Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
|Items collected||poems by Phillis Wheatley, papers of Ralph Bunche, Malcolm X, and Hiram Rhodes Revels|
|Access and use|
|Director||Kara Tucina Olidge, PhD.|
for Research in Black Culture
|Location||103 West 135th Street
Manhattan, New York City
|Architect||Charles Follen McKim|
|Architectural style||Italian Renaissance Palazzo|
|NRHP Reference #||78001881|
|Added to NRHP||September 21, 1978|
|Designated NYCL||February 3, 1981|
The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture is a research library of the New York Public Library (NYPL) and an archive repository for information on people of African descent worldwide. Located at 515 Malcolm X Boulevard (Lenox Avenue) between West 135th and 136th Streets in the Harlem neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, it has, almost from its inception, been an integral part of the Harlem community. It is named for Afro-Puerto Rican scholar Arturo Alfonso Schomburg.
The resources of the Center are broken up into five divisions, the Art and Artifacts Division, the Jean Blackwell Hutson General Research and Reference Division, the Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, the Moving Image and Recorded Sound Division, and the Photographs and Prints Division.
In addition to research services, the center hosts readings, discussions, art exhibitions, and theatrical events. It is open to the general public.
135th Street branch
In 1901, Andrew Carnegie tentatively agreed to donate $5,200,000 (equivalent to $147,908,800 in 2015) to construct 65 branch libraries in New York City, with the requirement that the City provide the land and maintain the buildings once construction was complete. Later in 1901 Carnegie formally signed a contract with the City of New York to transfer his donation to the city to then allow it to justify purchasing the land to house the libraries. McKim, Mead & White were chosen as the architects and Charles Follen McKim designed the three-story library building at 103 West 135th Street in the Italian Renaissance Palazzo mode. At its opening on July 14, 1905, the library had 10,000 books and the librarian in charge was Gertrude Cohen.
Rose tenure (1920–42)
In 1920, Ernestine Rose, a white woman born in Bridgehampton in 1880, became the branch librarian. She quickly integrated the all-white library staff. Catherine Latimer, the first African-American librarian hired by the NYPL, was sent to work with Rose as was Roberta Bosely months later. Some time later Sadie Peterson Delaney became employed at the branch. Together, they created a plan to assist integrating reading into the lives of the library attendees and cooperated with schools and social organizations in the community.
In 1921, the library hosted the first exhibition of African-American art in Harlem; it became an annual event. The library became a focal point to the burgeoning Harlem Renaissance. In 1923, the 135th Street branch was the only branch in New York City employing Negroes as librarians, and consequently when Regina M. Anderson was hired by the NYPL, she was sent to work at the 135th Street branch.
Rose issued a report to the American Library Association, in 1923, which stated that requests for books about Negroes or written by Negroes had been increasing, and that the demand for professionally trained colored librarians was also. In late 1924, Rose called a meeting, with attendees including Arturo Alfonso Schomburg, James Weldon Johnson, Hubert Harrison, that decided to focus on preserving rare books, and solicit donations to enhance its African-American collection. On May 8, 1925, it began operating as the Division of Negro Literature, History and Prints, a division of the NYPL. In 1926, Schomburg was interested in selling his collection of African-American literature because he wanted it to be available to he general public, but he wanted the collection to stay in Harlem. Rose and the National Urban League convinced the Carnegie Foundation to pay $10,000 to Schomburg and then donate the books to the library. In 1926, the center's collection won acclaim with the addition of Schomburg's personal collection. By donating his collection, Schomburg sought to show that black people had a history and a culture and thus were not inferior to other races. About 5,000 objects in Schomburg's collection were donated.
In 1929, Anderson was desirous of a promotion and enlisted the help of W. E. B. Du Bois and Walter Francis White when she was being discriminated against by not being promoted. After letters of intervention on her behalf by Du Bois and White, and a boycott of the library by White, Anderson was promoted and transferred to the Rivington Street branch of the NYPL.
By 1930, the Center had 18,000 volumes. In 1932, Schomburg became the first curator of his collection, until his death in 1938. In 1935, the Center developed a project to deliver books once a week to those handicapped severely enough that they could not make it to the library. Dr. Lawrence D. Reddick became the second curator of the Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature. At the behest of Reddick, in October 1940, the entire Division of Negro History, Literature and Prints was renamed the Schomburg Collection of Negro History and Literature.
