Arthur Ashe, winning the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament in Rotterdam
|Residence||Richmond, Virginia, U.S.|
July 10, 1943|
Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
|Died||February 6, 1993
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Height||6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)|
|Plays||Right-handed (one-handed backhand)|
|Prize money||$1,584,909 (according to the ATP)|
|Int. Tennis HOF||1985 (member page)|
|Career titles||35 (Grand Prix, WCT and Grand Slam)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (1968, Harry Hopman)
No. 2 (May 12, 1976) by ATP
|Grand Slam Singles results|
|Australian Open||W (1970)|
|French Open||QF (1970, 1971)|
|US Open||W (1968)|
|Tour Finals||F (1978)|
|WCT Finals||W (1975)|
|Career titles||18 (14 Grand Prix and WCT titles)|
|Highest ranking||No. 15 (August 30, 1977)|
|Grand Slam Doubles results|
|Australian Open||W (1977)|
|French Open||W (1971)|
|US Open||F (1968)|
|Davis Cup||W (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970)|
Arthur Robert Ashe, Jr. (July 10, 1943 – February 6, 1993) was an American World No. 1 professional tennis player. He won three Grand Slam titles, ranking him among the best tennis players from the United States.
Ashe, an African American, was the first black player selected to the United States Davis Cup team and the only black man ever to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, and the Australian Open. He retired in 1980. He was ranked World No. 1 by Harry Hopman in 1968 and by Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and World Tennis Magazine in 1975. In the ATP computer rankings, he peaked at No. 2 in May 1976.
In the early 1980s, Ashe is believed to have contracted HIV from a blood transfusion he received during heart bypass surgery. Ashe publicly announced his illness in April 1992 and began working to educate others about HIV and AIDS. He founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS and the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health before his death from AIDS-related pneumonia on February 6, 1993.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Retirement
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Death
- 6 Grand Slam singles tournament timeline
- 7 Grand Slam finals
- 8 Grand Slam, Grand Prix and WCT Tour titles
- 9 Honors
- 10 Video
- 11 See also
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 Further reading
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia, to Arthur Ashe Sr. and Mattie Cordell Cunningham Ashe. He had a brother, Johnnie, who was five years younger. In March 1950, Ashe's mother Mattie died from complications related to a toxemic pregnancy (now known as pre-eclampsia) at the age of 27. Ashe and his brother were raised by their father who worked as a handyman and was also a special policeman for Richmond's recreation department.
Ashe's father was a strict disciplinarian who forbade him to play football, which was a popular choice for many black children, due to Ashe's slight build. The Ashes' house was located on the grounds of Brookfield Playground, Richmond's largest blacks-only playground, which had a tennis court. Ashe began practicing on the court and learned a few basic strokes from another young player, Ron Charity.
Ashe attended Maggie L. Walker High School where he continued to practice tennis. Robert Walter Johnson would later become his coach. Tired of having to travel great distances to play Caucasian youths in segregated Richmond, Ashe accepted an offer from a St. Louis tennis official to move there and attend Sumner High School.
Young Ashe was recognized by Sports Illustrated for his playing. He was awarded a tennis scholarship to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1963. During his time at UCLA, Ashe was a member of the ROTC which required him to join active military service in exchange for money for tuition. After a 1966 tournament, Ashe joined the United States Army on August 4, 1966. Ashe completed his basic training in Washington and was later commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Adjutant General Corps. He was assigned to the United States Military Academy at West Point where he worked as a data processor. During his time at West Point, Ashe headed the academy's tennis program. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant on February 23, 1968 and was discharged from the Army in 1969.
In 1963 Ashe became the first black player ever selected for the United States Davis Cup team. In 1965, Ashe won the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) singles title and contributed to UCLA's winning the team NCAA tennis championship.
In 1968, Ashe won the United States Amateur Championships against Davis Cup Teammate Bob Lutz, and the first US Open of the open era, becoming the first black male to capture the title. Because of his amateur status he could not accept the $14,000 first-prize money, which was instead given to runner-up Tom Okker. Ashe's ability to compete in the championship (and avoid the Vietnam war) arose from his brother Johnnie's decision to serve an additional path in his stead. He also aided the U.S Davis Cup team to victory. He is the only player to have won both of these amateur and open national championships in the same year. In January 1970, Ashe won his second Grand Slam singles title at the Australian Open. In September 1970 Ashe turned professional by signing a five-year contract with Lamar Hunt's World Championship Tennis. Concerned that tennis professionals were not receiving winnings commensurate with the sport's growing popularity, Ashe supported the formation of the Association of Tennis Professionals in 1972. That year proved momentous for Ashe when he was denied a visa by the South African government, and was thus kept out of the South African Open. Ashe used this to publicize South Africa's apartheid policies: in the media, Ashe called for South Africa to be expelled from the professional tennis circuit.
