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Starr 031209-0044 Artocarpus altilis.jpg
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Tribe: Artocarpeae
Genus: Artocarpus
J.R.Forster & G.Forster

See text

Artocarpus is a genus of approximately 60 trees and shrubs of Southeast Asian and Pacific origin, belonging to the mulberry family, Moraceae. Most species of Artocarpus are restricted to Southeast Asia; a few cultivated species are more widely distributed, especially A. altilis (breadfruit) and A. heterophyllus (jackfruit), which are cultivated throughout the tropics.[1]


All Artocarpus species are laticiferous trees or shrubs that are composed of leaves, twigs and stems capable of producing a milky sap. The fauna type is monoecious and produces unisexual flowers; furthermore, both sexes are present within the same plant. The plants produce small, greenish, female flowers that grow on short, fleshy spikes. Following pollination, the flowers grow into a syncarpous fruit, and these are capable of growing into very large sizes. The stipulated leaves vary from small and entire (Artocarpus integer) to large and lobed (Artocarpus altilis), with the cordate leaves of the species A. altilis ending in long, sharp tips.


The name Artocarpus is derived from the Greek words artos ("bread") and karpos ("fruit"). This name was coined by Johann Reinhold Forster and J. Georg Adam Forster, a father-and-son team of botanists aboard HMS Resolution on James Cook's second voyage. It is maintained as a conserved name.


Recent phylogenetic research, based on leaf arrangement, leaf anatomical characters and stipules, indicates that there are at least two subgenera in Artocarpus:

Subgenus Pseudojaca is allied to the genus Prainea, and some researchers treat this taxon as a third subgenus of Artocarpus.

Extant species[2][3][4][edit]

Image Name Common name Group Distribution
Starr 060703-8343 Artocarpus altilis.jpg Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg Breadfruit, seeded breadfruit, antipolo, camansi, anubing Artocarpus Oceania from New Guinea through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to western Micronesia.
Arto aniso T 070203 mncg.JPG Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq. Entawak Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo
Artocarpus blancoi (Elmer) Merr. Artocarpus Philippines
Artocarpus camansi 1.jpg Artocarpus camansi Blanco Breadnut Artocarpus Papua New Guinea
Artocarpus chama Buch.-Ham. Chaplaish Artocarpus Yunnan China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sikkim, Thailand
Artocarpus dadah fruit.jpg Artocarpus dadah Miq. Sumatra
Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume - Bendo, Terap.jpg Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume Bendo, terap Artocarpus Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas.
Artocarpus gomezianus 16.JPG Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul Pseudojaca Assam to W. Malesia
Artocarpus gongshanensis S.K.Wu ex C.Y.Wu & S.S.Chang ? NW Yunnan, China
Artocarpus heterophylla fruit 01.JPG Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Nangka, jackfruit Artocarpus India, China to Mauritius, Philippines
Artocarpus hirsutus fruit.jpg Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. Angily, angelin, hirsute artocarpus, aini maram, aini Artocarpus Western Ghats, India
Artocarpus hypargyreus Hance ex Benth. Kwai muk Pseudojaca China
Artocarpus integer Fruit and Tree.JPG Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. Cempedak Artocarpus southeast Asia, especially from Malaysia and can be found in Indonesia to the island of New Guinea
Artocarpus kemando Miq. Pudau Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo.
Monkey Jack (Artocarpus lakoocha) 4.jpg Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. Lakoocha, monkey fruit Pseudojaca Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Artocarpus mariannensis.jpg Artocarpus mariannensis Trécul Dugdug Artocarpus Mariana Islands and Guam
Artocarpus nanchuanensis S.S.Chang et al. ? Chongqing (Nanchuan), China
Artocarpus nigrifolius C.Y.Wu ? S Yunnan (Jinping), China
Artocarpus nitidus subsp. lingnanensis.jpg Artocarpus nitidus Trécul Butong China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, S Hunan, S Yunnan) Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
Artocarpus nobilis.jpg Artocarpus nobilisThwaites Ceylon breadfruit south western regions of Sri Lanka
8158Marang Philippines Artocarpus odoratissimus 12.jpg Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco Morangbaum Artocarpus Borneo, Palawan, and Mindanao Island
Artocarpus ovatus Blanco Pseudojaca N. & Central Philippines
Artocarpus petelotii Gagnepain ? China (SE Yunnan),N Vietnam
Artocarpus pithecogallus C.Y.Wu ? China (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan)
Artocarpus rigidus Blume Monkey jackfruit Artocarpus Indochina and Malesia
Artocarpus rubroveniaWarb. Philippines.
Artocarpus scortechinii1.jpg Artocarpus scortechinii King Two winged artocarpus Malaysia
Artocarpus sarawakensis F.M.Jarrett Pingan Sarawak.
Artocarpus sericicarpus 6zz.jpg Artocarpus sericicarpus F.M.Jarrett Pedalai Borneo (Sarawak), Malaysia (Sabah), the Philippines and Indonesia
Artocarpus styracifolius Pierre ? China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, SW Hunan, SE Yunnan)Laos, Vietnam
Timbangan (Artocarpus tamaran) (8082540008).jpg Artocarpus tamaran Becc. Elephant jack Artocarpus Borneo
Artocarpus tonkinensis A.Chev. ex Gagnep. Pseudojaca China(Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Yunnan), Cambodia, N Vietnam.
Artocarpus treculianus Elmer Philippines
Artocarpus xanthocarpus Merr. ? Taiwan (Lan Yu), Indonesia (Kalimantan), Philippines