In 1942 Rose retired after an extension was built onto the rear of the building, at a time when the library had 40,000 books. Dorothy Robinson Homer replaced her as Branch Librarian, after the Citizen's Committee of the 135th Street Branch Library specifically requested a Negro to replace Rose.
Countee Cullen branch
After the extension was built, the library became known as the Countee Cullen Library, and the 135th Street Library is still considered the original location of the Countee Cullen library by the New York Public Library, although that name is now only used for the extension itself on West 136th Street.
Homers created a room of books just for young adults and created the American Negro Theatre in the basement that spawned the play Anna Lucasta, which was moved to Broadway. She kept the emphasis on building a community center for art, music and drama. She put on art exhibits that favored unknown, young artists of all races.
After the outbreak of WWII, Homer started a program of monthly concert recitals in the auditorium to enhance public spirit, but the demand by performers and audience members to continue the practice made it permanent.
Hutson tenure (1948–80)
In 1971, the Center began being supported by the privately funded Schomburg Corporation. The next year, funds by New York City were allocated to renovate the building at 103 West 135th, and it was renamed the building of the Schomburg Collection for Research in Black Culture. Simultaneously, the entire Schomburg collection was rounded up from various branch libraries and transferred to the Center. In 1972, it was designated as one of NYPL's research libraries.
In 1973, a building on the west side of Lenox ave between 135th and 136th was bought so that it could be demolished and a new building could be constructed. The location was chosen due to its proximity to other community agencies and because it was the "scene of the Harlem Renaissance." In 1978, the building on 135th Street between Lenox and 7th Avenues was entered into the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). In 1979, it was formally listed in the NRHP.
Wray tenure (1981–83)
In 1981, Wendell L. Wray became the director of the Center. Protests began over Wray's decision to not hire an African-American man to head the Center's Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Books Division and instead hired Robert Morris. In 1983, Wray resigned to pursue academic research and Catherine Hooker was named acting director.
Dodson tenure (1984–2011)
Howard Dodson became the director in 1984, at a time when the Schomburg was primarily a cultural center visited by tourists and schoolchildren and its research facilities were known only to scholars. In 1984, the Schomburg's collection was at 5 million. In 1984 attendance was 40,000 a year. As early as 1984, the Schomburg was recognized as the most important institution in the world for collections of art and literature of people in Africa or its diaspora. In 1986, a scholars-in-residence program started at the center. In 1986, an exhibit entitled Give me your poor... sparked controversy. In March 1987, a public funding campaign was started to raise money to renovate the old library and to enhance the new Center's housing and its functions.
In 1991, completion of additions to the Schomburg Center were completed. The new center on Malcolm X was expanded to include an auditorium and a connection to the old landmark building on 135th. The Art and Artifacts Division and the Moving Image and Recorded Sound Division were moved into the old landmark building. In 2000, the Schomburg Center held an exhibition titled "Lest We Forget: The Triumph Over Slavery", which later went on tour around the world for more than a decade under the sponsorship of UNESCO's Slave Route Project. In 2005, the center held an exhibition of letters, photographs and other material related to Malcolm X. In 2007, the building was renovated and expanded in an $11 million project. The Schomburg Center had 120,000 visitors a year, by 2010, and Dodson announced he would retire in early 2011.
Muhammad tenure (2011–present)
Following Howard Dodson's announcement of his retirement in 2010, Khalil Gibran Muhammad, great-grandson of Elijah Muhammad and professor of history at Indiana University, was announced as Dodson's replacement. In the summer of 2011, Muhammad became the fifth director of the Schomburg. His stated goals were for the Schomburg to be a focal point for young adults and to collaborate with the local community, to not only reinforce its pride, but also for the Center to be a gateway for revealing the history of Black people worldwide. In July, the Center began an exhibit of Malcolm X footage and prints entitled Malcolm X: the Search for Truth.