In 1975, Ashe won Wimbledon, defeating Jimmy Connors in the final. He also won the season ending championship WCT Finals. He played for a few more years, but after being slowed by heart surgery in 1979, he retired in 1980.
Ashe remains the only black man to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, or Australian Open. He is one of only two men of black African ancestry to win any Grand Slam singles title, the other being France's Yannick Noah, who won the French Open in 1983.
After his retirement, Ashe took on many roles including writing for Time magazine, commentating for ABC Sports, founding the National Junior Tennis League, and serving as captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team. He was elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1985.
Ashe was also an active civil rights supporter. He was a member of a delegation of 31 prominent African-Americans who visited South Africa to observe political change in the country as it approached racial integration. He was arrested on January 11, 1985, for protesting outside the Embassy of South Africa, Washington, D.C. during an anti-apartheid rally. He was arrested again on September 9, 1992, outside the White House for protesting on the recent crackdown on Haitian refugees.
On February 20, 1977, Ashe married Jeanne Moutoussamy, a photographer he met in October 1976 at a United Negro College Fund benefit. Andrew Young, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, performed the wedding ceremony in New York City.
In December 1986, Ashe and Moutoussamy adopted a daughter. She was named Camera after her mother's profession.
In 1979, Ashe suffered a heart attack, which surprised the public in view of his high level of fitness as an athlete. His condition drew attention to the hereditary aspect of heart disease. Ashe underwent a quadruple bypass operation, performed by Dr. John Hutchinson on December 13, 1979. A few months after the operation, Ashe was on the verge of making his return to professional tennis. However, during a family trip in Cairo, Egypt, he developed chest pains while running. Ashe stopped running and returned to see a physician and was accompanied by his close friend Douglas Stein. Stein urged Ashe to return to New York City so he could be close to his cardiologist and surgeon. In 1983, Ashe underwent a second round of heart surgery to correct the previous bypass surgery.
In September 1988, Ashe was hospitalized after experiencing paralysis in his right arm. After undergoing exploratory brain surgery and a number of tests, doctors discovered that Ashe had toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease that is commonly found in people infected with HIV. A subsequent test later revealed that Ashe was HIV positive. Ashe and his doctors believed he contracted the virus from blood transfusions he received during his second heart surgery. He and his wife decided to keep his illness private for the sake of their daughter, who was then two years old.
In 1992, a friend of Ashe's who worked for USA Today heard that he was ill and called Ashe to confirm the story. Ashe decided to preempt USA Today's plans to publish the story about his illness and, on April 8, 1992, publicly announced he had contracted HIV. Ashe blamed USA Today for forcing him to go public with the news but also stated that he was relieved that he no longer had to lie about his illness. After the announcement, hundreds of readers called or wrote letters to USA Today criticizing their choice to run the story about Ashe's illness which subsequently forced Ashe to publicize his illness.
After Ashe went public with his illness, he began to work to raise awareness about AIDS and advocated teaching sex education and safe sex. He also fielded questions about his own diagnosis and attempted to clear up the misconception that only homosexuals or IV drug users were at risk for contracting AIDS.
Ashe later founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS. Two months before his death, he founded the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health to help address issues of inadequate health care delivery and was named Sports Illustrated magazine's Sportsman of the Year. He also spent much of the last years of his life writing his memoir Days of Grace, finishing the manuscript less than a week before his death.
On February 6, 1993, Ashe died from AIDS-related pneumonia at New York Hospital. His funeral was held at the Arthur Ashe Athletic Center in Richmond, Virginia, on February 10. Then-governor Douglas Wilder, who was a friend of Ashe's, allowed his body to lie in state at the Governor's Mansion in Richmond. Andrew Young, who had performed the service for Ashe's wedding in 1979, officiated at his funeral. Over 6,000 mourners attended. Ashe requested that he be buried alongside his mother, Mattie, who died in 1950, in Woodland Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.
