Arthur Caplan

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Arthur Caplan
Arthur Caplan (2667975697).jpg
Arthur Caplan
Born 1950
Boston, Massachusetts
Nationality U.S.A.
Fields Bioethics
Institutions NYU Langone Medical Center Division of Medical Ethics, University of Pennsylvania, University of Minnesota, The Hastings Center
Alma mater Brandeis University, Columbia University
Doctoral advisor Ernest Nagel and Sidney Morgenbesser
Spouses Jane Caplan, Meg B. Caplan
Website
http://pophealth.med.nyu.edu/divisions/medical-ethics
External video
PLoSBiol3.5.Fig7ChromosomesAluFish.jpg
“The Ethics of Genetically Engineering Children”, Arthur Caplan, December 2, 2008
”Dying in a Democracy”, Arthur Caplan, March 2013
”Organ Harvest in China and Killing on Demand ”, Arthur Caplan, April 3, 2012

Arthur L. Caplan, Ph.D. (1950- ), is the Drs. William F. and Virginia Connolly Mitty Professor of Bioethics at New York University's Langone Medical Center.[1] He is the founding director of NYULMC's Division of Medical Ethics.[2] According to Google Scholar, his published books and articles have resulted in an H-index of 47 and an I10-index of 87, since 2009.

Caplan has made many contributions to public policy including: helping to found the National Marrow Donor Program;[3][4] creating the policy of required request in cadaver organ donation adopted throughout the United States; helping to create the system for distributing organs in the U.S.; and advising on the content of the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, rules governing living organ donation, and legislation and regulation in many other areas of health care including blood safety and compassionate use.[3][5]

Caplan secured the first apology for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, from Lewis Sullivan, M.D., then secretary of HHS, in 1991.[6][7] He worked with William Seidelman, M.D., and others to secure in 2012 an apology from the German Medical Association for the role of German physicians in Nazi prison experiments during the Holocaust.[8]

Early life and education[edit]

Born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1950[9] to Sidney D. and Natalie Caplan, Arthur Caplan grew up in Framingham, Mass.[10] He has described his Conservative Jewish family as "Workmen's Circle, Zionist, and secular." He credits his background of Judaism with stimulating his interest in methods of inquiry and argument.[5] At age six, Caplan was diagnosed with polio. He was successfully treated at Children's Hospital in Boston and went on to play football at Framingham North High School.[10] Caplan has stated that this life-threatening illness was a formative experience that influenced his later commitment to philosophy and bioethics.[5]

Caplan did his undergraduate work at Brandeis University, where he majored in philosophy.[11] There he met his future wife Jane. They married in 1971, and their son, Zachary, was born in 1984.[10] Caplan’s second wife, Meg Brennan Caplan, is the director of the Veterans Administration's Hudson Valley Health Care System.

Caplan did his graduate work at Columbia University, receiving an M.A. in 1973, an M.Phil. in 1975, and a Ph.D. in the history and philosophy of science in 1979.[11][12] His dissertation, Philosophical Issues Concerning the Synthetic Theory of Evolution, was co-supervised by Ernest Nagel and Sidney Morgenbesser. Caplan worked with Nagel as a teaching assistant and was the final graduate student of Nagel's career. During his time at Columbia, Caplan met psychoanalyst Bernard Schoenberg and participated as both an observer and a medical student in clinical rotations in the university's medical college, experiencing "ethics in action."[5]

Career[edit]

In 1977, Caplan met Daniel Callahan, a philosopher who co-founded The Hastings Center in Garrison, New York, in 1969 with psychiatrist Willard Gaylin. In 1977, Caplan joined The Hastings Center, first as a junior research assistant and then as a post-doctoral fellow. He spent the next 10 years at the center, serving as the associate director from 1985 to 1987. During this time he and others shaped the emerging discipline of bioethics. He published extensively on genetics (including the ethics of genetic testing and screening), evolution, sociobiology, and the teaching of ethics. He also became increasingly interested in the ethics of human and animal experimentation and new medical technologies. He began to take on the role of a public intellectual, applying philosophy in public discourse and speaking out on public policy issues.[5]

In 1987, Caplan moved to the University of Minnesota, where he became a professor in the Departments of Philosophy and Surgery and director of the Center for Biomedical Ethics. In 1989, he organized the Center for Bioethics Conference on Medical Ethics and the Holocaust, the first conference convened to discuss bioethics and the Holocaust. During his time at Minnesota he was particularly active on issues relating to organ transplantation and genetics, and worked with Rosalie A. Kane on dilemmas of "everyday ethics" involving treatment of the sick and the elderly. He also wrote about bioethics in relation to the Holocaust. In 1992, he joined the Medical Advisory Council of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, one of many institutions that sought his involvement.[5]

