Artes mechanicae (mechanical arts) are a medieval concept of ordered practices or skills, often juxtaposed to the traditional seven liberal arts (artes liberales). Also called "servile" and "vulgar", from antiquity they had been deemed unbecoming for a free man, as ministering to baser needs.
Johannes Scotus Eriugena (9th century) divides them somewhat arbitrarily into seven parts:
- vestiaria (tailoring, weaving)
- agricultura (agriculture)
- architectura (architecture, masonry)
- militia and venatoria (warfare and hunting, military education, "martial arts")
- mercatura (trade)
- coquinaria (cooking)
- metallaria (blacksmithing, metallurgy)
In his Didascalicon, Hugh of St Victor (12th century) includes navigation, medicine and theatrical arts instead of commerce, agriculture and cooking. Hugh's treatment somewhat elevates the mechanical arts as ordained to the improvement of humanity, a promotion which was to represent a growing trend among late medievals.
In the 19th century, "mechanic arts" referred to some of the fields that are now known as engineering. Use of the term was apparently an attempt to distinguish these fields from creative and artistic endeavors like the performing arts and the fine arts, which were for the upper class of the time, and the intelligentsia. The mechanic arts were also considered practical fields for those that did not come from good families.
Related phrases, "useful arts" or "applied arts" probably encompass the mechanic arts as well as craftsmanship in general.
The most famous usage of the term "mechanic arts" (and the one in which it is most commonly encountered today) is in the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act.
- See for instance Cicero'sDe Officiis, Book I, xxlii.
- In his commentary on Martianus Capella's early-fifth-century work, The Marriage of Philology and Mercury, one of the main sources for medieval reflection on the liberal arts.
- Hugues de Saint-Victor, Libri septem eruditiones didascaliae, ch.26 (PL 176, col.760): lanificium, armaturum, navigationem, agriculturem, venationem, medicinam, theatricam
- See Georges Legoff, Time, Work and Culture in the Middle Ages, (Chicago, University of Chicago Press) 116.
- Shiner, Dr. Larry (2003). The Invention of Art: A Cultural History. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 28–30.
- Walton, S.A., An Introduction to the Mechanical Arts in the Middle Ages, AVISTA, University of Toronto, 2003