Grand Slam singles tournament timeline
|Tournament||1959||1960||1961||1962||1963||1964||1965||1966||1967||1968||1969||1970||1971||1972||1973||1974||1975||1976||19771||1978||1979||Career SR||Career Win-Loss|
|Australian Open||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||F||F||A||A||W||F||A||A||A||A||A||QF||A||SF||A||1 / 6||26–5|
|French Open||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||4R||QF||QF||A||4R||4R||A||4R||A||4R||3R||0 / 8||25–8|
|Wimbledon||A||A||A||A||3R||4R||4R||A||A||SF||SF||4R||3R||A||A||3R||W||4R||A||1R||1R||1 / 12||35–11|
|US Open||1R||2R||2R||2R||3R||4R||SF||3R||A||W||SF||QF||SF||F||3R||QF||4R||2R||A||4R||A||1 / 18||53–17|
|SR||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0 / 2||0 / 2||0 / 2||0 / 2||0 / 1||1 / 2||0 / 3||1 / 4||0 / 4||0 / 1||0 / 2||0 / 3||1 / 2||0 / 3||0 / 1||0 / 4||0 / 2||3 / 44||N/A|
1The Australian Open was held twice in 1977, in January and December.
A = did not participate in the tournament
SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number of those tournaments played
Grand Slam finals
Singles: 7 finals (3 titles, 4 runner-ups)
|Outcome||Year||Championship||Surface||Opponent in the final||Score in the final|
|Runner-up||1966||Australian Championships||Grass||Roy Emerson||4–6, 8–6, 2–6, 3–6|
|Runner-up||1967||Australian Championships||Grass||Roy Emerson||4–6, 1–6, 4–6|
|Winner||1968||US Open||Grass||Tom Okker||14–12, 5–7, 6–3, 3–6, 6–3|
|Winner||1970||Australian Open||Grass||Dick Crealy||6–4, 9–7, 6–2|
|Runner-up||1971||Australian Open||Grass||Ken Rosewall||1–6, 5–7, 3–6|
|Runner-up||1972||US Open||Grass||Ilie Năstase||6–3, 3–6, 7–6(5–1), 4–6, 3–6|
|Winner||1975||Wimbledon||Grass||Jimmy Connors||6–1, 6–1, 5–7, 6–4|
Doubles, 5 finals (2 titles, 3 runner-ups)
|Outcome||Year||Championship||Surface||Partner||Opponents in the final||Score in the final|
|Runner-Up||1968||US Open||Grass||Andrés Gimeno|| Bob Lutz
|11–9, 6–1, 7–5|
|Runner-Up||1970||French Open||Clay||Charlie Pasarell|| Ilie Năstase
|6–2, 6–4, 6–3|
|Winner||1971||French Open||Clay||Marty Riessen|| Tom Gorman
|6–8, 4–6, 6–3, 6–4, 11–9|
|Runner-Up||1971||Wimbledon||Grass||Dennis Ralston|| Roy Emerson
|4–6, 9–7, 6–8, 6–4, 6–4|
|Winner||1977 (Jan)||Australian Open||Grass||Tony Roche|| Charlie Pasarell
Erik Van Dillen
Grand Slam, Grand Prix and WCT Tour titles
|1.||August 1, 1968||U.S. Amateur Championships, Boston, USA||Grass||Robert Lutz||4–6, 6–3, 8–10, 6–0, 6–4|
|2.||August 29, 1968||US Open, New York City, USA||Grass||Tom Okker||14–12, 5–7, 6–3, 3–6, 6–3|
|3.||January 19, 1970||Australian Open, Melbourne, Australia||Grass||Dick Crealy||6–4, 9–7, 6–2|
|4.||September 28, 1970||Berkeley, California||Hard||Cliff Richey||6–4, 6–2, 6–4|
|5.||November 8, 1970||Paris, France||Carpet||Marty Riessen||7–6, 6–4, 6–3|
|6.||April 18, 1971||Charlotte, USA||Hard||Stan Smith||6–3, 6–3|
|7.||November 1, 1971||Stockholm, Sweden||Hard||Jan Kodeš||6–1, 3–6, 6–2, 1–6, 6–4|
|8.||November 8, 1971||Paris, France||Clay||Marty Riessen||7–6, 6–4, 6–3|
|9.||July 29, 1972||Louisville WCT||Clay||Mark Cox||6–4, 6–4|
|10.||September 11, 1972||Montreal WCT||Hard||Roy Emerson||7–5, 4–6, 6–2, 6–3|
|11.||November 18, 1972||Rotterdam WCT||Carpet||Tom Okker||3–6, 6–2, 6–1|
|12.||November 26, 1972||Rome WCT||Carpet||Bob Lutz||6–2, 3–6, 6–3, 3–6, 7–6|
