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Arthur Jensen

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Arthur Jensen
Arthur Jensen, 2002 at ISIR
Arthur Robert Jensen

(1923-08-24)August 24, 1923
DiedOctober 22, 2012(2012-10-22) (aged 89)
Kelseyville, California, U.S.
Alma materUniversity of California, Berkeley (BA)
San Diego State University (MA)
Columbia University (PhD)
Known forHeritability of IQ, race and intelligence, g factor
SpouseBarbara Jensen
AwardsKistler Prize (2003), ISIR Lifetime Achievement Award (2006)
Scientific career
FieldsEducational psychology, intelligence, cognition, behavior genetics
InstitutionsUniversity of California, Berkeley, Editorial boards of Intelligence and Personality and Individual Differences
Thesis Aggression in Fantasy and Overt Behavior  (1956)
Doctoral advisorPercival Symonds

Arthur Robert Jensen (August 24, 1923 – October 22, 2012) was an American psychologist and writer. He was a professor of educational psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.[1][2] Jensen was known for his work in psychometrics and differential psychology, the study of how and why individuals differ behaviorally from one another.

He was a major proponent of the hereditarian position in the nature and nurture debate, the position that genetics play a significant role in behavioral traits, such as intelligence and personality. He was the author of over 400 scientific papers published in refereed journals[3] and sat on the editorial boards of the scientific journals Intelligence and Personality and Individual Differences.[4]

Jensen was controversial,[5] largely for his conclusions regarding the causes of race-based differences in IQ.[6]

Early life and education[edit]

Jensen was born August 24, 1923, in San Diego, California, the son of Linda Mary (née Schachtmayer) and Arthur Alfred Jensen, who operated and owned a lumber and building materials company.[7] His paternal grandparents were Danish immigrants and his mother was of half-Polish Jewish and half-German descent.[8]

As a child, Jensen was interested in herpetology and classical music, playing clarinet in the San Diego Symphony orchestra.[9]

Jensen received a B.A. in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1945 and went on to obtain his M.A. in psychology in 1952 from San Diego State College. He earned his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Columbia University in 1956 under the supervision of Percival Symonds on the thematic apperception test.[10] From 1956 through 1958, he did postdoctoral research at the University of London, Institute of Psychiatry with Hans Eysenck.

Upon returning to the United States, he became a researcher and professor at the University of California, Berkeley, where he focused on individual differences in learning, especially the influences of culture, development, and genetics on intelligence and learning. He received tenure at Berkeley in 1962. He concentrated on the learning difficulties of culturally disadvantaged students.

Jensen had a lifelong interest in classical music and was, early in his life, attracted by the idea of becoming a conductor himself. At 14, he conducted a band that won a nationwide contest held in San Francisco. Later, he conducted orchestras and attended a seminar given by Nikolai Sokoloff. Soon after graduating from Berkeley, he moved to New York, mainly to be near the conductor Arturo Toscanini. He was also deeply interested in the life and example of Gandhi, producing an unpublished book-length manuscript on his life. During Jensen's period in San Diego he spent time working as a social worker with the San Diego Department of Public Welfare.

IQ and academic achievement[edit]

Jensen's interest in learning differences directed him to the extensive testing of school children. The results led him to distinguish between two separate types of learning ability. Level I, or associative learning, may be defined as retention of input and rote memorization of simple facts and skills. Level II, or conceptual learning, is roughly equivalent to the ability to manipulate and transform inputs, that is, the ability to solve problems.

Later, Jensen was an important advocate in the mainstream acceptance of the general factor of intelligence, a concept which was essentially synonymous with his Level II conceptual learning. The general factor, or g, is an abstraction that stems from the observation that scores on all forms of cognitive tests correlate positively with one another.

Jensen claimed, on the basis of his research, that general cognitive ability is essentially an inherited trait, determined predominantly by genetic factors rather than by environmental conditions. He also contended that while associative learning, or memorizing ability, is equally distributed among the races, conceptual learning, or synthesizing ability, occurs with significantly greater frequency in some races than in others.

