In the Republic of India, the phrase "President's rule" refers to the imposition of Article 356 of the Constitution of India on a State whose constitutional machinery has failed. In the event that a State government is not able to function as per the Constitution, the State comes under the direct control of the central government; in other words, it is "under President's rule". Subsequently, executive authority is exercised through the centrally appointed Governor, who has the authority to appoint retired civil servants or other administrators to assist him.
On the other hand, when the State government is functioning normally, it is run by an elected Council of Ministers, who are collectively responsible to State's legislative assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The Council is headed by the Chief Minister who is the de facto chief executive of the State; the Governor is only a de jure constitutional head. However, during President's rule, the Council of Ministers stands dissolved, the office of Chief Minister becomes vacant and the Vidhan Sabha is either put in suspended animation or dissolved (necessitating a fresh election).
In the state of Jammu and Kashmir, failure of constitutional machinery results in Governor's rule, imposed by invoking Section 92 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. The proclamation is issued by the state's Governor after obtaining the consent of the President of India. If it is not possible to revoke Governor's rule within six months of imposition then the President's Rule under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution is imposed. There is little practical difference between the two provisions.
Following its landmark judgement in the 1994 Bommai case, the Supreme Court of India has clamped down on arbitrary impositions of President's rule by central governments. Chhattisgarh and Telangana are the only states where President's rule hasn't been imposed so far.
In practice president's rule has been imposed under different circumstances such as these:
- State Legislature is unable to elect a leader as Chief Minister
- Breakdown of a coalition
- Loss of majority in the assembly
- Elections postponed for unavoidable reasons
If approved by both houses, President's Rule can continue for 6 months. It can be extended for maximum 3 years with approval of Parliament in every 6 months. If Loksabha is dissolved during this time, rule is valid for 30 days from the first sitting of Loksabha provided that continuance has already been approved by Rajyasabha. The 44th Amendment Act of 1978, introduced a new provision to put a restraint on the power of the Parliament to extend President's rule in a state. According to this provision, President's rule can only be extended over a year in every 6 months under following conditions:
1. There is National emergency already in whole of India, or in the whole or any part of the state.
2. Election commission certifies that elections can not be conducted in the concerned state. Although, President's rule can be revoked anytime by the President and it does not need Parliament's approval.
Most often, until the mid-1990s, it was imposed in states through abuse of the authority of Governors in collusion with the federal government. However, following a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India in March 1994, such abuse has been reduced drastically.
Article 356 gave wide powers to the central government to assert its authority over a state if civil unrest occurred and the state government did not have the means to end the unrest. This is one of the articles that gave the Indian constitution some amount of unitary character. Though the purpose of this article is to give more powers to central government to preserve the unity and integrity of the nation, it has often been misused by the ruling parties at the center. It has been used as a pretext to dissolve state governments ruled by political opponents. Thus, it is seen by many as a threat to the federal state system. Since the adoption of Indian constitution in 1950, the central government has used this article several times to dissolve elected state governments and impose President's rule.
The article was used for the first time in up 1954. It has also been used in the state of Patiala and East Punjab States union (PEPSU) and then during Vimochana samaram to dismiss the democratically elected Communist state government of Kerala on 31 July 1959. In the 1970s and 1980s it almost became common practice for the central government to dismiss state governments led by opposition parties. The Indira Gandhi regime and post-emergency Janata Party were noted for this practice. Indira Gandhi's government between 1966 and 1977 is known to have imposed President' rule in 39 times in different states. Similarly Janta Party which came to power after the emergency had issued President's rule in 9 states which were ruled by Congress.
It is only after the landmark judgement in 1994 in the S. R. Bommai v. Union of India case that the misuse of Article 356 was curtailed. In this case, the Supreme Court established strict guidelines for imposing President's rule. Subsequent pronouncements by the Supreme Court in Jharkhand and other states have further whetted down the scope for misuse of Article 356. Hence since the early 2000, the number of cases of imposition of President's rule has come down drastically.