|13.||February 26, 1973||Chicago WCT||Carpet||Roger Taylor||3–6, 7–6(11–9), 7–6(7–2)|
|14.||July 23, 1973||Washington||Clay||Tom Okker||6–4, 6–2|
|15.||February 11, 1974||Bologna WCT||Carpet||Mark Cox||6–4, 7–5|
|16.||March 3, 1974||Barcelona WCT||Carpet||Björn Borg||6–4, 3–6, 6–3|
|17.||November 4, 1974||Stockholm||Hard||Tom Okker||6–2, 6–2|
|18.||February 17, 1975||Barcelona WCT||Carpet||Björn Borg||7–6, 6–3|
|19.||February 24, 1975||Rotterdam WTT||Carpet||Tom Okker||3–6, 6–2, 6–4|
|20.||March 10, 1975||Munich WCT||Carpet||Björn Borg||6–4, 7–6|
|21.||April 21, 1975||Stockholm WCT||Carpet||Tom Okker||6–4, 6-2|
|22.||May 7, 1975||Dallas WCT Finals||Carpet||Björn Borg||3–6, 6–4, 6–4, 6–0|
|23.||June 23, 1975||Wimbledon||Grass||Jimmy Connors||6–1, 6–1, 5–7, 6–4|
|24.||September 15, 1975||Pacific Southwest, Los Angeles||Hard||Roscoe Tanner||3–6, 7–5, 6–3|
|25.||September 22, 1975||San Francisco||Hard||Guillermo Vilas||6–0, 7–6(7–4)|
|26.||January 7, 1976||Columbus WCT||Carpet||Andrew Pattison||3–6, 6–3, 7–6(7–4)|
|27.||January 12, 1976||Indianapolis WCT||Hard||Vitas Gerulaitis||6–2, 6–7, 6–4|
|28.||February 4, 1976||Richmond WCT||Hard||Brian Gottfried||6–2, 6–4|
|29.||February 17, 1976||Rome WCT||Hard||Bob Lutz||6–2, 0–6, 6–3|
|30.||February 23, 1976||Rotterdam WTT||Hard||Bob Lutz||6–3, 6–3|
|31.||April 17, 1978||San Jose||Carpet||Bernard Mitton||6–7, 6–1, 6–2|
|32.||August 7, 1978||Columbus||Clay||Bob Lutz||6–3, 6–4|
|33.||September 18, 1978||Los Angeles||Carpet||Brian Gottfried||6–2, 6–4|
- In 1979, Arthur Ashe was inducted into the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame. In commenting on his induction, the Hall noted that, ”Arthur Ashe was certainly a hero to people of all ages and races, and his legacy continues to touch the lives of many today. For Arthur Ashe, tennis was a means to an end. Although he had a lucrative tennis career, it was always more than personal glory and individual accolades. He used his status as an elite tennis player to speak out against the moral inequalities that existed both in and out of the tennis world. Ashe sincerely wanted to bring about change in the world. What made him stand out was that he became a world champion along the way.”
- In 1982, The Arthur Ashe Athletic Center, a 6,000 seat multi-purpose arena was built in Richmond, Virginia. It hosts local sporting events and concerts.
- In 1985, Ashe was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame.
- In 1986, Ashe won a Sports Emmy for co-writing the documentary "A Hard Road to Glory," co-written with Bryan Polivka.
- On June 20, 1993, Ashe was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton.
- In 1993, Ashe received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.
- In 1996 The city of Richmond posthumously honored Ashe's life with a statue on Monument Avenue, a place traditionally reserved for statues of key figures of the Confederacy. This decision led to some controversy in a city that was the capital of the Confederate States during the American Civil War.
- The main stadium at the USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows Park, where the US Open is played, is named Arthur Ashe Stadium in his honor. This is also the home of the annual Arthur Ashe Kids' Day.
