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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Cyanobacteria
Class: Cyanophyceae
Order: Oscillatoriales
Family: Phormidiaceae
Genus: Arthrospira

About 35.

Arthrospira is a genus of free-floating filamentous cyanobacteria characterized by cylindrical, multicellular trichomes in an open left-hand helix. There is a dietary supplement made from Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima, known as Spirulina.[1] The maxima and platensis species were once classified in the genus Spirulina. ″Although the introduction of two separate genera [Arthrospira and Spirulina] is now generally accepted, there has been much dispute in the past and the resulting taxonomical confusion is tremendous″.[2] ″However, current taxonomy claims that the name ′Spirulina′ for strains used as food supplements is inappropriate, and there is agreement that Arthrospira is a distinct genus, consisting of over 30 different species including A. platensis and A. maxima″.[3]

Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima occur naturally in tropical and subtropical lakes with high pH and high concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate.[4] Arthrospira platensis occurs in Africa, Asia and South America, whereas Arthrospira maxima is confined to Central America and Arthrospira pacifica is endemic to Hawaii Islands of America.[5] Most cultivated spirulina is produced in open channel raceway ponds, with paddle-wheels used to agitate the water.[4] The largest commercial producers of spirulina are located in the United States, Thailand, India, Taiwan, China, Pakistan, Burma (a.k.a. Myanmar), Greece and Chile.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ciferri, O. (1983). "Spirulina, the edible microorganism". Microbiological reviews 47 (4): 551–578. PMC 283708. PMID 6420655. 
  2. ^ Mühling, Martin (March 2000). Characterization of Arthrospira (Spirulina) Strains (Ph.D.). University of Durham. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-23. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  3. ^ Takatomo Fujisawa, Rei Narikawa, Shinobu Okamoto, Shigeki Ehira, Hidehisa Yoshimura, Iwane Suzuki, Tatsuru Masuda, Mari Mochimaru, Shinichi Takaichi, Koichiro Awai, Mitsuo Sekine, Hiroshi Horikawa, Isao Yashiro, Seiha Omata, Hiromi Takarada, Yoko Katano, Hiroki Kosugi, Satoshi Tanikawa, Kazuko Ohmori, Naoki Sato, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Nobuyuki Fujita, and Masayuki Ohmori (2010-03-04). "Genomic Structure of an Economically Important Cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-23.  In its turn, it references: Castenholz R.W., Rippka R., Herdman M., Wilmotte A. (2007). Boone D.R., Castenholz R.W., Garrity G.M., eds. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2 ed.). Springer: Berlin. pp. 542–3. 
  4. ^ a b Habib, M. Ahsan B.; Parvin, Mashuda; Huntington, Tim C.; Hasan, Mohammad R. (2008). "A Review on Culture, Production and Use of Spirulina as Food dor Humans and Feeds for Domestic Animals and Fish" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. Retrieved November 20, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Vonshak, A. (ed.). Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell-biology and Biotechnology. London: Taylor & Francis, 1997.

External links[edit]

Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Arthrospira". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.