The Schomburg Collection was considered, in 1998, as consisting of the rarest, and most useful, Afrocentric artifacts of any public library in the United States. At least as late of 2006, it is viewed as the most prestigious for African-American materials in the country. As of 2010, the Collection stood at 10 million objects, The Center contains a signed, first edition of a book of poems by Phillis Wheatley, archival material of Melville J. Herskovits, John Henrik Clarke, Lorraine Hansberry, Malcolm X and Nat King Cole. The collection includes the files, or papers of the International Labor Defense, the Civil Rights Congress, and the National Negro Congress. It also includes the papers of Lawrence Brown (1893-1973), Ralph Bunche, Léon Damas, William Pickens, Hiram Rhodes Revels, Clarence Cameron White. The files of the South African Dennis Brutus Defense Committee (restricted). The collection also includes manuscripts of Alexander Crummell and John Edward Bruce, manuscripts of Slavery, Abolitionism and on the West Indies, and letters and unpublished manuscripts of Langston Hughes. It includes some papers from Christian Fleetwood, Paul Robeson (restricted), Booker T. Washington, and Schomburg himself. It includes musical recordings, black and jazz periodicals, rare books and pamphlets, and tens of thousands of art objects.  The Center's collection includes documents signed by Toussaint Louverture and a rare recording of a speech by Marcus Garvey.
- "Carnegie Offers City Big Gift". New-York Tribune. 1901-03-16. pp. 1–2.
- "Library Plans All Right Now: Carnegie Approves Controller Coler Contracts". The Evening World. 1901-09-09. p. 3.; Carnegie Approves the Contracts, Mr. Carnegie's Libraries, The New York Times, 1901-09-10.
- White and Willensky (2000), p. 507; contra: These attribute the original design to Stanford White: "Books, Black Culture and- the Course of History: Books and History", Washington Post, and "'Road to Freedom' Show at Library".
- "Library's West 135th Street Branch Will Mark 25th Anniversary Tuesday: Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature Brought Harlem Unit 'to Attention of Book World--Considered Finest". New York Amsterdam News. 1930-07-30. p. 3.
- "New Library Opened". New-York Tribune. 1905-07-15. p. 4.
- Tibbets, pp. 9, 18.
- Tibbets, pp. 20-21.
- Sinnette (1989), pp. 132-133.
- Jordan, Casper LeRoy (2000). "African American Forerunners in Librarianship". In E. J. Josey and Marva L. DeLoach. Handbook of Black Librarianship (2 ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 31.
- Wintz (2007), pp. 38-39.
- Rose, Ernestine (July 1922). "Work With Negroes Round Table". Bulletin of the American Library Association 16 (4): 361–366. JSTOR 25686069. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- Whitmire, p. 409.
- "Interest Increases In Negro Literature: Miss Ernestine Rose Does Not Believe in Purely Colored Libraries". New York Amsterdam News. 1923-05-02. p. 7.
- Marshall: 67; cf. Working with Negroes Roundtable by Ernestine Rose
- Tibbets, pp. 21-22.
- Anekwe, Simon (1978-11-04). "Schomburg Center, historic property". New York Amsterdam News. p. A11.; cf. Tibbets: 22, "Historical Society is Launched at Library", 1925-05-13, Sinnette, p. 134.
- Sinnette: p. 141.
- Sinnette: p. 136
- Lee, Felicia R. (2010-04-19). "Harlem Center’s Director to Retire in Early 2011". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-13.; cf. Rare Library Brought to Harlem: Schomburg's Rare Negro Library Now at the 135th Street Branch Noted Bibliophile Began Collecting Books on His Race 35 Years Ago
- "Mrs. Latimer in Charge of Negro History Department: Ass't Librarian". New York Amsterdam News. 1927-01-26. p. 9.; "2,932 volumes, 1,124 pamphlets, and many valuable prints" cf; Sinnette:141 (New York Library Bulletin 31, April 1927, p. 295).
- Whitmire: ?
- "Schomburg is Buried While Crowds Mourn: Famous Curator Dead at 64; Collected Rare Books, Prints". New York Amsterdam News. 1938-06-18. p. 1. cf. Schomburg Center History.
- Berlack-Boozer, Thelma (1938-06-18). "Shut-Ins Cheered By Books From Library: Special Service for Them Operated Only At Busy Branch in West 135th". New York Amsterdam News. p. 8.
