrothed to Artavasdes I’s daughter Iotapa, although both were infants in 34 BC.[13]

In 33 BC Antony met his coalition partner on the river Araxes; they agreed that Antony should support Artavasdes I against Parthia and that the Median King should help Antony against Octavian. They interchanged parts of their troops. The domain of Artavasdes I was enlarged with parts of Armenia. Antony had returned a standard that the Median king had taken from Oppius Statianus in 36 BC, and also took Iotapa along with him. With the help of the Roman reinforcements Artavasdes I was initially able to repulse the Parthian attack. Before the Battle of Actium, Antony called back his Roman troops without sending back the Median reinforcements. This time Phraates IV defeated Artavasdes I who was captured in 30 BC.[14]

During Artavasdes' imprisonment, a civil war between the Parthians later took place, which gave him the opportunity to escape prison. He took refuge with Augustus, who received him with friendliness,[15] gave him back his daughter Iotapa[16] and made him a Client King of Lesser Armenia.[17] He died around 20 BC probably in Rome.[18] Artavasdes I was succeeded in the Kingship of Media Atropatene by Asinnalus.

Issue[edit]

Artavasdes I was a son-in-law of King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene[2] and his wife, Isias Philostorgos, as he married one of their daughters Athenais, a Princess from Commagene who was of Armenian and Greek descent.[19] Perhaps, Artavasdes I and Athenais may have been distantly related.

Inscription Evidence[edit]

In Rome, two Epitaph inscriptions have been found bearing the name of an Artavasdes. The Epitaphs are probably of the son and the grandson of a Median Atropatenian King called Ariobarzanes.[22] However it is uncertain, if the Ariobarzanes refers to Ariobarzanes I or his grandson Ariobarzanes II.[22] Artavasdes I is mentioned in paragraphs 27 and 33 of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Swan, The Augustan Succession: An Historical Commentary on Cassius Dio’s Roman History, Books 55-56 (9 B.C.-A.D. 14), p.114
  2. ^ a b c d e "Ptolemaic Genealogy: Affiliated Lines, Descendant Lines". Tyndalehouse.com. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Ptolemaic Genealogy: Tryphaena, Footnote 13". Tyndalehouse.com. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Encyclopaedia Iranica - Artavasdes". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  5. ^ Swan, The Augustan Succession: An Historical Commentary on Cassius Dio’s Roman History, Books 55-56 (9 B.C.-A.D. 14), p.115
  6. ^ [1] Politische Geschichte (Provinzen Und Randvalker Griechischer Balkanraum; Kleinasien); Temporini, Hildegard, Haas, and Wolfgang. (Published 1980) p.916
  7. ^ "Settipani on Baldwin on the Commagenian DFA Link Part 2 of 3". Archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com. 1998-08-17. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  8. ^ Cassius Dio, 36.14
  9. ^ Toumanoff, Manual genealogy and chronology for the Christian Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Albania), p.p.81-82
  10. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 49.25.1
  11. ^ Plutarch, Antony 38-40; Cassius Dio, Roman history 49.25-26; Strabo, Geographica 11, p. 523
  12. ^ Plutarch, Antony 52.1-3; Cassius Dio, Roman history 49.33.1-2
  13. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman history 49.40.2; Plutarch, Antony 53.12
  14. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman history 49.44.1-4
  15. ^ Monumentum Ancyranum 33
  16. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman history 51.16.2
  17. ^ Theodor Mommsen concludes this from Cassius Dio, Roman history 54.9.2
  18. ^ Compare his epitaph found in Rome: CIL VI 1798
  19. ^ Her name is known from surviving numismatic evidence, as her royal title on coins is in Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΣ or of Queen Athenais
  20. ^ "Ptolemaic Genealogy: Alexander Helios". Tyndalehouse.com. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  21. ^ Baldwin, Comments on "Iberian route"
  22. ^ a b "Azerbaijan iii. Pre-Islamic History, Atropates, Persian satrap of Media, made himself independent in 321 B.C. Thereafter Greek and Latin writers named the territory as Media Atropatene or, less frequently, Media Minor: Parthian period". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 

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