Article 356 has always been the focal point of a wider debate of the federal structure of government in Indian polity. The Sarkaria Commission Report on Centre–State Relations 1988 has recommended that Article 356 must be used "very sparingly, in extreme cases, as a measure of last resort, when all the other alternatives fail to prevent or rectify a breakdown of constitutional machinery in the state". Dr.Ambedkar also said that it would be like a dead letter that is would be used rarely
List of instances
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|State||Date of imposition||Date of revocation||Duration||Notes|
|Andhra Pradesh ||18 January 1973||10 December 1973||326 days||Break down of Law & Order due to Jai Andhra Agitation, in P. V. Narasimha Rao's tenure.|
|Andhra Pradesh ||28 February 2014||8 June 2014||100 days||Political impasse following the resignation of Chief Minister Kiran Kumar Reddy and several other congress party legislators from the Government as well as the Party, in protest against Indian Parliament passing Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill to bifurcate united Andhra Pradesh and create a separate Telangana State. President's rule revoked from Telangana areas on 2 June 2014 and bifurcated Andhra Pradesh areas on 8 June 2014. President rule reimposed unlawfully by the President after the two months time limit without taking approval of the Parliament under Article 356.|
|Andhra State ||15 November 1954||29 March 1955||134 days||Loss of Majority.|
|Arunachal Pradesh ||3 November 1979||18 January 1980||76 days||Loss of Majority following defections in a fluid political environment during Janata party rule at the Centre.|
|Arunachal Pradesh ||25 January 2016||19 February 2016||26 days||21 Congress MLAs joined hands with 11 of the BJP and two Independents, making the current government a minority government. Supreme Court declared the imposition of president rule as ultra vires and reinstated the dismissed congress led government in the state. In a land mark judgement, it found fault with the unconstitutional role played by the Governor by interfering in the activities of legislatures and speaker of the Vidhan Shaba|
|Assam ||12 December 1979||5 December 1980||359 days||'Assam Agitation' against illegal foreign national staying in Assam started to take roots under the leadership of the All Assam Students’Union (AASU). The violence fuelled by United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) resulted in break down of law and order.|
|Assam ||30 June 1981||13 January 1982||197 days||Congress (I) government led by Anwara Taimur representing immigrant minorities collapsed following intensification of 'Assam Agitation' against illegal foreign national staying in Assam.|
|Assam ||19 March 1982||27 February 1983||345 days||Congress (I) government led by Kesab Gogoi representing ethnic Asom people collapsed following continued violence in Assam.|
|Assam ||28 November 1990||30 June 1991||214 days||Govt. dismissed in spite of AGP CM Prafulla Mahanta enjoying majority support in Assembly. The dismissal was triggered apparently by the threat to internal security due to banned organisation ULFA's activities. During President's rule, Operation Bajrang was launched to flush out ULFA militants.|
|Bihar ||29 June 1968||26 February 1969||242 days||Loss of Majority following defections in a fluid political environment.|
|Bihar ||4 July 1969||16 February 1970||227 days||Loss of Majority following defections in a fluid political environment due to split in ruling Congress party|
|Bihar ||9 January 1972||19 March 1972||70 days||Loss of Majority following defections in a fluid political environment.|
|Bihar ||30 April 1977||24 June 1977||55 days||Government dismissed in spite of Jagannath Mishra enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Bihar ||17 February 1980||8 June 1980||112 days||Government dismissed in spite of Ram Sundar Das enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Bihar ||28 March 1995||5 April 1995||8 days||President’s rule imposed for a brief period of one week to facilitate passage of vote on account (to permit day-to-day government expenses in Bihar) by Parliament while awaiting the results of Assembly elections held during the Chief Ministership of Laloo Prasad.|