- "Curator of Negro Literature". New York Times. 1929-08-23. p. 24. "Dr. Lawrence D. Reddick has been appointed curator of the Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature at the 135th Street Branch of the New York Public Library."
- Sinnette (1989), p. 193.
- Tibbets (1995), p. 27.
- "New Librarian Takes Over At Harlem Branch: Mrs. Dorothy R. Homer, 10 Years on Job, Gets Top Spot at 135th St.". New York Amsterdam News. 1942-06-27. p. 4.
- "Miss Rhodes [sic, Ernestine Rose] Dies; Integrated Library". New York Amsterdam News. 1961-04-16. p. 4.
- "About the Countee Cullen Library". The New York Public Library. 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19. Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Andrew L. Yarrow, "Repository of Black Past is Reopened", The New York Times, August 19, 1990 (archived).
- Courtney, Charles (1944-12-30). "Library Tradition Carried On By Dynamic Little Lady: She Heads Popular Uptown Library Branch Civic-Minded". New York Amsterdam News. pp. 5A.
- "Doris Earle and Sallee Smith Set For Joint Recital". New York Amsterdam News. 1946-02-09. p. 18.
- "Jean Blackwell Hutson, ex-Chief of Schomburg Center, dies". Jet 93 (13): 17. 1998-02-23. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- Dodson; with Moore and Yancy (2000), pp. 319-320.
- "Schomburg Center Opens in New York". The Afro American. 1980-10-11. p. 13. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- "Recalling the Early Days at the Schomburg Center, a Harlem Cultural Hub (page 1 of 2)". The New York Times. 1987-08-29. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13.
- "Recalling the Early Days at the Schomburg Center, a Harlem Cultural Hub (page 2 of 2)". The New York Times. 1987-08-29. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13.; cf. NYC Landmarks Preservation Committee.
- Dodson; with Moore and Yancy, Roberta (2000), p. 354.
- Henderson (1974), p. 78.
- Anekwe, Simon (1978-11-04). "Schomburg Center, historic property". New York Amsterdam News. pp. A11. Retrieved 2011-12-31.; cf. Stein Lauds Hudson.
- Fraser, C. Gerald (1979-04-01). "Schomburg Unit Listed as Landmark: Spawning Ground of Talent 40 Seats Are Not Enough Plans for a Museum". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "The City; Schomburg Center Loses Its Chief". The New York Times. 1983-03-10. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- "The City; 2 Black Activists Seized in Protest". The New York Times. 1982-11-19. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-02.; cf. 
- Anderson, Susan Heller; Mauricel (1984-01-13). "New York Day by Day". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- Lee, Felicia R. (2010-11-17). "Historian Will Direct Schomburg Center in Harlem". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
- "Harlem Renaissance Exhibit Set Saturday at State Museum". Schenectady Gazette. 1984-02-01. p. 10.
- "'Liberty' Gala Perplexes Black Patriots". The St. Petersburg Evening Independent. 1986-06-25. p. 13A.
- Marriott, Michel (1987-11-23). "Schomburg Center Acts to Halt Loss of Black History". The New York Times.; Culture Center Expansion.
- "Grand Opening of Expanded Schomburg Center", The New York Times, April 8, 1991 (archived).
- "Research Complex Expanded". The Albany Herald. 1991-04-20. p. 8A.
- "Memorial Dedication: African Burial Ground National Monument" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-14.
- Barker, Cyril Josh (2011-09-15). "New director of Schomburg Center gets his feet wet". New York Amsterdam News. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- Goedeken, Edward A. (1998). "The Founding and Prevalence of African-American Social Libraries & Historical Societies, 1828-1918". In John Mark Tucker. Untold Stories: Civil Rights, Libraries and Black Librarianship. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois. p. 38. ISBN 0-87845-104-8.
- Woo, Elaine (2006-10-21). "A Champion of Black History". Los Angeles Times.
- "Melville J. and Frances S. Herskovits papers", New York Public Library Archives & Manuscripts.
- "John Henrik Clarke papers", New York Public Library Archives & Manuscripts.
- "Lorraine Hansberry papers", Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library.