In May 1994, Caplan went to the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. He founded the Center for Bioethics and the Department of Medical Ethics and had professorial appointments in a variety of departments including Medicine and Philosophy.[5] In the mid-199s, he and colleagues conducted the first empirical studies on organ donor eligibility and donation rates. In 2009, medical ethicist Janet Haas, a steadfast supporter of the university, established the Sidney D. Caplan Professor of Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine, named for Caplan's father. Arthur Caplan became the first holder of the professorship.[13]

While at Penn, he became the first bioethicist to be sued for his professional role, after his involvement in a gene therapy trial that resulted in the death of research subject Jesse Gelsinger. The suit was subsequently dismissed as without merit.[14][15][16][17]

In 2009, Caplan helped develop the first flu vaccine mandate at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and, later, New York state's policy to require health care workers to "vaccinate or mask." Also in 2009, he called for tightening restrictions on fertility clinics and IVF and has written extensively on embryonic stem cell research.

In 2012, Caplan came to New York University, Langone Medical Center as the Drs. William F. and Virginia Connolly Mitty Professor of Bioethics and the founding director of the Division of Bioethics.[1]

In May 2015, Caplan launched, with pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson, a pilot project for the equitable distribution of experimental drugs outside clinical trials. He created the Compassionate Use Advisory Committee (CompAC), a panel of bioethicists, physicians, and patient advocated, to respond to appeals from terminally ill patients for a cancer drug in development by J&J. It is believed to be the first of its kind in the pharmaceuticals industry.[3][18][19]

Recent efforts include spearheading a movement to relax restrictions on blood donations by gay men and urging postponement of the Rio Summer Olympic Games because of the Zika virus threat.

Caplan has been criticized by some classical philosophers for his "hands-on philosophy"[20] and by some colleagues for his enthusiastic engagement with the media.[10][16] In response he has said: "To me, the whole point of doing ethics is to change people, to change behavior. Why else do it?"[20]

Academic work[edit]

Caplan is the author or editor of more than 30 books and 600+ papers in peer-reviewed journals of medicine, science, philosophy, bioethics, and health policy.[21]

He is a regular contributor to WebMD's Medscape and a regular commentator on WGBH (FM) radio in Boston and WMNF radio in Tampa. He is a frequent guest and commentator on various other media outlets, discussing public health issues like obesity,[22] Ebola virus disease,[23] Zika virus,[24] and vaccination.[25]

He has been co-director of the Joint Council of Europe/United Nations Study on Trafficking in Organs and Body Parts[26] He was the co-director of a United Nations/Council of Europe Study on organ trafficking, and has called for a new international convention on criminal organ trafficking.[27][28] He has spoken out on international issues such as organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners in China.[29] He has described the documentary film Hard to Believe, about Chinese organ harvesting, as "an important, timely, and deeply disturbing account of one of the great human rights abuses of our time."[30]

Internationally, he was the chair of the Advisory Committee to the United Nations on Human Cloning[31][32] and served on the special advisory committee to the International Olympic Committee on genetics and gene therapy.[33]

Caplan has served on a number of national committees, including as chair of the National Cancer Institute Biobanking Ethics Working Group,[34] and chair of the Advisory Committee to the Department of Health and Human Services on Blood Safety and Availability.[35] He was a member of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Illnesses[20][36] and the special advisory panel to the National Institute of Mental Health on human experimentation on vulnerable subjects.[37] He is an adviser to DARPA on synthetic biology[38] and has addressed the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues.[39] He has also served on the ethics committee of the American Society of Gene Therapy.[40]

Caplan has consulted with many corporations, not-for-profit organizations and consumer organizations. He is on the boards of trustees of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies[41] and the the Keystone Center, which attempts to engage diverse stakeholders in discussion and problem-solving to develop practical solutions to current problems.[42] He also sat on the board of the National Center for Policy Research on Women & Families,[43] the Franklin Institute,[44] the Iron Disorders Foundation,[45] and the National Disease Research Interchange.[46] He chaired the advisory committee on bioethics at Glaxo from 2005 to 2008.[47]

Awards and honors[edit]

Caplan has been elected as a fellow of The Hastings Center (1990),[48] the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1994),[5] the College of Physicians of Philadelphia (1994),[5] the New York Academy of Medicine (1997),[49] and an honorary fellow of the American College of Legal Medicine (2008).[50]

Caplan was named a person of the Year in 2001 by USA Today.[51] In December 2008, Discover magazine named him one of the 10 most influential people in science, for ”translating philosophical debates into understandable ideas” and “democratizing bioethics.”[52] He is one of the 10 most influential people in America in biotechnology, according to the National Journal; one of the 10 most influential people in the ethics of biotechnology, according to Nature Biotechnology; one of the 50 most influential people in American health care, according to Modern Health Care magazine; and one of the 100 most influential people in biotechnology," according to Scientific American magazine.[53]

Caplan holds seven honorary degrees from colleges and medical schools.[54] He received the McGovern Medal of the American Medical Writers Association in 1999,[55] the John P. McGovern Award Lectureship from the Medical Library Association in 2007,[56] and the Patricia Price Browne Prize in Biomedical Ethics in 2011.[57] In 2014 he was given the public service award of the National Science Board/National Science Foundation.[58] In May 2016, he received the Rare Impact Award from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD),[59] and the American Society for Bioethics & Humanities (ASBH) selected Caplan to receive its 2016 Lifetime Achievement Award.