|Bihar ||12 February 1999||9 March 1999||25 days||Breakdown of law and order, killings of 11 Dalits at Narayanpur. The Vajpayee Government, revoked President’s rule within 26 days since the coalition did not have a majority in the Rajya Sabha.|
|Bihar ||7 March 2005||24 November 2005||262 days||Indecisive outcome of elections. In a landmark judgement, Supreme Court ruled that the imposition of the president rule without giving the chance to the elected legislatures to form new government is unconstitutional and mala fide act by the President.|
|Delhi ||14 February 2014||11 February 2015||362 days||Arvind Kejriwal resigned as Chief Minister after failing to table the Jan Lokpal Bill in the Delhi Assembly.|
|Goa ||2 December 1966||5 April 1967||124 days||The Union Territory of Goa's Assembly was dissolved to conduct an opinion poll to determine whether Goa should be merged with Maharashtra.|
|Goa ||27 April 1979||16 January 1980||264 days||Loss of majority following split in the ruling MGP Party|
|Goa ||14 December 1990||25 January 1991||42 days||C.M. resigned consequent upon his disqualification by High Court - No other Government found viable|
|Goa ||9 February 1999||9 June 1999||120 days||Loss of majority and no alternate claimant to form next government|
|Goa ||4 March 2005||7 June 2005||95 days||Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Pratap Sinh Rane|
|Gujarat ||12 May 1971||17 March 1972||310 days||Loss of Majority following vertical split in Congress during 1969 presidential election|
|Gujarat ||9 February 1974||18 June 1975||1 year, 129 days||Chimanbhai Patel led Congress government resigned due to Navnirman Movement Anti-Corruption protests. The protesters forced MLA's resignations, forcing dissolution of assembly.|
|Gujarat ||12 March 1976||24 December 1976||287 days||"Non-Passage" of budget leading to collapse of government|
|Gujarat ||17 February 1980||8 June 1980||112 days||Government dismissed in spite of Babubhai J Patel enjoying majority support in the Assembly|
|Gujarat ||19 September 1996||23 October 1996||34 days||Government dismissed following a controversial confidence vote. The Assembly was placed in suspended animation, which led to subsequent installation of Vaghela government, supported by Congress|
|Haryana ||2 November 1967||22 May 1968||202 days||Government dismissed in spite of having a tenuous majority.|
|Haryana ||30 April 1977||21 June 1977||52 days||Government dismissed in spite of B D Gupta enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Haryana ||6 April 1991||23 July 1991||108 days||Rebellion in the ruling party|
|Himachal Pradesh ||30 April 1977||22 June 1977||53 days||Government dismissed in spite of Thakur Ram Lal enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Himachal Pradesh ||15 December 1992||3 December 1993||353 days||Government dismissed in the aftermath of the destruction of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan in Uttar Pradesh.|
|Jammu and Kashmir ||26 March 1977||9 July 1977||105 days||Sheikh Abdullah led National Conference government bowed out after being reduced to a minority following withdrawal of support by the Congress Party|
|Jammu and Kashmir ||6 March 1986||7 November 1986||246 days||Loss of majority|
|Jammu and Kashmir ||19 January 1990||9 October 1996||6 years, 264 days||Insurgency and break down of law and order.|
|Jammu and Kashmir ||18 October 2002||2 November 2002||15 days||Indecisive outcome of elections.|
|Jammu and Kashmir ||11 July 2008||5 January 2009||178 days||Loss of majority following collapse of coalition. CM Gulam Nabi Azad's decision to transfer land for Amarnath pilgrimage led to PDP pulling out of coalation Govt.|
|Jammu and Kashmir ||9 January 2015||1 March 2015||51 days||Failure of Government formation after fractured verdict in Assembly elections. BJP & PDP reached an understanding to form an alliance to form Government in J&K.|
|Jammu and Kashmir ||8 January 2016||4 April 2016||87 days||Death of Chief minister Mufti Mohammad Sayeed|
