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|12th President of the Senate of the Philippines|
January 17, 1966 – January 26, 1967
|Preceded by||Ferdinand Marcos|
|Succeeded by||Gil Puyat|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
|Preceded by||Manuel Collantes (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Pacifico A. Castro (Acting)|
|Senator of the Philippines|
June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1995
December 30, 1957 – September 23, 1972
|Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines|
1970 – September 23, 1972
|Preceded by||Jose Roy|
|Mambabatas Pambansa from Manila|
June 30, 1984 – February 16, 1986
Serving with Lito Atienza, Eva Estrada-Kalaw, Carlos Fernando, Mel Lopez, and Gonzalo Puyat II
|Regional Assemblyman from National Capital Region|
June 12, 1978 – June 5, 1984
|Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Manila's Third District|
December 30, 1949 – December 30, 1957
|Preceded by||Post created|
|Succeeded by||Ramon Bagatsing|
|Born||Arturo Modesto Tolentino
September 19, 1910
Tondo, Manila, Philippine Islands
|Died||August 2, 2004
Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines
|Resting place||Taguig, Philippines|
|Political party||Nationalist People's Coalition
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan
Arturo Modesto Tolentino (September 19, 1910 – August 2, 2004) was a prominent Filipino politician and diplomat who previously served as the President of the Senate of the Philippines and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. He is also well known as the father of the Philippine “archipelagic doctrine” and as an expert on the Law of the Sea.
Arturo M. Tolentino was born in Manila of humble parentage. He was a self-made man.
As a student, Tolentino was noted for his excellent scholarship. He was valedictorian of the Manila East High School (now V. Mapa High School) (1928); valedictorian (cum laude) University of the Philippines College of Law (1934); a bar topnotcher (1934). He obtained the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy (cum laude) with a gold medal award from the UP in 1938, and received the degrees of Master of Law (meritissimus) and Doctor of Civil Law (meritissimus) from the University of Santo Tomás.
As a debater and orator, he won seven gold medals (including the Quezon Medal) and two silver loving cups. He held the title of “Inter-Collegiate Oratorical Champion of the Philippines” in 1934. He successfully debated with American students from the University of Oregon in 1933 and from the University of Washington in 1934. In U.P., he was also editor-in-chief of the Philippine Collegian and a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi.
Tolentino engaged in the practice of law after passing the bar in 1934, and was a recognized legal luminary.
He was a law professor in the University of the Philippines, University of Santo Tomás, University of the East, University of Manila, Arellano University, Far Eastern University, Manila Law College, Philippine Law School, San Beda College and Quezon College.
House of Representatives
Tolentino was first elected as Representative for Manila in 1949. He was re-elected in 1953. Shortly after his re-election, Tolentino was given the position of Majority Floor Leader, which he held until his entry to the Senate four years later and one which, though less glamorous than that of Speaker, he preferred and enjoyed.
As it was a very senior position for such a young and inexperienced politician, his son recalls that his father’s reputation of toughness had earned him the respect of President Magsaysay. As he took his seat in the House of Representatives that day he glowered at the assembled members and said, “I warn you gentlemen, I was once a champion wrestler and weightlifter!”
The duties and responsibilities of Majority Floor Leader and the reason for Tolentino’s selection was explained in an article by Manuel Martinez in “Tempo” October 7, 1983.
“Tolentino was often involved in great intellectual battles and feared for his parliamentary prowess. That is why he was elected floor leader at a very young age.
In legislation, the majority floor leader, not the Speaker or the presiding officer, is the key man around whom the parliamentary process revolves. He is the lightning rod, the clearing house, the yeoman and work-horse and spark-plug, the whipping boy if he does not watch out, the beast of burden, and center of attention. Only the tough are chosen as floor leaders.
And so Tolentino discharged his function with awesome skill. It came to pass that there was born a saying, given as wise advice to newcomers to the House and later the Senate, where he was floor leader: ‘Neophytes should observe two things above all. First they should learn parliamentary rules by heart. Second, they should pray not to tangle with Tolentino in a floor debate!”
It was not Tolentino's intention to run for the Senate. He was confident of re-election as Congressman, having been nominated by his party and already started his campaign when he was nominated for the Senate. He left the decision to his party leaders because he was unsure of which route to choose. The leaders allowed him to accept the Senate nomination.
Many of the candidates were asked to make financial contributions for their campaign expense. Tolentino did not have sufficient funds. He remembered being asked him how he managed this financial difficulties.
"I have never forgotten the generosity of Senator Oscar Ledesma who paid my contribution and will always be grateful to him. As a sign of my appreciation, I saw to it that I was with him during the division of candidates into campaign teams and strongly endorsed his policies in my speeches.”
