An artificial enzyme is a synthetic, organic molecule or ion that recreate some function of an enzyme. The area promises to deliver catalysis at rates and selectivity observed in many enzymes.
Enzyme catalysis of chemical reactions occur with high selectivity and rate. The substrate is activated in a small part of the enzyme's macromolecule called the active site. There, the binding of a substrate close to functional groups in the enzyme causes catalysis by so-called proximity effects. It is possible to create similar catalysts from small molecule by combining substrate-binding with catalytic functional groups. Classically artificial enzymes bind substrates using receptors such as cyclodextrin, crown ethers, and calixarene.
Artificial enzymes based on amino acids or peptides as characteristic molecular moieties have expanded the field of artificial enzymes or enzyme mimics. For instance, scaffolded histidine residues mimics certain metalloproteins and -enzymes such as hemocyanin, tyrosinase, and catechol oxidase).
Nanozymes are nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics. They have been widely explored for various applications, such as biosensing, bioimaging, tumor diagnosis and therapy, antibiofouling. In 2006, nanoceria (i.e., CeO2 nanoparticles) was used for preventing retinal degeneration induced by intracellular peroxides. In 2007, Xiyun Yan and coworkers reported that ferromagnetic nanoparticles possessed intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. In 2008, Hui Wei and Erkang Wang developed an iron oxide nanozyme based sensing platform for bioactive molecues (such as hydrogen peroxide and glucose). In 2012, recombinant human heavy-chain ferritin coated iron oxide nanoparticle with peroxidase-like activity was prepared and used for targeting and visualizing tumour tissues. In 2012, vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles with vanadium haloperoxidase mimicking activities were used for preventing marine biofouling. In 2015, a supramolecular regulation strategy was proposed to modulate the activity of gold-based nanozymes for imaging and therapeutic applications. A nanozyme-strip for rapid local diagnosis of Ebola was developed. An integrated nanozyme has been developed for real time monitoring the dynamic changes of cerebral glucose in living brains. A book entitled "Nanozymes: Next Wave of Artificial Enzymes" was published.
Nanozymes (Conferences & Meetings)
Several conferences (meetings) have been focused on the nanozymes. In 2015, a workshop for nanozyme has been held in 9th Asian Biophysics Associatation (ABA) Symposium. In Pittcon 2016, a Networking entitled "Nanozymes in Analytical Chemistry and Beyond" was devoted to nanozymes.
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- Fan, Kelong; Cao, Changqian; Pan, Yongxin; Lu, Di; Yang, Dongling; Feng, Jing; Song, Lina; Liang, Minmin; Yan, Xiyun (2012-07-01). "Magnetoferritin nanoparticles for targeting and visualizing tumour tissues". Nature Nanotechnology. 7 (7): 459–464. doi:10.1038/nnano.2012.90. ISSN 1748-3387.
- Natalio, Filipe; André, Rute; Hartog, Aloysius F.; Stoll, Brigitte; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Wever, Ron; Tremel, Wolfgang (2012-08-01). "Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles mimic vanadium haloperoxidases and thwart biofilm formation". Nature Nanotechnology. 7 (8): 530–535. doi:10.1038/nnano.2012.91. ISSN 1748-3387.
- Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Jeong, Youngdo; Duncan, Bradley; Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Mout, Rubul; Das, Riddha; Kim, Sung Tae; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Yan, Bo (2015-07-01). "Supramolecular regulation of bioorthogonal catalysis in cells using nanoparticle-embedded transition metal catalysts". Nature Chemistry. 7 (7): 597–603. doi:10.1038/nchem.2284. ISSN 1755-4330.
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- Duan, Demin; Fan, Kelong; Zhang, Dexi; Tan, Shuguang; Liang, Mifang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianlin; Zhang, Panhe; Liu, Wei (2015-12-15). "Nanozyme-strip for rapid local diagnosis of Ebola". Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 74: 134–141. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2015.05.025.
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- Cheng, Hanjun; Zhang, Lei; He, Jian; Guo, Wenjing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Zhang, Xuejin; Nie, Shuming; Wei, Hui (2016-04-12). "Integrated nanozymes with nanoscale proximity for in vivo neurochemical monitoring in living brains". Analytical Chemistry. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b00975. ISSN 0003-2700.
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