|Jharkhand ||19 January 2009||29 December 2009||344 days||Loss of Majority|
|Jharkhand ||1 June 2010||11 September 2010||102 days||Loss of Majority|
|Jharkhand ||18 January 2013||12 July 2013||175 days||Loss of Majority. BJP's ruling coalition partner JMM withdrew its support to the government pushing it into a minority. Chief Minister Arjun Munda resigned and sought dissolution of the state Assembly.|
|Karnataka ||19 March 1971||20 March 1972||1 year, 1 day||Loss of Majority|
|Karnataka ||31 December 1977||28 February 1978||59 days||Government dismissed in spite of Congress CM Devraj Urs enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Karnataka ||21 April 1989||30 November 1989||223 days||Loss of majority of CM S. R. Bommai, followed by dissolution of Assembly. On an appeal by S. R. Bommai, in a landmark judgement delivered in 1994, the Indian Supreme Court laid out the procedure to be followed before dissolving an elected assembly. The historic ruling in this case reduced the scope for misuse of Article 356 by future central governments and governors.|
|Karnataka ||10 October 1990||17 October 1990||7 days||Government of Veerendra Patil dismissed by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and state was placed under President's rule with the assembly placed in suspended animation until next chief Minister was elected|
|Karnataka ||9 October 2007||11 November 2007||33 days||Loss of majority|
|Karnataka ||20 November 2007||27 May 2008||189 days||Loss of majority|
|Kerala ||31 July 1959||22 February 1960||206 days||Government dismissed in spite of Communist CM EMS Namboodiripad enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Kerala ||10 September 1964||6 March 1967||2 years, 177 days||Loss of majority followed by indecisive outcome of elections|
|Kerala ||1 August 1970||4 October 1970||64 days||Loss of majority|
|Kerala ||1 December 1979||25 January 1980||55 days||Loss of majority|
|Madhya Pradesh ||29 April 1977||25 June 1977||57 days||Government dismissed in spite of Shyama Charan Shukla enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Madhya Pradesh ||18 February 1980||8 June 1980||111 days||Government dismissed in spite of Sundar Lal Patwa enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Madhya Pradesh ||15 December 1992||7 December 1993||357 days||Govt. dismissed in the aftermath of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan destruction in Uttar Pradesh.|
|Maharashtra ||17 February 1980||8 June 1980||112 days||Govt. dismissed in spite of Sharad Pawar enjoying majority support in the Assembly|
|Maharashtra ||28 September 2014||31 October 2014||33 days||Govt. dismissed since Congress Separated from its allies NCP and Others.|
|Manipur ||12 January 1967||19 March 1967||66 days||First Elections to Manipur Union Territory Assembly held.|
|Manipur ||25 October 1967||18 February 1968||116 days||Short lived ministry collapsed following resignation of speaker, resulting in neither ruling nor opposition congress having a clear majority in the assembly. Assembly kept in suspended animation.|
|Manipur ||17 October 1969||22 March 1972||2 years, 157 days||Violent secessionist insurgency and statehood demands resulted in breakdown of law and order|
|Manipur ||28 March 1973||3 March 1974||340 days||President's rule was imposed even though the opposition had a "tenuous" majority and could have formed a government|
|Manipur ||16 May 1977||28 June 1977||43 days||Collapse of Government following defections|
|Manipur ||14 November 1979||13 January 1980||60 days||Discontent within Janata Party Government and corruption charges led to dismissal of government and dissolution of Assembly.|
|Manipur ||28 February 1981||18 June 1981||110 days||Incumbent Government fell following defections. Governor did not permit an alternate government to be formed by People's Democratic Front on the basis of his assessment regarding stability of the proposed ministry.|
|Manipur ||7 January 1992||7 April 1992||91 days||Incumbent coalition Government fell following defections. President's rule imposed keeping assembly in suspension.|
|Manipur ||31 December 1993||13 December 1994||347 days||1000 persons died in Naga-Kuki clashes and continued violence|
