An artesian well is a well that brings groundwater to the surface without pumping because it is under pressure within a body of rock and/or sediment known as an aquifer. When trapped water in an aquifer is surrounded by layers of impermeable rock or clay, which apply positive pressure to the water, it is known as an artesian aquifer. If a well were to be sunk into an artesian aquifer, water in the well-pipe would rise to a height corresponding to the point where hydrostatic equilibrium is reached.
Not all aquifers are artesian (i.e., water table aquifers occur where the groundwater level at the top of the aquifer is at equilibrium with atmospheric pressure). The recharging of aquifers happens when the water table at its recharge zone is at a higher elevation than the head of the well.
The first mechanically accurate explanation for artesian wells was given by Al-Biruni. Artesian wells were named after the former province of Artois in France, where many artesian wells were drilled by Carthusian monks from 1126.
- Fluid mechanics
- Great Artesian Basin
- List of artesian wells in the United States
- Drilled wells (for bore water mechanics)
- "Artesian Water and Artesian Wells". www.usgs.gov. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2020-12-18.
- Wheeler, H. W (1980), Artesian bores of South Australia : an annotated photographic record, 1939-1948, Pioneer Books, ISBN 978-0-908065-06-6
- Federal Water Resources Assistance Program (Australia); New South Wales. Department of Water Resources. Technical Services Division; Australian Water Resources Council. Interstate Working Group on the Great Artesian Basin (1990), Specification for construction, reconditioning or plugging of bores tapping recognised aquifers of the Great Artesian Basin in New South Wales (1st ed.), Dept. of Water Resources, Technical Services Division, retrieved 19 January 2014
- Davis and De Wiest, Hydrogeolagy, 1966, pp.9-10
- Frances Gies and Joseph Gies, Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel subtitled "Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages". Harper Perennial, 1995 ISBN 0-06-016590-1, page 112.