Bibliography[edit]

Selected Books[edit]

  • Caplan, Arthur L.; McCartney, James J.; Reid, Daniel P., eds. (2015). Replacement parts : the ethics of procuring and replacing organs in humans. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 9781626162365. 
  • Sisti, Dominic A.; Caplan, Arthur L., eds. (2013). Applied ethics in mental health care : an interdisciplinary reader. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262019682. 
  • Caplan, Arthur L.; Arp, Robert, eds. (2013). Contemporary debates in bioethics. [S.l.]: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781444337136. 
  • Ravitsky, Vardit; Fiester, Autumn; Caplan, Arthur L., eds. (2009). The Penn Center guide to bioethics. New York: Springer Pub. ISBN 9780826115225. 
  • Caplan, Arthur L. (2007). Smart mice, not-so-smart people : an interesting and amusing guide to bioethics. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 9780742541719. 
  • Caplan, Arthur L., ed. (2006). The case of Terri Schiavo: ethics at the end of life. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 9781591023982. 
  • Caplan, Arthur L., ed. (2004). Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ. Press. ISBN 1589010140. 
  • Magnus, David; Caplan, Arthur; McGee, Glenn, eds. (2002). Who Owns Life?. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-986-7. 
  • Snyder, Lois; Caplan, Arthur L., eds. (2002). Assisted Suicide: Finding Common Ground. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press. ISBN 0253339774. 
  • Bartels, Dianne M.; LeRoy, Bonnie S.; Caplan, Arthur L., eds. (1993). Prescribing Our Future: Ethical Challenges in Genetic Counseling. New York: A. de Gruyter. ISBN 0202304523. 
  • Caplan, Arthur L., ed. (1992). When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. ISBN 0896032353. 