Jensen's most controversial work, published in February 1969 in the Harvard Educational Review, was titled "How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement?" It concluded, among other things, that Head Start programs designed to boost African-American IQ scores had failed, and that this was likely never to be remedied, largely because, in Jensen's estimation, 80% of the variance in IQ in the population studied was the result of genetic factors and the remainder was due to environmental influences.[11]

The work became one of the most cited papers in the history of psychological testing and intelligence research, although a large number of citations consisted of rebuttals of Jensen's work, or references to it as an example of a controversial paper.[12]

After the paper was released, large protests were held, demanding that Jensen be fired. Jensen's car tires were slashed, the university police provided him with plain-clothes bodyguards, and he and his family received threats that were considered so realistic by the police that they temporarily left their house. Jensen was spat on and was prevented from delivering lectures by disruptive protests. The editorial board of the Harvard Educational Review for a time refused to let him have reprints of his article, and said that they had not solicited the section on racial differences; Jensen later provided correspondence in which the board had requested he do so.[13][14][15]

In a later article, Jensen argued that his claims had been misunderstood:

...nowhere have I "claimed" an "innate deficiency" of intelligence in blacks. My position on this question is clearly spelled out in my most recent book: "The plain fact is that at present there exists no scientifically satisfactory explanation for the differences between the IQ distributions in the black and white populations. The only genuine consensus among well-informed scientists on this topic is that the cause of the difference remains an open question." (Jensen, 1981a, p. 213).

Jensen was among the most frequent contributors to the German journal Neue Anthropologie, a publication founded by the neo-Nazi Jürgen Rieger, and served alongside Rieger on this journal's editorial board.[16][17][18]

In 1994 he was one of 52 signatories on "Mainstream Science on Intelligence,"[19] an essay written by Linda Gottfredson and published in The Wall Street Journal, which declared the consensus of the signing scholars on the meaning and significance of IQ following the publication of the book The Bell Curve. Jensen received $1.1 million from the Pioneer Fund,[20][21] an organization frequently described as racist and white supremacist in nature.[22][23][24][25] The fund contributed a total of $3.5 million to researchers cited in The Bell Curve's most controversial chapter "that suggests some races are naturally smarter than others" with Jensen's works being cited twenty-three times in the book's bibliography.[26]


He died on October 22, 2012, at his home in Kelseyville, California, at age 89.[1]



Paul E. Meehl of the University of Minnesota, after being honored by the APA, wrote that Jensen's "contributions, in both quality and quantity, certainly excelled mine" and that he was "embarrassed" and "distress[ed]" that APA refused to honor Jensen because of his ideology.[27]

Sandra Scarr of Yale University wrote that Jensen possessed an "uncompromising personal integrity" and set the standard for "honest psychological science". She contrasted him and his work favorably to some of his critics, who she called "politically driven liars, who distort scientific facts in a misguided and condescending effort to protect an impossible myth about human equality".[13]

Steven J. Haggbloom, writing for Review of General Psychology in 2002, rated Jensen as one of the 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century, based on six different metrics chosen by Haggbloom.[28]

Francis Crick considered that there was "much substance to Jensen's arguments."[29]

In 1980 Jensen published a book in defense of the tests used to measure mental abilities, titled Bias in Mental Testing. Reviewing this book, psychologist Kenneth Kaye endorsed Jensen's distinction between bias and discrimination, saying that he found many of Jensen's opponents to be more politically biased than Jensen was.[30]

Although a critic of Jensen's thesis,[31] economist Thomas Sowell, criticizing the taboo against research on race and intelligence, wrote:

Professor Jensen pointed out back in 1969 that black children's IQ scores rose by 8 to 10 points after he met with them informally in a play room and then tested them again after they were more relaxed around him. He did this because "I felt these children were really brighter than their IQ would indicate." What a shame that others seem to have less confidence in black children than Professor Jensen has had.[32]


Melvin Konner of Emory University, wrote:

Statements made by Arthur Jensen, William Shockley, and other investigators in the late 1960s and early 1970s about race and IQ or social class and IQ rapidly passed into currency in policy discussions. Many of these statements were proved wrong, but they had already influenced some policymakers, and that influence is very difficult to recant.