|Manipur ||2 June 2001||6 March 2002||277 days||Loss of majority|
|Meghalaya ||11 October 1991||5 February 1992||117 days||The Centre imposed President's rule in Meghalaya in the wake of a political crisis after the then Speaker PR Kyndiah suspended five MLAs, mostly independents, on grounds of defection.|
|Meghalaya ||18 March 2009||12 May 2009||55 days||Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Donkupar Roy|
|Mizoram ||11 May 1977||1 June 1978||1 year, 21 days||Mizo Union Ministry led by Chief Minister Chhunga resigned in May 1977, ostensibly to facilitate the progress of peace talks. see Lost Opportunities: 50 Years of Insurgency in the North-east and India's Response, By S. P. Sinha, Page 95|
|Mizoram ||10 November 1978||8 May 1979||179 days||Chief Minister Sailo's refusal to grant undue favours caused dissension in his party which led to the fall of his government and imposition of President's rule. see Lost Opportunities: 50 Years of Insurgency in the North-east and India's Response, By S. P. Sinha, Page 96-97|
|Mizoram ||7 September 1988||24 January 1989||139 days||Defections reduced the Government to minority|
|Nagaland ||20 March 1975||25 November 1977||2 years, 250 days||Defections and counter defections led to imposition of President's rule|
|Nagaland ||7 August 1988||25 January 1989||171 days||The state was under a brief spell of central rule again after the Hokishe Sema-led Congress government was reduced to a minority. The decision was challenged in the Supreme Court in held to be invalid in 1994.|
|Nagaland ||2 April 1992||22 February 1993||326 days||Fluid party position and deteriorating law and order situation|
|Nagaland ||3 January 2008||12 March 2008||69 days||Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Neiphiu Rio|
|Orissa ||25 February 1961||23 June 1961||118 days||Harekrishna Mahtab led Congress-Gantantra Parishad Minority Government resigned on 21 February 1961 due to differences in the Congress Party. President’s Rule was imposed on 25 February 1961.|
|Orissa ||11 January 1971||3 April 1971||82 days||Break-up of coalition|
|Orissa ||3 March 1973||6 March 1974||1 year, 3 days||Facing imminent collapse of government, incumbent chief minister recommended dissolution of assembly and fresh elections.|
|Orissa ||16 December 1976||29 December 1976||13 days||Chief Minister Nandini Satpathy was forced out and assembly placed under suspended animation. A new Congress government was sworn in after revocation of President's rule.|
|Orissa ||30 April 1977||26 June 1977||57 days||Government dismissed in spite of Binayak Acharya enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Orissa ||17 February 1980||9 June 1980||113 days||Government dismissed in spite of Nilamani Routray enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Patiala and East Punjab States Union ||5 March 1953||8 March 1954||1 year, 3 days||President's rule was invoked in the erstwhile PEPSU (Patiala and East Punjab States Union ) State when the Akali Dal government, led by Gian Singh Rarewala, was dismissed|
|Pondicherry ||18 September 1968||17 March 1969||180 days||Assembly was dissolved and President's rule imposed as opposition parties had a chance to form a government after the fall of the Congress government.|
|Pondicherry ||3 January 1974||6 March 1974||62 days||Assembly dissolved after fall of DMK government following decision of two ministers to join newly formed ADMK.|
|Pondicherry ||28 March 1974||2 July 1977||3 years, 96 days||Fall of coalition government of ADMK, Congress(O)following division of votes by Congress(R) and DMK. The Assembly was dissolved.|
|Pondicherry ||12 November 1978||16 January 1980||1 year, 65 days||Fall of government due to political instability|
|Pondicherry ||24 June 1983||16 March 1985||1 year, 265 days||Government dismissed following withdrawal of Congress(I) from coalition government. In spite of incumbent chief minister asking for an opportunity to prove his majority on the floor of the house, the assembly was dissolved.|
|Pondicherry ||4 March 1991||3 July 1991||121 days||DMK Government dismissed in spite of having a majority in the Assembly|