Selected Articles (2011–present)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Arthur Caplan, PhD". New York University Langone Medical Center. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  2. ^ "Medical Ethics". New York University Langone Medical Center. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c Fisher, Lawrence M. (August 31, 2015). "The Ethics of Compassionate Care". Briefings Magazine (The Korn Ferry Institute). Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  4. ^ "Leading Transplant and Transfusion Organizations Join Forces in Effort to Keep Bone Marrow Donation Voluntary". Business Wire. March 22, 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fox, Renee C. (2000). "Honoring Arthur L . Caplan". Journal of Contemporary Health Law & Policy 16 (1). Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  6. ^ Rees, Robert (September 22, 1991). "Lessons Learned From Tuskegee". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  7. ^ Caplan, Arthur (June 15, 1991). "Researchers let syphilis ravage men". The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  8. ^ Caplan, Arthur (May 24, 2012). "German doctors apologize for Holocaust horrors". NBC News. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  9. ^ "14 February 2002 Ad Hoc Committee on an International convention against the reproductive cloning of human being" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  10. ^ a b c d Carlin, Peter Ames (November 3, 1997). "Art Caplan : When Doctors Need An Ethics Check, the Bioethicist Is in". People 48 (18). Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Caplan, Arthur (12 February 2014). "It Is Hard to Get There without a Guide". Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (02): 118–123. doi:10.1017/S0963180113000649. 
  12. ^ "Speaker Biographies" (PDF). Columbia University 8th Annual IRB Educational Conference. Retrieved May 12, 2014. 
  13. ^ "$10.5 Million Gift from the Haas Family for Penn Medicine, Morris Arboretum". University of Pennsylvania Almanac 55 (34). May 26, 2009. 
  14. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (November 28, 1999). "The Biotech Death of Jesse Gelsinger". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  15. ^ "Gelsinger wrongful death lawsuit names bioethicist Caplan". Genetic Crossroads. October 16, 2000. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  16. ^ a b Meier, Barry; Thomas, Katie (May 7, 2015). "Eager to Opine on the Toughest Calls in Medical Ethics". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  17. ^ Wilson, Robin Fretwell (2010). "The Death of Jesse Gelsinger: New Evidence of the Influence of Money and Prestige in Human Research". American Journal of Law & Medicine 36 (295). Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  18. ^ Thomas, Katie (May 7, 2015). "Company Creates Bioethics Panel on Trial Drugs". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 June 2016. 
  19. ^ "Arthur Caplan". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 15 (4): 226–227. 1 April 2016. doi:10.1038/nrd.2016.61. 
  20. ^ a b c Dreifus, Claudia (1999). "Arthur Caplan". Interview (A Seven Stories Press 1st ed.). New York: Seven Stories Press. pp. 55–71. ISBN 978-1888363906. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  21. ^ "The Brandeis Questionnaire Arthur Caplan '71". Brandeis Magazine. Summer. 2015. 
  22. ^ Roseliep, Will (July 22, 2015). "Ask The Ethicist: School Kids, Stand Up!". WGBH News. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  23. ^ Caplan, Arthur (August 4, 2014). "Bioethicist: Why Americans Should Really Worry About Ebola". NBC News. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  24. ^ Mohney, Gillian (May 27, 2016). "Zika Fears Prompt 150 Public Health Experts to Call for Olympics to Be Moved From Rio". ABC News. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  25. ^ Caplan, Arthur L. (February 6, 2015). "Revoke the license of any doctor who opposes vaccination". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  26. ^ En, Tang (December 10, 2012). "White House Website Petition Calls for Investigation into Organ Harvesting". Falun Dafa Minghui. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  27. ^ "International pact needed to prevent organ trafficking, UN-backed study says". UN News Centre. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  28. ^ "Press Conference on Joint United Nations-Council of Europe Report on Trafficking in Organs, Tissues and Cells". United Nations Meetings Coverage and Press Releases. United Nations. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  29. ^ Strochlic, Nina (September 29, 2015). "Does China Harvest Organs From Living Prisoners?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  30. ^ "Hard to Believe: The Film". Hard to Believe. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  31. ^ "Ad Hoc Committee on an International Convention against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings". United Nations. 2002. 
  32. ^ Check, Erika (7 March 2002). "Call for cloning ban splits UN". Nature 416 (6876): 3–3. doi:10.1038/416003b. 
  33. ^ "Arthur Caplan". NYU Sports & Society Program. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  34. ^ "Chair National Cancer Institute Biobanking Ethics Working Group". Center for Health Journalism. USC Annenberg. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  35. ^ "Blood Safety Summary - January 1998". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. February 17, 1998. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  36. ^ "Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Illnesses". Center for Health Journalism. USC Annenberg. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  37. ^ Caplan, A. (9 October 2012). "Enhancing Patient Autonomy Through Peer Review To Replace The FDA's Rigorous Approval Process". Health Affairs 31 (10): 2236–2240. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0793. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  38. ^ Taylor, Glyn (May 4, 2014). "DARPA Developing Brain Implants Capable of Restoring Memories". That's Really Possible. 
  39. ^ "Testimony of Arthur L. Caplan to the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues" (PDF). Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. September 13, 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  40. ^ "Committee Meetings and Committee Roster". American Society of Gene Therapy. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  41. ^ "Who We Are". Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  42. ^ "The Keystone Center: Evolve" (PDF). The Keystone Center. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  43. ^ "Appointments". The Washington Post (F19). January 31, 2000. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  44. ^ "The Franklin Institute 2010 Annual Report" (PDF). The Franklin Institute. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  45. ^ "Iron Disorders Foundation". Center for Health Journalism. USC Annenberg. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  46. ^ "NDRI turns 25" (PDF). NDRI Research Brief. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  47. ^ Thomas, Katie (July 22, 2013). "Drug Research in China Falls Under a Cloud". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  48. ^ "The Hastings Center Fellows". The Hastings Center. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  49. ^ "Directory of Fellows and Members" (PDF). New York Academy of Medicine. February 22, 2016. 
  50. ^ "Honorary Fellows Since 2000" (PDF). American College of Legal Medicine. p. 21. 
  51. ^ Ravitsky, Vardit; Fiester, Autumn; Caplan, Arthur L., eds. (2009). The Penn Center guide to bioethics. New York: Springer Pub. ISBN 978-0826115225. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  52. ^ Kruglinski, Susan; Long, Marion (November 26, 2008). "The 10 Most Influential People in Science". Discover. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  53. ^ "Distinguished Speakers Series". Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  54. ^ "Arthur Caplan, PhD". NYU Langone Medical Center. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  55. ^ "McGovern Award: Arthur L. Caplan". AMWA Journal 14 (1): 10. 1999. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  56. ^ "John P. McGovern Award Lectureship". Medical Library Association. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  57. ^ "Patricia Price Browne Prize in Biomedical Ethics" (PDF). University of Oklahoma College of Medicine. 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  58. ^ "Press Release 14-042 Bioethicist Arthur Caplan receives 2014 Public Service Award for an individual". National Science Board. March 24, 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  59. ^ "Rare Impact Awards". NORD. Retrieved 2 June 2016.