The Nacionalista Party had a strong Senatorial slate. In fact, the only casualty that might occur was thought by some leaders to be Tolentino. Their concern turned out to be unnecessary for when the returns came in, he was second behind Gil Puyat.
“Where did you get all these votes?” Amang Rodriguez, the party president would ask.
“I have a secret army,” Tolentino replied laughingly. “All over the country there are thousands of lawyers who were once my students and thousands of high school graduates who studied my text books.”
On March 7, 1957 then President Magsaysay took off from the airport in Cebu. He was at the height of his popularity. A few minutes later, his plane crashed into the side of the mountain. All on board, with the exception of one newspaperman were killed.
"I had been going with the President on Provincial trips because the President wanted to introduce me to party leaders and rural electorate for possible candidacy as a senator in 1957. Normally he would go to series of towns briefly speaking in one before proceeding to the next. I would start my speech immediately after he had finished, then follow him as soon as mine was over. On this occasion however I was committed to a speaking engagement in Manila even though I had been scheduled to accompany Magsaysay. I explained my predicament to the President who was very understanding, who gave my seat to the Education Secretary then, who perished with the others on that ill fated flight."
Tolentino was elected in the Senate that year. He was re-elected in 1963 and in 1969.
In 1966, shortly after Ferdinand Marcos was elected President, Tolentino was elected Senate President. A year later, however, he was ousted from his position.
Tolentino said: "I seem to have a lot of frustrations that come along in my life without invitation. When I was Senate President, my term was for two years. But somehow I understood later that President Marcos had made an agreement with another Senator, - Senator Puyat, that after one year he (Puyat) would take my place. In other words we would split the two year term between us.
I was not aware of that arrangement. President Marcos never informed me. So, after twelve months of my term as Senate President, Puyat insisted that he take over. Naturally, I resisted and pointed out that my term had not yet expired. He kept citing an agreement, but I pointed out there was no such agreement.
At the next session of the Senate, Marcos maneuvered the other Senators to comply with this “commitment”, and voted for Puyat. As a result, I got ousted as Senate President halfway through my term of office.”
Vice-presidential candidate (1986)
He was chosen by Ferdinand Marcos as his vice-presidential running mate for the February 7, 1986 snap elections. They were against the united opposition of Corazon Aquino and Salvador Laurel. According to the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) final tally, Aquino and Laurel were consistently in the lead. The final tally showed Laurel winning by over 800,000 votes—roughly the same margin by which it showed Aquino defeating Marcos. However, according to the COMELEC tally, Tolentino won over Laurel with a margin of around one million votes. He became the Vice President of the Philippines on February 16, 1986. His, however, was a short-lived tenure and without actual exercise of power and authority. The allegedly fraudulent outcome would eventually lead to the People Power Revolution which ousted Marcos and installed Aquino as president.
Tolentino then would launch a coup on July 6, 1986 declaring that since Marcos was in exile, he was constitutionally the acting President of the Philippines. Marcos allies and about 100 soldiers marched to the luxurious Manila Hotel, barricading it with trucks, and installing a rebel seat of government there. He was expecting massive support, but only several thousands of Marcos loyalists supported the attempted power grab. On July 8, he agreed to disperse his thousands of civilian supporters and about a hundred military backers, ending the failed coup attempt.
When the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines was overwhelmingly approved in a plebiscite, Tolentino announced he would respect the will of the people.
Return to the Senate
In 1992, he successfully ran for the Senate placing on number 18 under the Nationalist People's Coalition. However, his bid for reelection in 1995 was not successful and he retired from politics.
Respected by many Filipinos not only for his extemporaneous amendments to major measures and enlightened brand of politics, Tolentino was also known as a scholar, writer, diplomat, and distinguished author of law books.
He had seven children, as acknowledged in his last will and testament (1971): Arturo Jr., Evelyn and Annabella with Consuelo David; Bernadette, Salvador and Victorio with Constancia Conde; and Ma. Elenita with Rosita Robles.
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All Nations Publishing.
|Attempts at regime change in the Philippines (1970–2007)|
|First Quarter Storm (1970)|
|People Power (1986)|
|Honasan's Second (1989)|
|Second EDSA (2001)|
|May 1 riots (2001)|
|Oakwood mutiny (2003)|
|State of emergency (2006)|
|Manila Peninsula rebellion (2007)|
Ferdinand E. Marcos
|President of the Senate of the Philippines
Gil J. Puyat
Carlos P. Romulo
|Philippine Minister of Foreign Affairs
Pacifico A. Castro