Arthur John Brereton Marwick FRHistS (29 February 1936 – 27 September 2006) was a prolific British social historian, who served for many years as Professor of History at the Open University. His research interests lay primarily in the history of Britain in the twentieth century, and the relationship between war and social change. He is probably best known, however, for his more theoretical book The Nature of History (1970; revised editions 1981 and 1989), and its heavily reworked and expanded version The New Nature of History (2001), in which he defended an empirical and source-based approach towards the writing of history, and argued against the turn towards postmodernism. He believed firmly that history was "of central importance to society".
Early life and education
Marwick was born on 29 February 1936 in Edinburgh, the younger son of William Hutton Marwick (1894–1982), an economic historian, and his wife, Maeve Cluna, née Brereton. His parents were Quakers. He was educated at George Heriot's School, Edinburgh, and at the University of Edinburgh, before undertaking postgraduate research at Balliol College, Oxford. His Oxford thesis, on the Independent Labour Party, was awarded a BLitt, but not a doctorate.
Marwick worked as an Assistant Lecturer in History at the University of Aberdeen in 1959–60, before becoming a Lecturer in History at the University of Edinburgh in 1960. In 1969 he was appointed the first Professor of History at the newly established Open University, where he remained until his retirement in 2001. From 1978 until 1984 he served as Dean and Director of Studies in Arts at the Open University. He also held brief visiting professorships at the State University of New York at Buffalo, Stanford University, Rhodes College, the University of Perugia and the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris.
Marwick was a left-wing social and cultural historian, but critical of Marxism and other approaches to history that he believed stressed the importance of metanarrative over archival research. He was also a critic of postmodernism.
One of his most influential books, The Deluge (1965), dealt with the transformations in British society brought about by the First World War. Its main thesis was that the war had brought about positive and lasting social changes (in the rôle of women, in the acceptability of state intervention for social reasons, and so on). Despite its terrible tragedies, Marwick believed that the sum result of the war was that Britain was a better place to live in the twenties than in the period before the war.
He also published two books on historical perceptions of human beauty – Beauty in History (1988) and It: a History of Human Beauty (2004) – in which he attacked the feminist argument that beauty is merely a social construct. His first book was heavily criticised by feminists, including Angela Carter, who sarcastically summarised it as: "Women I, Arthur, have fancied throughout the ages with additional notes on some of the men I think I might have fancied if I were a woman."
Taxonomy of sources
Marwick analysed at length different types of historical evidence, distinguishing between "facts" and sources, primary and secondary sources, and different varieties of primary source. He also distinguished between "witting" and "unwitting" testimony, that is between the intentional message of a document or source, and the unintentional evidence that it also contains.
Marwick taught a particular theory in history named "Marwick's Principle" which examined the social changes as a result of Total War. He points out that total war cause social changes in four different "dimensions" in his argument concerning the relationship between total war and social changes. These "dimensions" include:
- The first dimension exploits the "destructive and disruptive dimension" of war which urge people toward the reconstruction of society and sometimes to the building of a society better than that of the previous.
- The second dimension which explores "tests" in war. The military institutions directly related thereto, as well as other systems of society, economy, and politics, would be "tested" as to their suitability and survivability for the conduct of war.
- The third dimension defines conditions by means of "participation", which allow persons who, up to the time, have been deprived of the right and power to participate in various social activities, to finally participate in them.
- The final and fourth dimension implements a "psychological" sense of war that leads to a creation of something new, as a result of the suffering and strong shock of the war.
Marwick had a flamboyant and outgoing personality. A. W. Purdue described him as "alternatively, wonderful, outrageous and dangerous to know. Kind and supportive to colleagues, he was an heroic drinker but not always fun after the first few drinks." Jonathan Meades called him "the very picture of baba-cool, with his daringly arty shirt, negligently loose foulard and his beardy grin for which the only word is that late Sixties shocker 'mellow'". His colleague Clive Emsley, however, recalled a more complex character:
He could be a prickly individual. He took criticism badly and remembered those who had made it. But the sixties' persona also concealed a shy and in many ways an insecure man. Most of those who were taught by him found him inspirational. Most of those who worked alongside him, while recognizing that, at times, he could be hurtful and embarrassing, would agree that much more often he was kind and generous.
- The Explosion of British Society 1914–62 (1963); revised as The Explosion of British Society 1914–1970 (1971)
- Clifford Allen: the open conspirator (1964)
- The Deluge: British Society and the First World War (1965)
- Britain in the Century of Total War: war, peace and social change, 1900–1967 (1968)
- The Nature of History (1970)
- Social Change in Britain, 1920–1970 (1970)
- War and Social Change in the Twentieth Century: a comparative study of Britain, France, Germany, Russia and the United States (1974)
- The Home Front: the British and the Second World War (1976)
- The Unemployed (1976)
- Women At War, 1914–1918 (1977)
- Class: Image and Reality in Britain, France and the USA since 1930 (1980)
- The Illustrated Dictionary of British History, with Christopher Harvie, Charles Kightly, & Keith Wrightson (1980)
- British Society since 1945 (1982)
- Britain in Our Century: images and controversies (1984)
- Class in the Twentieth Century (1986)
- Beauty in History: society, politics and personal appearance c.1500 to the present (1988)
- The Arts, Literature and Society (ed.) (1990)
- Europe on the Eve of War, 1900–1914 (1990)
- Culture in Britain since 1945 (1991)
- The Sixties: Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy, and the United States, c.1958–c.1974 (1998)
- Windows on the Sixties with A. Aldgate and J. Chapman (2000)
- A History of the Modern British Isles, 1914–1999: circumstances, events and outcomes (2000)
- The New Nature of History: knowledge, evidence, language (2001)
- Total War and Historical Change, Europe 1914–1955, edited with Clive Emsley and Wendy Simpson (2001)
- The Arts in the West since 1945 (2002)
- It: a History of Human Beauty (2004)
- Munslow, Alun (September 2001). "Book Review: The New Nature of History: Knowledge, Evidence, Language". History in Focus. 2. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- Marwick, Arthur (September 2001). "Author's response: The New Nature of History: Knowledge, Evidence, Language". History in Focus. 2. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- Marwick, The New Nature of History, p. 268.
- Emsley 2011.
- Emsley 2007.
- Purdue, Guardian obituary.
- Emsley, Independent obituary.
- Telegraph obituary.
- Marwick, The New Nature of History, pp. 152–72.
- Marwick, The New Nature of History, pp. 172–79.
- Marwick, Arthur (1968). "The Impact of the First World War on British Society". Journal of Contemporary History. 3 (1): 51–63.
- Anon. (4 October 2006). "Professor Arthur Marwick (obituary)". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Emsley, Clive (4 October 2006). "Professor Arthur Marwick: Open University founding father (obituary)". The Independent. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Emsley, Clive (2007). "Obituary: Arthur Marwick 1936–2006". Journal of Contemporary History. 42 (2): 181–184. JSTOR 30036440.
- Emsley, Clive (2011) . "Marwick, Arthur John Brereton (1936–2006)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/97471. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Purdue, A. W. (7 October 2006). "Arthur Marwick (obituary)". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2019.