Lisa Suzuki and Joshua Aronson of New York University wrote that Jensen had largely ignored evidence which failed to support his position that IQ test score gaps represent genetic racial differences.[33]

Paleontologist and evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould criticized Jensen's work in his 1981 book The Mismeasure of Man. Gould writes that Jensen misapplies the concept of "heritability", which is defined as a measure of the variation of a trait due to inheritance within a population (Gould 1981: 127; 156–157). According to Gould, Jensen uses heritability to measure differences between populations.[citation needed] Gould also disagrees with Jensen's belief that IQ tests measure a real variable, g, or "the general factor common to a large number of cognitive abilities" which can be measured along a unilinear scale. This is a claim most closely identified with Charles Spearman. According to Gould, Jensen misunderstood the research of L. L. Thurstone to ultimately support this claim; Gould, however, argues that Thurstone's factor analysis of intelligence revealed g to be an illusion (1981: 159; 13-314). Gould criticizes Jensen's sources including his use of Catharine Cox's 1926 Genetic Studies of Genius, which examines historiometrically the IQs of historic intellectuals after their deaths (Gould 1981: 153–154).

Neutral responses[edit]

According to David Lubinski of Vanderbilt University, the "extent to which [Jensen's] work was either admired or reviled by many distinguished scientists is unparalleled."[34]

After Jensen's death, James Flynn of the University of Otago, a prominent advocate of the environmental position, told The New York Times that Jensen was without racial bias and had not initially foreseen that his research would be used to argue for racial supremacy and that his career was "emblematic of the extent to which American scholarship is inhibited by political orthodoxy", though he noted that Jensen shifted towards genetic explanations later in life.[1]


Bias in Mental Testing[edit]

Bias in Mental Testing (1980) is a book examining the question of test bias in commonly used standardized tests. The book runs almost 800 pages and has been called "exhaustive" by three researchers who reviewed the field 19 years after the book's publication.[35] It reviewed in detail the available evidence about test bias across major US racial/ethnic groups. Jensen concluded that "the currently most widely used standardized tests of mental ability -- IQ, scholastic aptitude, and achievement tests -- are, by and large, not biased against any of the native-born English-speaking minority groups on which the amount of research evidence is sufficient for an objective determination of bias, if the tests were in fact biased. For most nonverbal standardized tests, this generalization is not limited to English-speaking minorities." (p. ix). Jensen also published a summary of the book the same year which was a target article in the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences to which 27 commentaries were printed along with the author's reply.[36]

Straight Talk about Mental Tests[edit]

Straight Talk about Mental Tests (1981) is a book written about psychometrics for the general public. John B. Carroll reviewed it favorably in 1982, saying it was a useful summary of the issues,[37] as did Paul Cline writing for the British Journal of Psychiatry.[38] In 2016, Richard J. Haier called it "a clear examination of all issues surrounding mental testing".[39]

The g Factor[edit]

The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability (1998) is a book on the general intelligence factor (g). The book deals with the intellectual history of g and various models of how to conceptualize intelligence, and with the biological correlates of g, its heritability, and its practical predictive power.

Clocking the Mind[edit]

Clocking the Mind: Mental Chronometry and Individual Differences (2006) deals with mental chronometry (MC), and covers the speed with which the brain processes information and different ways this is measured. Jensen argues mental chronometry represents a true natural science of mental ability, which is in contrast to IQ, which merely represents an interval (ranking) scale and thus possesses no true ratio scale properties.

Joseph Glicksohn wrote in a 2007 review for Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology that "The book should be perused with care in order to ensure the further profitable use of [reaction time] in both experimental and differential lines of research."[40]

Douglas Detterman reviewed it in 2008 for Intelligence, writing that "the book would make a good introduction to the field of the measurement of individual differences in cognitive tasks for beginning graduate students."[41] Eric-Jan Wagenmakers and Han van der Mass, also writing for Intelligence in 2018, faulted the book for omitting the work by mathematical psychologists, advocating standardization of chronometric methods (which the authors consider problematic because it can hide method variance), and because it does not discuss topics such as the mutualism model of the g-factor and the Flynn effect. They describe the book's breadth as useful, despite its simplistic approach.[42] Jensen was on the editorial board of Intelligence when these reviews were published.