Fossil record[edit]

Fossil leaves and fruits of †Artocarpus dicksoni have been found in Cretaceous formations of West Greenland. Fossil leaves of †Artocarpus ordinarius have been found in Cretaceous stratum at the south bank of the Yukon River just above Rampart, Alaska.[5] Fossils of †Artocarpus californica have been described from Eocene and Miocene strata of the Pacific coast of California and Oregon.[6] 8 fossil species of Artocarpus (†A. capellinii, †A. isseli, †A. macrophylla, †A. massalongoi, †A. multinervis, †A. ovalifolia, †A. sismondai and †A. taramellii) from the lower Oligocene, have been described from a fossil leaves collected from 1857 to 1889 in Santa Giustina and Sassello in Central Liguria, Italy.[7]


Several species in the genus bear edible fruit and are commonly cultivated: breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), cempedak (Artocarpus integer), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), kwai muk (Artocarpus hypargyreus), lakoocha (Artocarpus lakoocha), pudau (Artocarpus kemando), anjily (a.k.a. Jungle Jack) (Artocarpus hirsutus), chaplaish (Artocarpus chama), and marang (Artocarpus odoratissimus).

Breadfruit and jackfruit are cultivated widely in the tropical Southeast Asia. Other species are cultivated locally for their timber, fruit or edible seeds. Anjily, A. hirsutus, is grown for fruit and timber in the Western Ghats.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Zerega, Nyree J. C.; Diane Ragone; Timothy J. Motley (2005). "Systematics and Species Limits of Breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae)" (PDF). Systematic Botany. 30 (3): 603–15. doi:10.1600/03636440yy54782134.
  2. ^ GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Artocarpus". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  3. ^ "Name - Artocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. subordinate taxa". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  4. ^ "Query Results for Genus Genus". IPNI. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  5. ^ The Tertiary floras of Alaska: Issues 181-184 by Charles Arthur Hollick - 1 January 1936 - U.S. Gov't. Print. Off.
  6. ^ The Lower Ecene Floras of Southteastern North America by Edward Wilber Berry, Professional Paper - United States Geological Survey, The Survey, 1916
  7. ^ Oligocene fossil leaves of the Perrando Collection: history, preservation and paleoclimatic meaning by Maria Cristina Bonci, Grazia Vannucci, Simona Tacchino & Michele Piazza - Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 50 (3), 2011, 145-164. Modena, 30 dicembre 2011 - ISSN 0375-7633 - doi:10.4435/BSPI.2011.14


  • Zerega, N. J. C. and T. J. Motley. 2001. Artocarpus (Moraceae) molecular phylogeny and the systematics and origins of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis. Botanical Society of America Annual Meeting. Albuquerque, NM. August 12–16, 2001.

See also[edit]