- "Lawrence Brown Papers" at Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library.
- "William Pickens papers", Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library Archives & Manuscripts.
- "Dennis Brutus Papers", Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library Archives & Manuscripts.
- "Alexander Crummell Papers", Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library Archives & Manuscripts.
- "Paul Robeson collection, 1925-1956" Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library Archives & Manuscripts.
- "Booker T. Washington correspondence, 1889-1913", Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library Archives & Manuscripts.
- Kaiser, Ernest (2000). "Library Holdings on African Americans". In E. J. Josey and Marva L. DeLoach. Handbook of Black Librarianship (2 ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. pp. 259–261.
- Howard Dodson, Jr. (Scholars in Residence Program)
- Dodson, Howard; Moore, Christopher; Yancy, Roberta (2000). The Black New Yorkers : the Schomburg illustrated chronology. New York: John Wiley. ISBN 0-471-29714-3.
- Henderson, James W. (1974). The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture Its Condition, Operation, and Needs. New York: New York Public Library.
- Josey, E. J.; DeLoach, Marva L. (2000). Handbook of Black Librarianship. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3720-X.
- Marshall, A. P. (1976). "Service to Afro-Americans". In Sidney L. Jackson, Elanor B. Herling, and E. J. Josey. A Century of Service. Chicago: American Library Association. pp. 62–78. ISBN 0-8389-0220-0.
- Sinnette, Elinor Des Verney (1989). Arthur Alfonso Schomburg, Black Bibliophile & Collector A Biography. Detroit: The New York Public Library & Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2156-9.
- Tibbets, Celeste (1995). Ernestine Rose and the Origins of the Schomburg Center. New York: Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. ISBN 0-87104-419-6.
- White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot (2000). AIA Guide to New York City. New York: Crown Publishers. p. 507. ISBN 0-8129-3106-8.
- Whitmire, Ethelene (2007). "Breaking the Color Barrier: Regina Andrews and the New York Public Library". Libraries and the Cultural Record 42 (4): 409–421,459. doi:10.1353/lac.2007.0068. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- Wintz, Cary D. (2007). Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance. Naperville: Sourcebooks. ISBN 978-1-4022-0436-4.
- Harris, Michael H., and Donald G. Davis Jr (1978). American Library History: a bibliography. Austin: University of Texas. ISBN 0-292-70332-5
- Davis, Donald G. Jr, and John Mark Tucker (1989). American Library History: a comprehensive guide to the literature. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN 0-87436-142-7
- Library Work in Schools 1901-12-18
- Gift To Public Library, The New York Times, 1926-05-26; exact date of the official transfer to the New York Public Library by the Carnegie Foundation at the behest of the National Urban League and Rose
- Books--Authors. The New York Times, 1940-07-26: Description of the donation by Schomburg to the Library in 1926
- Schomburg Collection Bulwark VS Propaganda, 1940
- "Harlem Wants Library Named For Schomburg: Late Bibliophile Gave Impetus to Move Establishing Unit" (1942)
- Eleanor Blau, "Friday A FIENDISH OPENING", The New York Times, Weekender Guide, February 1, 1985 (archived).
- John Jacob, "Black History Month", Washington Afro-American, February 2, 1988.
- Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (not digitized yet)
- Anderson, Sarah A. (Oct 2003). "'The Place to Go': The 135th Street Branch Library and the Harlem Renaissance". The Library Quarterly 73 (4): 383–421. doi:10.1086/603439. JSTOR 4309684. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- Wilson, Sondra Katherine (1999). The Crisis Reader: Stories, Poetry, and Essays from the N.A.A.C.P.'s Crisis Magazine. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0375752315.
- Wilson, Sondra Katherine (1999). The Opportunity Reader: Stories, Poetry, and Essays from the Urban League's Opportunity Magazine. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0375753796.
- Wilson, Sondra Katherine (2000). The Messenger Reader: Stories, Poetry, and Essays from The Messenger Magazine. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 037575539X.
- Girardi, Pamela (2005). The American Historical Association's Guide to Historical Literature.
- Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture - official site at NY Public Library
- "Writings of Hughes and Hurston", broadcast from the Schomburg Center from C-SPAN's American Writers