- In 2002, Ashe's achievement at Wimbledon in 1975 was voted 95th in Channel 4's 100 Greatest Sporting Moments.
- In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Arthur Ashe on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.
- In 2005, the United States Postal Service announced the release of an Arthur Ashe commemorative postal stamp, the first stamp ever to feature the cover of a Sports Illustrated magazine.
- Also in 2005, TENNIS Magazine put him in 30th place in their list of the 40 Greatest Players of the TENNIS Era.
- His wife wrote a book, Daddy and Me, a photographic journey told from the perspective of his young daughter. Another book, Arthur Ashe and Me, also gives young readers a chance to learn about his life.
- ESPN's annual sports awards, the ESPY Awards, hands out the Arthur Ashe for Courage Award to a member of the sports world who best exhibits courage in the face of adversity.
- Philadelphia's Arthur Ashe Youth Tennis and Education Center and Richmond's Arthur Ashe Athletic Center are named for Ashe.
- The Arthur Ashe Student Health and Wellness Center at Ashe's alma mater, UCLA, is named for him. The center opened in 1997.
- He was inducted into the Intercollegiate Tennis Association (ITA) Hall of Fame in 1983.
- Wimbledon 1975 Final: Ashe vs. Connors Standing Room Only, DVD Release Date: October 30, 2007, Run Time: 120 minutes, ASIN: B000V02CTQ.
- Arthur Ashe Stadium
- Arthur Ashe Athletic Center
- Arthur Ashe Courage Award
- Arthur Ashe Kids' Day
- Levels of the Game, a 1969 book by John McPhee, exploring the 1968 U.S. Open semifinal match between Clark Graebner and Arthur Ashe
- Ashe, Arthur; Clifford George Gewecke (1967). Advantage Ashe. University of Michigan: Coward-McCann. p. 192. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- Ashe, Arthur; Neil Amdur (1981). Off the court. New American Library. p. 230. ISBN 0-453-00400-8. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- Ashe, Arthur; Rampersad, Arnold (1993). Days of Grace: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-42396-6.
- Ashe, Arthur (1993). A Hard Road to Glory: A History of the African-American Athlete. New York, NY: Amistad. ISBN 1-56743-006-6.
- McPhee, John (1969). Levels of the Game. New York, NY: New York, Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 0-374-51526-3.
- Robinson, Louie (1969). Arthur Ashe: Tennis Champion. Washington Square Press. p. 135. ISBN 0-671-29278-1. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- Deford, Frank; Ashe, Arthur (1975). Arthur Ashe: Portrait in Motion. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-20429-1.
- Weissberg, Ted; Coretta Scott King (1991). Arthur Ashe—tennis great. Demco Media. p. 109. ISBN 0-7910-1115-1. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- Collins, David (1994). Arthur Ashe: against the wind. Dillon Press. p. 128. ISBN 0-87518-647-5. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- Towle, Mike (2001). I Remember Arthur Ashe: Memories of a True Tennis Pioneer and Champion of Social Causes by the People Who Knew Him. Cumberland House Publishing. ISBN 1-58182-149-2.
- Steins, Richard (2005). Arthur Ashe:a biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN 0-313-33299-1.
- Mantell, Paul (2006). Arthur Ashe: Young Tennis Champion. Simon and Schuster. p. 224. ISBN 0-689-87346-8.
- Henderson Jr., Douglas (2010). Endeavor to Persevere: A Memoir on Jimmy Connors, Arthur Ashe, Tennis and Life Kindle Edition. Untreed Reads. ISBN 978-1-61187-039-8.
- "Aurthur Ashe bio at Sports Illustrated". Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- "American Netters Rated 10-1 Favorites", Toledo Blade, 22nd December 1968.
- "Ashe Ranked 1", The Lewiston Daily Sun, December 9, 1975.
- ATP profile of Arthur Ashe 
- Moore, Kenny (1992-12-21). "The Eternal Example". sportsillustrated.cnn.com. p. 2. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Ashe, Arthur; Rampersad, Arnold (1994). Days of Grace. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 58. ISBN 0-345-38681-7.
- Moore, Kenny (1992-12-21). "The Eternal Example". sportsillustrated.cnn.com. p. 3. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "TRAVEL ADVISORY; Black History in St. Louis", The New York Times, May 10, 1992. Accessed December 11, 2007. "Sumner High School, the first school west of the Mississippi for blacks, established in 1875 (among graduates are Grace Bumbry, Arthur Ashe, and Tina Turner)..."