|Punjab ||20 June 1951||17 April 1952||302 days||Pandit Nehru kept the Punjab Assembly in suspension for nine months and 28 days to help the state Congress government get its act together.|
|Punjab ||5 July 1966||1 November 1966||119 days||State administration was taken over, ostensibly to facilitate bifurcation of Punjab state into two, Punjab and Haryana|
|Punjab ||23 August 1968||17 February 1969||178 days||Break-up of coalition|
|Punjab ||14 June 1971||17 March 1972||277 days||Following poor performance in March, 1971 Lok Sabha Elections, incumbent Chief Minister advised dissolving state assembly and holding fresh elections to state legislature.|
|Punjab ||30 April 1977||20 June 1977||51 days||Government dismissed in spite of Giani Zail Singh enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Punjab ||17 February 1980||6 June 1980||110 days||Government dismissed in spite of Parkash Singh Badal enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Punjab ||10 October 1983||29 September 1985||1 year, 354 days||Insurgency and breakdown of law and order|
|Punjab ||11 June 1987||25 February 1992||4 years, 259 days||Insurgency and breakdown of law and order|
|Rajasthan ||13 March 1967||26 April 1967||44 days||Indecisive outcome of elections|
|Rajasthan ||29 April 1977||22 June 1977||54 days||Government dismissed in spite of Hari Dev Joshi enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Rajasthan ||16 February 1980||6 June 1980||111 days||Government dismissed in spite of Bhairon Singh Shekhawat enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Rajasthan ||15 December 1992||4 December 1993||354 days||Government dismissed in spite of Bhairon Singh Shekhawat enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Sikkim ||18 August 1978||18 October 1979||1 year, 61 days||Loss of majority following split in Kazi Lhendup Dorji led Janata Party government. The central government imposed president's rule and followed up with electoral reforms before ordering fresh elections.|
|Sikkim ||25 May 1984||8 March 1985||287 days||Congress Government formed following induced collapse of Nar Bahadur Bandari Sikkim Janata Parishad Government was dismissed as it did not enjoy a majority in the Assembly.|
|Tamil Nadu ||31 January 1976||30 June 1977||1 year, 150 days||Government dismissed in spite of Karunanidhi enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Tamil Nadu ||17 February 1980||6 June 1980||110 days||Government dismissed in spite of M G Ramachandran enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Tamil Nadu ||30 January 1988||27 January 1989||363 days||Government dismissed after controversial confidence vote secured in the Assembly by CM Janaki Ramachandran|
|Tamil Nadu ||30 January 1991||24 June 1991||145 days||Government headed by M. Karunanidhi dismissed by Prime Minister Chandrashekhar on charges of supporting anti-national activities, in spite of the then Governor Barnala's report and enjoying majority support in the Assembly.|
|Travancore-Cochin ||23 March 1956||5 April 1957||1 year, 13 days||Loss of majority following split in Congress Party|
|Tripura ||1 November 1971||20 March 1972||140 days||In the backdrop of refugee influx due to Bangladesh Liberation War, split in the Congress and Communist agitation for Tripura to become a full-fledged state, President's rule was imposed. On 1 January 1972 Tripura became a State and assembly elections held subsequently.|
|Tripura ||5 November 1977||5 January 1978||61 days||Collapse of short lived government in a fluid political environment|
|Tripura ||11 March 1993||10 April 1993||30 days||Elections postponed from 15 February 1993 to 3 April 1993 on account of deteriorating law and order situation. Caretaker CM resigns.|
|Uttar Pradesh ||25 February 1968||26 February 1969||1 year, 1 day||Loss of majority following withdrawal of support by Congress (R) led by Indira Gandhi.|
|Uttar Pradesh ||1 October 1970||18 October 1970||17 days||Charan Singh Ministry supported by Congress collapsed following split in Congress party.|
|Uttar Pradesh ||13 June 1973||8 November 1973||148 days||Chief Minister resigned as a result of the 1973 Provincial Armed Constabulary revolt.|