In 2003, Jensen was awarded the Kistler Prize for original contributions to the understanding of the connection between the human genome and human society. In 2006, the International Society for Intelligence Research awarded Jensen its Lifetime Achievement Award.[43]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Fox, Margalit (November 1, 2012). "Arthur R. Jensen Dies at 89; Set Off Debate About I.Q." The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022. Retrieved November 2, 2012. Arthur R. Jensen, an educational psychologist who ignited an international firestorm with a 1969 article suggesting that the gap in intelligence-test scores between black and white students might be rooted in genetic differences between the races, died on Oct. 22 at his home in Kelseyville, Calif. He was 89. ...
  2. ^ "Arthur Jensen" (PDF). Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 1, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
  3. ^ "Collected works". Arthurjensen.net. June 20, 2014. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
  4. ^ Intelligence[1] and Personality and Individual Differences[2] Archived 2002-10-28 at the Wayback Machine publisher's pages.
  5. ^ Feldman, Marcus W.; Ramachandran, Sohini (February 12, 2018). "Missing compared to what? Revisiting heritability, genes and culture". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 373 (1743): 20170064. doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0064. PMC 5812976. PMID 29440529.
  6. ^ Panofsky, Aaron (2014). Misbehaving Science. Controversy and the Development of Behavior Genetics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-05831-3.
  7. ^ Current biography yearbook. H.W. Wilson Company. 1974. ISBN 9780824205430. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  8. ^ Jensen, Arthur Robert; Miele, Frank (2002). Intelligence, race, and genetics: conversations with Arthur R. Jensen (illustrated ed.). Westview Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-8133-4008-1.
  9. ^ Forsythe, Alex (May 28, 2019). Key Thinkers in Individual Difference. Oxon: Routledge. pp. 143–150. ISBN 978-1-138-49415-2.
  10. ^ "Biography of Arthur R. Jensen". OhioLINK Finding Aid Repository. Ohio EAD Task Force. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  11. ^ "High Impact Science and the Case of Arthur Jensen" (PDF). October 9, 1978. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
  12. ^ Johnson, Wendy (2012). "How Much Can We Boost IQ? An Updated Look at Jensen's (1969) Question and Answer". In Slater, Alan M.; Quinn, Paul C. (eds.). Developmental Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. Thousand Oaks (CA): SAGE. pp. 118–131, 123. ISBN 978-0-85702-757-3. The article itself became one of the most highly cited in the history of psychology, but many of the citations were rebuttals of Jensen's arguments or used the paper as an example of controversy.
  13. ^ a b Scarr, Sandra (1998). "On Arthur Jensen's integrity". Intelligence. 26 (3): 227–232. doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(99)80005-1.
  14. ^ Nyborg, Helmuth (2003). The Scientific Study of General Intelligence: Tribute to Arthur Jensen. Elsevier. pp. 458–9. ISBN 9780080516660.
  15. ^ New Scientist. Reed Business Information. 1972. p. 96.
  16. ^ Banghard, Karl (2015). "Die DGUF-Gründung 1969 als Reaktion auf den extrem rechten Kulturkampf". Archäologische Informationen. Archäologische Informationen (38). Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ur- und Frühgeschichte: 433–452. doi:10.11588/ai.2015.1.26207.
  17. ^ "Arthur Jensen". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  18. ^ Tucker, William H. (1996). The Science and Politics of Racial Research. University of Illinois Press. pp. 262–263. ISBN 9780252065606.
  19. ^ Gottfredson, Linda (December 13, 1994). Mainstream Science on Intelligence. The Wall Street Journal, p A18.
  20. ^ Adam, Miller (1994) [Winter 1994–1995]. "The Pioneer Fund: Bankrolling the Professors of Hate". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (6): 58–61. doi:10.2307/2962466. JSTOR 2962466. A 1969 article by University of California at Berkeley educational psychology professor Arthur Jensen, who has received more than $1 million in Pioneer funds, argued that black students' poor academic performance was due to irreversible genetic deficiencies, so programs like Head Start were useless and should be replaced by vocational education.
  21. ^ Blakemore, Bill; Jennings, Peter; Nissen, Beth (November 22, 1994). "The Bell Curve and the Pioneer Fund". ABC World News Tonight. ABC News. Retrieved June 6, 2012. Psychologist Arthur Jensen received $1.1 million from the Pioneer Fund. Twenty five years ago, he started writing that blacks may be genetically less intelligent than whites. Vanderbilt Television News Archive : ABC Evening News for Tuesday, Nov 22, 1994. Headline: American Agenda (Intelligence)
  22. ^ Falk, Avner (2008). Anti-semitism : a history and psychoanalysis of contemporary hatred. Westport, Conn: Praeger. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9780313353840. Since his death in 1972, Draper and the Pioneer Fund have been criticized for funding "race and intelligence research," which is a euphemism for "scientific" racism (Kenny 2002, Tucker 2002). Draper has become even more controversial since the publication of The Bell Curve (Herrnstein & Murray 1994), which purported to prove that white people's intelligence was superior to black people's intelligence, because the Pioneer Fund supported the controversial research in the book (Fraser 1995; Jacoby & Glauberman 1995; Baum 2004).
  23. ^ Tucker, William (2002). The funding of scientific racism : Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 9780252027628. Leon Kamim, professor of psychology at Northeastern University and a well-known critic of hereditarian studies, observed that Herrnstein and Murray, in their discussion of race and IQ, had turned for assistance to Richard Lynn, whom they described as "a leading scholar of racial and ethnic differences," "I will not mince words," wrote Kamin, calling it a "shame and disgrace that two eminent social scientists ... take as their scientific tutor Richard Lynn ... an associate editor of the vulgarly racist journal Mankind Quarterly ... [and] a major recipient of support from the nativist and eugenically oriented Pioneer Fund.