- Arthur Ashe picture
- Steins, Richard (2005). Arthur Ashe: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-313-33299-1.
- Army Register, 1969. Vol. 2. pg. 32.
- Collins, Bud (2010). The Bud Collins History of Tennis (2nd ed.). [New York]: New Chapter Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0942257700.
- "Arthur Robert Ashe, Jr.". TennisFame.com. Retrieved September 9, 2009.[dead link]
- "Ashe signs 5-year professional contract". The Telegraph-Herald. Sep 16, 1970.
- Kramer considered the best ever to have been either Don Budge (for consistent play) or Ellsworth Vines (at the height of his game). The next four best were, chronologically, Bill Tilden, Fred Perry, [[Ronald Thorpe]], and Pancho Gonzales. After these six came the "second echelon" of Rod Laver, Lew Hoad, Ken Rosewall, Gottfried von Cramm, Ted Schroeder, Jack Crawford, Pancho Segura, Frank Sedgman, Tony Trabert, John Newcombe, Arthur Ashe, Stan Smith, Björn Borg, and Jimmy Connors. Kramer felt unable to rank Henri Cochet and René Lacoste accurately but felt they were among the very best.
- "Arthur Ashe Biography". CMG WorldWide. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- Ashe, Jr., Arthur R. (1988-11-13). "Views of Sport; Taking the Hard Road with Black Athletes". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Kupferberg, Herbert (1989-03-12). "Their Hard Road to Glory". Parade. p. 12. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Ashe, Arthur (August 1981). "My Introduction To Sex, Love and Marriage". Ebony (Johnson Publishing Company) 36 (10): 86, 90. ISSN 0012-9011.
- Steins, Richard (2005). Arthur Ashe: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 66. ISBN 0-313-33299-1.
- Rampersad, Arnold; Arthur Ashe (1993). Days of Grace: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 35. ISBN 0-679-42396-6.
- Sankaran, Gopal; Volkwein-Caplan, Karin A. E.; Bonsall, Dale R. (1999). HIV/Aids in Sport: Impact, Issues, and Challenges. Human Kinetics. p. 58. ISBN 0-880-11749-4.
- Finn, Robin (1993-02-08). "Arthur Ashe, Tennis Star, Is Dead at 49". nytimes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Sankaran, Gopal; Volkwein-Caplan, Karin A. E.; Bonsall, Dale R. (1999). HIV/Aids in Sport: Impact, Issues, and Challenges. Human Kinetics. p. 59. ISBN 0-880-11749-4.
- "Friends and Fans Say Farewell to Arthur Ashe". Jet (Johnson Publishing Company) 83 (18): 12–18. 1993-03-01. ISSN 0021-5996.
- Macenka, Joe (1995-02-04). "Richmond still searching for way to honor Ashe". The Free Lance-Star. p. B1. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Goldman, John J. (1993-02-13). "Thousands Pay Tribute to Ashe : Memorial service: Late tennis champion is honored by friends, politicians and others in New York.". latimes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Ashe induction at Virginia Sports Hall of Fame
- "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". senate.gov. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Johnson, Nuala C. (2005). "Locating Memory: Tracing the Trajectories of Remembrance". Historical Geography 33: 165–179. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 400. ISBN 1-57392-963-8. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- "40 Greatest players of the TENNIS Era (29–32)". TENNIS Magazine. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- "ITA Men's Hall of Fame". Intercollegiate Tennis Association. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arthur Ashe.|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur Ashe|
- Official Website
- Arthur Ashe Learning Center (AALC) Website
- Arthur Ashe at the Association of Tennis Professionals
- Arthur Ashe at the International Tennis Hall of Fame
- Sports Illustrated Arthur Ashe tribute website
- Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health
- FBI files—Arthur Ashe is mentioned within six references of records maintained within FBIHQ main files concerning the Black Panther Party, the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, the Revolutionary Union and two newspaper articles.
- Arthur Ashe Youth Tennis and Education Manayunk, PA
- UCLA Arthur Ashe Student Health & Wellness Center
- The short film Arthur Claims the Gold (1975) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- Arthur Ashe at Find a Grave
|Awards and achievements|
|Player of the Year
|BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year