|Uttar Pradesh ||30 November 1975||21 January 1976||52 days||Congress Government of H N Bahuguna tendered resignation due to infighting within the party.|
|Uttar Pradesh ||30 April 1977||23 June 1977||54 days||Government dismissed in spite of N D Tiwari enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Uttar Pradesh ||17 February 1980||9 June 1980||113 days||Government dismissed in spite of Banarasi Das enjoying majority support in Assembly|
|Uttar Pradesh ||6 December 1992||4 December 1993||363 days||Government dismissed in the aftermath of the destruction of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmasthan|
|Uttar Pradesh ||18 October 1995||21 March 1997||1 year, 154 days||Loss of Majority following collapse of coalition followed by indecisive outcome of fresh elections|
|Uttar Pradesh ||8 March 2002||3 May 2002||56 days||Indecisive outcome of elections.|
|Uttarakhand ||27 March 2016||21 April 2016||25 days||Collapse of CM Harish Rawat's ministry following a split in the state unit of Congress party. In the hearing of related case, Uttarakhand High Court declared the President's rule imposition by the President unconstitutional and restored the Harish Rawat's led government in the state.|
|Uttarakhand ||22 April 2016||11 May 2016||19 days||Supreme Court of India held the stay on Uttarakhand High Court's verdict thus reinstating the President's rule in the state.|
|Vindhya Pradesh ||8 April 1949||13 March 1952||2 years, 340 days||President's rule was imposed in the erstwhile Vindya Pradesh State when Chief Minister resigned. President's rule was revoked following independent India's first general elections.|
|West Bengal ||1 July 1962||8 July 1962||7 days||Interim Period between death of incumbent Chief Minister and election of new leader.|
|West Bengal ||20 February 1968||25 February 1969||1 year, 5 days||State placed under President's rule following collapse of two successive short lived coalition governments.|
|West Bengal ||19 March 1970||2 April 1971||1 year, 14 days||Collapse of United Front Coalition between Bangla Congress and CPI(M)|
|West Bengal ||28 June 1971||19 March 1972||265 days||Collapse of United Front Coalition between Bangla Congress and CPI(M)|
- Federalism in India
- Part Eighteen of the Constitution of India
- Article 370
- Sarkaria Commission
- Direct rule
- Federal intervention (A similar procedure used in Argentina)
- "Perceptions' on 'misuse of article 356".
- "Limitations of Article 356". The Hindu.
- Ahmadi J., S.R. Bommai v. Union of India, (1994) 3 SCC 1, 296–297, ¶ 434 cited in http://www.ejcl.org/81/art81-4.html
- "Sarkaria Commission Report - CHAPTER VI : Emergency Provisions" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "National Commission to Review the Working of the Article 356 of the constitution". 2001. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Sarkaria Commission Report - CHAPTER VI : Emergency Provisions" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "President's Rule imposed in Andhra Pradesh under Article 356 of Constitution". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "Andhra Pradesh mired in President rule imbroglio". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- "Re-proclamation of President rule in Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "Andhra Pradesh mired in President rule imbroglio". The Times Of India. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- "It's against Constitution: Politicians react to Prez rule in Arunachal". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- "After Arunachal Pradesh debacle, PM Modi must abolish post of governor". Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Rameshwar Prasad And Ors vs Union Of India And Anr on 24 January, 2006". Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- PTI (18 January 2013). "Jharkhand put under President's rule again". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Congress had no role in dismissing DMK govt in 1991". The Hindu. 14 April 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "Lessons from Uttarakhand and Arunachal: What court orders on Central rule say". Retrieved 15 July 2016.