Articulatory phonology

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Articulatory phonology[1][2] is a linguistic theory originally proposed in 1986 by Catherine Browman[3] of Haskins Laboratories and Louis M. Goldstein[4] of Yale University and Haskins. The theory identifies theoretical discrepancies between phonetics and phonology and aims to unify the two by treating them as low- and high-dimensional descriptions of a single system.

Unification can be achieved by incorporating into a single model the idea that the physical system (identified with phonetics) constrains the underlying abstract system (identified with phonology), making the units of control at the abstract planning level the same as those at the physical level.

The plan of an utterance is formatted as a gestural score, which provides the input to a physically based model of speech production - the task dynamic model of Elliot Saltzman.[5][6] The gestural score graphs locations within the vocal tract where constriction can occur, indicating the planned or target degree of constriction. A computational model of speech production developed at Haskins Laboratories combines articulatory phonology, task dynamics, and the Haskins articulatory synthesis system developed by Philip Rubin and colleagues.


  1. ^ "Haskins Laboratories". Retrieved 2013-07-30. 
  2. ^[dead link]
  3. ^ "Catherine P. Browman". Haskins Laboratories. Retrieved 2013-07-30. 
  4. ^ "Linguistics". Yale University. Retrieved 2013-07-30. 
  5. ^[dead link]
  6. ^ "Elliot Saltzman". Haskins Laboratories. Retrieved 2013-07-30. 


  • Browman, C. P.; Goldstein, L.; Kelso, J. A. S.; Rubin, P. E.; Saltzman, E. (1984). "Articulatory synthesis from underlying dynamics". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 75: S22. doi:10.1121/1.2021330. 
  • Browman, C.P. and Goldstein, L. (1986) Towards an articulatory phonology. In C. Ewen and J. Anderson (eds.) Phonology Yearbook 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 219–252.
  • Browman, C.P.; Goldstein, L. (1992). "Articulatory phonology: an overview". Phonetica 49 (3–4): 155–180. doi:10.1159/000261913. PMID 1488456. 
  • Browman, C.P. and Goldstein, L. (1993) Dynamics and articulatory phonology. Status Reports on Speech Research, SR-l 13. New Haven: Haskins Laboratories, pp. 51–62.
  • Browman, Catherine. P.; Goldstein, Louis M. (2000). "Competing constraints on intergestural coordination and self-organization of phonological structures. L". Es Cahiers de l'ICP, Bulletin de la Communication Parlée 5: 25–34. 
  • Fowler, C.A., Rubin, P. Remez, R.E. and Turvey, M.T. (1980) Implications for speech production of a general theory of action. In B. Butterworth (ed.) Language Production. New York, NY: Academic Press, pp. 373–420.
  • Goldstein, Louis M., and Carol Fowler. (2003). Articulatory phonology: a phonology for public language use.” In Phonetics and Phonology in Language Comprehension and Production: Differences and Similarities, ed. Antje S. Meyer and Niels O. Schiller. Mouton de Gruyter
  • Rubin, P.; Baer, T.; Mermelstein, P. (1981). "An articulatory synthesizer for perceptual research". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 70 (2): 321–328. doi:10.1121/1.386780. 
  • Kröger, B.J. (1993) A gestural production model and its application to reduction in German. Phonetica 50: 213-233.
  • Kröger, B.J., Birkholz, P. (2007) A gesture-based concept for speech movement control in articulatory speech synthesis. In: Esposito A, Faundez-Zanuy M, Keller E, Marinaro M (eds.) Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Behaviours, LNAI 4775 (Springer, Berlin) pp. 174-189
  • Saltzman, E. (1986) Task dynamic co-ordination of the speech articulators: a preliminary model. In H. Heuer and C. Fromm (eds.) Generation and Modulation of Action Patterns. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 129–144.
  • Saltzman, E.; Kelso, J. A. S. (1987). "Skilled actions: A task dynamic approach". Psychological Review 94 (1): 84–106. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.94.1.84. PMID 3823306. 
  • Tatham, M. A. A. (1996). Articulatory phonology and computational adequacy. In R. Lawrence (ed.). Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, Vol. 18, Part 9. St. Albans: IoA, 375-382. [1]