He studied medicine at the University of Vienna, and from 1893 served as an assistant to Salomon Stricker (1834-1898), Philipp Knoll (1841-1900) and Richard Paltauf (1858-1924) at the institute of experimental pathology in Vienna. In 1899 he became an associate professor, followed by a full professorship in 1902.
He is considered a founder of modern endocrinology. In 1910, Biedl published a landmark textbook on endocrinology called Innere Sekretion (Internal Secretions), which was a thorough study on glands and their secretions.
In 1922, he described his studies of two sisters who had retinitis pigmentosa, polydactyly, hypogonadism as well as obesity. Two years earlier Georges Bardet (1885–1970) at the University of Paris described the same symptoms in two sisters unrelated to Biedl's findings. This syndrome is now called the Bardet-Biedl syndrome after the two men.
A similar disease was originally named the "Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome", together with two English physicians, John Zachariah Laurence (1829–1870) and Robert Charles Moon (1845–1914). Today this disease has been shortened to become the Laurence-Moon syndrome, while the Bardet-Biedl syndrome is recognized as a separate entity.
In 1928 he founded the journal Endokrinologie.
- Innere Sekretion : ihre physiologischen Grundlagen und ihre Bedeutung für die Pathologie, 1910. English translation 1912. fourth edition, with an exhaustive bibliography, 1922.
- Physiologie und Pathologie der Hypophyse. Berlin, 1922.
- Ein Geschwisterpaar mit adiposo-genitaler Dystrophie. in: Deutsche medicinische Wochenschrift, Berlin, 1922, 48: 1630.
- Arthur Biedl @ Who Named It
- Biedl, Bardet, Laurence & Moon; Research on retinitis pigmentosa
-  A history of farm animal embryo transfer and some associated techniques by Keith J. Betteridge
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