  24. ^ Wroe, Andrew (2008). The Republican party and immigration politics : from Proposition 187 to George W. Bush. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 80–81. ISBN 9780230600539. According to Taxpayers the Pioneer Fund in its first charter had called for the encouragement of the "reproduction of individuals descended predominantly from white persons who settled in the original 13 states or from related stock." Taxpayers also claimed that the fund supported racist research, including that of notorious scientist William B. Shockley. In a press release, "taxpayers described the Pioneer Fund as a "white supremacist" organization. What was the racist link between Prop. 187 and the Pioneer Fund? Taxpayers claimed that the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) had received S600,000 in grants since 1988 from the Pioneer Fund, and that Alan Nelson was FAIR's lobbyist in Sacramento when he coauthored Prop. 187.
  25. ^ "Pioneer Fund". Intelligence Files : Groups. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved June 6, 2012. Ideology: White Nationalist. Started in 1937 by textile magnate Wickliffe Draper, the Pioneer Fund's original mandate was to pursue "race betterment" by promoting the genetic stock of those "deemed to be descended predominantly from white persons who settled in the original thirteen states prior to the adoption of the Constitution." Today, it still funds studies of race and intelligence, as well as eugenics, the "science" of breeding superior human beings that was discredited by various Nazi atrocities. The Pioneer Fund has supported many of the leading Anglo-American race scientists of the last several decades as well as anti-immigration groups such as the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR).
  26. ^ Montagu, Ashley (2002). Race and IQ (2 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195102215. And many of The Bell Curve's most important assertions which establish causal links between IQ and social behavior, and IQ and race, are derived partially or totally from the Mankind Quarterly Pioneer Fund scholarly circle. The University of California's Arthur Jensen, cited twenty-three times in The Bell Curve's bibliography, is the book's principal authority on the intellectual inferiority of blacks. He has received $1.1 million from the Pioneer Fund.
  27. ^ Meehl, Paul E. (1998). "Psychology of the Scientist: LXXVIII. Relevance of a Scientist's Ideology in communal Recognition of Scientific Merit". Psychological Reports. 83 (3 Suppl): 1123–44. doi:10.2466/pr0.1998.83.3f.1123. S2CID 144880914.
  28. ^ Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Renee; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; Powell, John L.; Beavers, Jamie; Monte, Emmanuelle (2002). "The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2). SAGE Publications: 139–152. CiteSeerX doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139. ISSN 1089-2680. S2CID 145668721.
  29. ^ Francis, Crick (February 22, 1971). "Letter from Francis Crick to John T. Edsall, Fogarty International Center". profiles.nlm.nih.gov.
  30. ^ K. Kaye, The Sciences, January 1981, pp. 26-28.
  31. ^ Sowell, Thomas (May 1973). "Arthur Jensen and His Critics: The Great IQ Controversy". Change. 5 (4): 33–37. doi:10.1080/00091383.1973.10568506. JSTOR 40161749. Even for one who disagrees, as I do, with the main conclusions of the analysis...
  32. ^ Thomas Sowell (October 1, 2002). "Race and IQ". Retrieved November 14, 2008.
  33. ^ The cultural malleability of intelligence and its impact on the racial/ethnic hierarchy L Suzuki, J Aronson – Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2005
  34. ^ Lubinski, David (2013). "Arthur R. Jensen (1923–2012)". American Psychologist. 68 (5): 396–397. doi:10.1037/a0032872. PMID 23895609.
  35. ^ Brown, Robert T.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Whitaker, Jean S. (1999). "Bias in mental testing since Bias in Mental Testing". School Psychology Quarterly. 14 (3): 208–238. doi:10.1037/h0089007. S2CID 46561407.
  36. ^ Jensen, Arthur R. (1980). "Précis of Bias in Mental Testing". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 3 (3): 325–333. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00005161. S2CID 145366637.
  37. ^ Carroll, John B. (1982). "Can We Defuse the IQ Controversy?". Contemporary Psychology: A Journal of Reviews. 27 (7): 528–529. doi:10.1037/021298.
  38. ^ Kline, Paul (May 1982). "Straight Talk about Mental Tests. By Arthur R. Jensen. New York: The Free Press. 1981. Pp 269. $12.95". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 140 (5): 544–5. doi:10.1017/S0007125000136682. S2CID 150270344.
  39. ^ Haier, Richard J. (2016). The Neuroscience of Intelligence. New York, NY. ISBN 9781316105771. OCLC 951742581.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  40. ^ Glicksohn, Joseph (2007). "Review of Arthur R. Jensen (2006)--Clocking the mind: Mental chronometry and individual differences". Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. 61 (2): 154–158. doi:10.1037/cep2007_2_154.
  41. ^ Detterman, Douglas K. (2008). "Arthur R. Jensen, Clocking the mind: Mental chronometry and individual differences, Elsevier, Oxford (2007)". Intelligence. 36 (5): 491–493. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2007.08.001.
  42. ^ Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Van Der Maas, Han (2008). "Jensen A.R., Clocking the mind: Mental chronometry and individual differences, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2006) (pp. xi+ 272)". Intelligence. 36 (5): 493–494. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2007.09.001. ISBN 978-0-08-044939-5.
  43. ^ "2006 Lifetime Achievement Award". isironline.org. International Society for Intelligence Research. December 25, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2015.

