Arturo Alfonso Schomburg
|Arturo Alfonso Schomburg|
Arturo Alfonso Schomburg
|Born||January 24, 1874
Santurce, Puerto Rico
|Died||June 8, 1938
Brooklyn, New York
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Morrow Taylor|
Schomburg, also known as Arthur Schomburg, took an active role advocating Puerto Rico's independence.
Arturo Alfonso Schomburg, also Arthur Schomburg (January 24, 1874 – June 8, 1938), was a historian, writer, and activist. Schomburg was a Puerto Rican of mixed heritage who moved to the United States and researched and raised awareness of the great contributions that Afro-Latin Americans and Afro-Americans have made to society. He was an important intellectual figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Over the years, he collected literature, art, slave narratives, and other materials of African history, which was purchased to become the basis of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, named in his honor, at the New York Public Library (NYPL) branch in Harlem.
Schomburg was born in the town of Santurce, Puerto Rico (now part of San Juan), to María Josefa, a freeborn black midwife from St. Croix, and Carlos Federico Schomburg, a German merchant living in Puerto Rico.
While Schomburg was in grade school, one of his teachers claimed that blacks had no history, heroes or accomplishments. Inspired to prove the teacher wrong, Schomburg determined that he would find and document the accomplishments of Africans on their own continent and in the diaspora. Schomburg was educated at San Juan's Instituto Popular, where he learned commercial printing. At St. Thomas College in the Danish-ruled Virgin Islands, he studied Negro Literature.
Puerto Rico independence advocate
Schomburg immigrated to New York City on April 17, 1891, and settled in the Harlem section of Manhattan. He continued his studies to untangle the African thread of history in the fabric of the Americas. After experiencing racial discrimination in the US, he began calling himself "Afroborinqueño" which means "Afro-Puerto Rican". He became a member of the "Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico" and became an active advocate of Puerto Rico's and Cuba's independence from Spain.
Marriage and family
On June 30, 1895, Schomburg married Elizabeth Hatcher of Staunton, Virginia. She had come to New York as part of a wave of migration from the South that would increase in the 20th century and be known as the Great Migration. They had three sons: Maximo Gomez; Arthur Alfonso, Jr. and Kingsley Guarionex Schomburg.
After Elizabeth died in 1900, Schomburg married Elizabeth Morrow Taylor of Williamsburg, a village in Rockingham County, North Carolina. They were married on March 17, 1902, and had two sons: Reginald Stanton and Nathaniel José Schomburg.
In 1896, Schomburg began teaching Spanish in New York. From 1901 to 1906 Schomburg was employed as messenger and clerk in the law firm of Pryor, Mellis and Harris, New York City. In 1906, he began working for the Bankers Trust Company. Later, he became a supervisor of the Caribbean and Latin American Mail Section, and held that until he left in 1929.
While supporting himself and his family, Schomburg began his intellectual work of writing about Caribbean and African-American history. His first known article, "Is Hayti Decadent?", was published in 1904 in The Unique Advertiser. In 1909 he wrote Placido, a Cuban Martyr, a short pamphlet about the poet and independence fighter Gabriel de la Concepción Valdés.
The Negro Society for Historical Research
In 1911, Schomburg co-founded with John Edward Bruce the Negro Society for Historical Research, to create an institute to support scholarly efforts. For the first time it brought together African, West Indian and Afro-American scholars. Schomburg was later to become the President of the American Negro Academy, founded in Washington, DC in 1874, which championed black history and literature.
This was a period of founding of societies to encourage scholarship in African American history. In 1915, Dr. Carter G. Woodson co-founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (now called the Association for the Study of African American Life and History) and began publishing the Journal of Negro History.
Schomburg became involved in the Harlem Renaissance movement, which spread to other African-American communities in the U.S. The concentration of blacks in Harlem from across the US and Caribbean led to a flowering of arts, intellectual and political movements. He was the co-editor of the 1912 edition of Daniel Alexander Payne Murray's Encyclopedia of the Colored Race.
In 1916 Schomburg published what was the first notable bibliography of African-American poetry, A Bibliographical Checklist of American Negro Poetry.
In March 1925 Schomburg published his essay "The Negro Digs Up His Past" in an issue of Survey Graphic devoted to the intellectual life of Harlem. It had widespread distribution and influence. The autodidact historian John Henrik Clarke told of being so inspired by the essay that at the age of 17 he left home in Columbus, Georgia, to seek out Mr. Schomburg to further his studies in African history. Alain Locke included the essay in his edited collection The New Negro.
The Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature and Art
The NYPL and the librarian of the 135th Street Branch, Ernestine Rose, the NYPL purchased his extensive collection of literature, art and other materials in 1926. They appointed Schomburg curator of the Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature and Art, named in his honor, at the 135th Street Branch (Harlem) of the Library. It was later renamed the Arthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.
Between 1931 and 1932 Schomburg served as Curator of the Negro Collection at the library of Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, helping direct their acquisition of materials. During 1932 he traveled to Cuba. While there he met various Cuban artists and writers, and acquired more material for his studies.
He was granted an honorary membership of the Men's Business Club in Yonkers, New York. He also held the position of treasurer for the Loyal Sons of Africa in New York and was elevated being the past master of Prince Hall Lodge Number 38, Free and Accepted Masons (F.A.M.) and Rising Sun Chapter Number 4, R.A.M.
Following dental surgery, Schomburg became ill and died in Madison Park Hospital, Brooklyn, New York, on June 8, 1938. He is buried in grave 13785 in the Locust Grove section of Cypress Hill Cemetery.
By the 1920s Schomburg had amassed a collection which consisted of artworks, manuscripts, rare books, slave narratives and other artifacts of Black history. In 1926 the New York Public Library purchased his collection for $10,000 with the help of a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. The collection formed the cornerstone of the Library's Division of Negro History at its 135th Street Branch in Harlem. The library appointed Schomburg curator of the collection, which was named in his honor: the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Schomburg used his proceeds from the sale to fund travel to Spain, France, Germany and England, to seek out more pieces of black history to add to the collection. In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante named Schomburg to his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.
To honor Schomburg, Hampshire College awards a $30,000 merit-based scholarship in his name for students who "demonstrate promise in the areas of strong academic performance and leadership at Hampshire College and in the community."
Arturo Alfonso Schomburg's work served as an inspiration to Puerto Ricans, Latinos and Afro-American alike. The power of knowing about the great contribution that Afro-Latin Americans and Afro-American have made to society, helped continuing work and future generations in the Civil rights movement.
- List of Puerto Ricans
- Puerto Rican literature
- List of Puerto Ricans of African descent
- Afro-Puerto Rican
- German immigration to Puerto Rico
- L.S. Alexander Gumby, a fellow Black archivist during the Harlem Renaissance
- Robert Knight, "Arthur Alfonso 'Afroborinqueno' Schomburg" Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., History Notes, Global African Community, accessed February 2, 2009.
- "Arturo Alfonso Schomburg: Pionero en la historia afronorteamericana", Nuestro Mondo/People's Weekly World, accessed February 2, 2009.
- SallyAnn H. Ferguson, "Porter, Dorothy", in William L. Andrews, Frances Smith Foster & Trudier Harris (eds), Oxford Companion to African American Literature, New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 597.
- Arthur Schomburg, "The Negro Digs Up His Past" Archived February 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., Survey Graphic, Harlem: March 1925, University of Virginia Library; accessed February 2, 2009.
- Schomburg Studies on the Black Experience, New York Public Library.
- Des Verney Sinnette, Elinor. Arthur Alfonso Schomburg, Black Bibliophile & Collector: A Biography. page 192: Wayne state university press.
- Engraved number "13785" on photos by "ronzoni" and "Lorenzo Brieba" at "Arturo Alfonso Schomburg". Find a Grave. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Duer, Stephen C.; Smith, Allan B. (2010). Cypress Hill Cemetery. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7385-7343-4. LCCN 2010921765.
- The Arthur A. Schomburg Papers
- Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, NYPL.
- Asante, Molefi Kete (2002), 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
- Thabiti Asukile, "Schomburg, Arturo (Arthur) Alfonso (1874–1938)," Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography, Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin, Edited by Franklin W. Knight & Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Print ISBN 9780199935796 Published online: 2016 Current Online Version: 2016 DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780199935796.001.0001 eISBN 9780199935802.
- First Lady Named for Aid to Negroes (New York Times: 1940-02-14)
- Elinor Des Verney Sinnette, Arthur Alfonso Schomburg - Black Bibliophile and Collector: A biography, The New York Public Library & Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1989, 262 pp. ISBN 0-8143-2157-7
- Works by Arthur Alfonso Schomburg at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Arturo Alfonso Schomburg at Internet Archive
- Schomburg Studies on the Black Experience
- Schomburg (Arthur A.) Papers, 1724-1895 (1904-1938), New York Public Library
- "Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture", New York Public Library
- "The Arthur A. Schomburg Papers"
- "Schomburg Museum", Kappa Alpha Psi history