Further reading[edit]


Selected articles, books, and book chapters[edit]

  • Jensen. A. R. (1973). Educational differences. London. Methuen. google books link
  • Jensen, A. R. (1974). "Ethnicity and scholastic achievement". Psychological Reports. 34 (2): 659–668. doi:10.2466/pr0.1974.34.2.659. PMID 4820518. S2CID 39368418.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1974). "Kinship correlations reported by Sir Cyril Burt". Behavior Genetics. 4 (1): 1–28. doi:10.1007/bf01066704. PMID 4593437. S2CID 5422380.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1989). "The relationship between learning and intelligence". Learning and Individual Differences. 1: 37–62. doi:10.1016/1041-6080(89)90009-5.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1993). "Why is reaction time correlated with psychometric g?". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2 (2): 53–56. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770697. S2CID 144868447.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1993). Spearman's g: Links between psychometrics and biology. In F. M. Crinella, & J. Yu (Eds.), Brain mechanisms: Papers in memory of Robert Thompson (pp. 103–129). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1995). "Psychological research on race differences". American Psychologist. 50: 41–42. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.50.1.41.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1996). Giftedness and genius: Crucial differences. In C. P. Benbow, & D. J. Lubinski (Eds), Intellectual talent: Psychometric and social issues (pp. 393–411). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1998) The g factor and the design of education. In R. J. Sternberg & W. M. Williams (Eds.), Intelligence, instruction, and assessment: Theory into practice. (pp. 111–131). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Jensen, A. R. (2000). "Testing: The dilemma of group differences". Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. 6: 121–128. doi:10.1037/1076-8971.6.1.121.
  • Jensen, A. R. (2002). "Galton's legacy to research on intelligence". Journal of Biosocial Science. 34 (2): 145–172. doi:10.1017/s0021932002001451. PMID 11926452. S2CID 20153127.
  • Jensen, A. R. (2002). Psychometric g: Definition and substantiation. In R. J. Sternberg, & E. L. Grigorenko (Eds.). The general factor of intelligence: How general is it? (pp. 39–53). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Kranzler, J. H.; Jensen, A. R. (1989). "Inspection time and intelligence: A meta-analysis". Intelligence. 13 (4): 329–347. doi:10.1016/s0160-2896(89)80006-6.
  • Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R.. (2005). Thirty years of research on Black-White differences in cognitive ability. Psychology, Public Policy, & the Law, 11, 235–294. (pdf)
  • Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R. (2003). African-White IQ differences from Zimbabwe on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised are mainly on the g factor. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 177–183. (pdf)
  • Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R. (2005). Wanted: More race-realism, less moralistic fallacy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 328–336. (pdf)

External links[edit]