|Coordinates (Itanagar): Coordinates:|
|Established||20 February 1987|
|• Body||Government of Arunachal Pradesh|
|• Governor||V. Shanmuganathan|
|• Chief Minister||Pema Khandu(BJP)|
|• Legislature||Unicameral (60 seats)|
|• Parliamentary constituency||Rajya Sabha 1
Lok Sabha 2
|• High Court||Guwahati High Court – Itanagar Bench|
|• Total||83,743 km2 (32,333 sq mi)|
|• Density||17/km2 (43/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-AR|
|HDI rank||18th (2005)|
|Language||English, Arunachali Hindi,Chakma,Adi, Monpa, Galo, Nyishi, Tangsha, Senji-Thonji, Tai Khamti|
|Song||Jia Jin Jia|
|River||Siang Yarlung Tsangpo, Lohit, Tirap, Subansiri, Kameng|
Arunachal Pradesh / / is one of the twenty-nine states of India. Located in northeast India, it holds the most north-eastern position among the states in the north-east region of India. Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east and China in the north. Itanagar is the capital of the state. Arunachal Pradesh has territorial disputes with both the PRC and ROC due to its cultural, ethnic and geographic proximity to Tibet.
A major part of the state, formerly called the North-East Frontier Agency, is disputed by China as the legality of the Simla Accord is not recognized by it. China claims most of the state as South Tibet. The state is seen to have major potential for hydropower development.
Arunachal Pradesh, whose name means Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains in Sanskrit, is also known as the Orchid State of India or the Paradise of the Botanists. Geographically, it is the largest among the North-east Indian states commonly known as the Seven Sister States. As in other parts of Northeast India, the people native to the state trace their origins to the Tibeto-Burman people. In recent times, large number of migrants from various parts of India and other lands have built extensive economic and cultural ties with the state's population.
No reliable population count of the migrant population exists, and the percentage estimating the total actual population accordingly, vary. Arunachal Pradesh has the highest number of regional languages in the Indian subcontinent, enriched with diverse culture and traditions.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Districts
- 4 Major Towns
- 5 Economy
- 6 Tourism
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Transport
- 9 Education
- 10 State symbols
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Neolithic tools found in Arunachal Pradesh indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. The earliest inhabitants of Bhutan and adjoining Himalayan areas of South Asia were the people from Indus Valley Civilisation, whose history predates the onset of Bronze Age in South Asia around 3300BC before the coming of other ethnic groups from Tibet and South China some 2,000 years ago.
The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh is unclear. Oral histories possessed to this day by many Arunachali tribes of Tibeto-Burman stock are much richer and point unambiguously to a northern origin in modern-day Tibet. Again corroboration remains difficult. From the point of view of material culture it is clear that most indigenous Arunachali groups align with Burma-area hill tribals, a fact that could either be explainable in terms of a northern Burmese origin or from westward cultural diffusion.
According to the Arunachal Pradesh government, the Hindu texts Kalika Purana and Mahabharata mention the region as the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas, and where sage Parashuram washed away sins, the sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmaka founded his kingdom, and Lord Krishna married his consort Rukmini.
Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Ahom and Sutiya chronicles. The Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet and Bhutan, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, were under the control of the Sutiya Kings until the Ahom-Sutiya battle in the 16th century. The Ahoms held the areas until the annexation of India by the British in 1858. However, most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalisation of indigenous administration in 1947.
Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th century Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang were built during the Sutiya reign. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in prehistoric times. Again, however, no evidence directly associates Bhismaknagar with this or any other known culture but the Sutiya rulers held the areas around Bhismaknagar from the 12th to 16th century. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people. The sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang.
Drawing of McMahon line
In 1913–1914 representatives of China, Tibet and Britain met in India ending with the Simla Accord. However, the Chinese representatives refused the territory negotiation. This treaty's objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet as well as between Outer Tibet and British India. British administrator, Sir Henry McMahon, drew up the 550 miles (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Outer Tibet during the Simla Conference. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, and Tibet ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to the British Empire. Thus, the Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out.
The Tibetan and British governments went ahead with the Simla Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this treaty would not be bestowed on China as long as it stays out of the purview. The Chinese position was that Tibet was not independent from China: Tibet could not have independently signed treaties, and per the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions, any such agreement was invalid without Chinese assent.
Simla was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention. This agreement (Anglo-Russian Convention) was renounced by Russia and Britain jointly in 1921. However, with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet, the line had no serious challenges as Tibet had signed the convention. Therefore, it was forgotten to the extent that no new maps were published until 1935, when civil service officer Olaf Caroe called attention to this issue. The Survey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937.
In 1938, the British finally published the Simla Convention as a bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference; in 1938 the Survey of India published a detailed map showing Tawang as part of North-East Frontier Agency. In 1944 Britain established administrations in the area from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east. Tibet altered its position on the McMahon Line in late 1947 when the Tibetan government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to Tawang south of the McMahon Line.
The situation developed further as India became independent in 1947 and the People's Republic of China (PRC) was established in 1949. In November 1950, with the PRC poised to take over Tibet, India unilaterally declared that the McMahon Line is the boundary — and, in 1951, forced the last remnants of Tibetan administration out of the Tawang area. The PRC has never recognised the McMahon Line and claims Tawang on behalf of Tibetans. The 14th Dalai Lama, who led the Tibetan government from 1950 to 1959, was quoted in 2003 as saying that Tawang was "actually part of the Tibetan administration" before the Simla Accord. He clarified his position in 2008, saying that as far as Tibet was concerned "Tawang is part of India". According to the Dalai Lama, "In 1962 during the India-China war, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) already occupied all these areas (Arunachal Pradesh) but they announced a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew, accepting the current international boundary".
The NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) was created in 1954. The issue was quiet for nearly a decade, a period of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but the re-emergence of the issue was a major cause of the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured most area of Arunachal Pradesh. However, China soon declared victory, voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. The war resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although in 2007 the state government has shown signs to resume barter trade with Tibet.
In recent years, China has occasionally made statements in conjunction with its claims on Tawang. India has rebutted these claims by the Chinese government and the Indian Prime Minister has informed the Chinese government that Tawang is an integral part of India. India reiterated this to the Chinese prime minister when the two prime ministers met in Thailand in October 2009. It was reported that during 2016, the Chinese Army had briefly invaded Arunachal Pradesh. This was refuted by the Minister of State for Home Affairs, Kiren Rijiju.
China objected to the visit of the Dalai Lama to Tawang in November 2009 though the Dalai Lama had previously visited Tawang several times since he fled from Tibet in 1959. India rejected the Chinese objection and said that the Dalai Lama is an honoured guest in India and could visit any place in India. The Dalai Lama visited Tawang on 8 November 2009. About 30,000 people including those from neighbouring countries, Nepal and Bhutan, attended his religious discourse.
He was received and welcomed by the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh and the people of Arunachal Pradesh. The residents of Tawang painted their houses and decorated the town.
NEFA was renamed as Arunachal Pradesh by Late Sri Bibhabasu Das Shastri, then the director of research, on 20 January 1972 and it became a Union Territory. Arunachal Pradesh became a state on 20 February 1987.
More recently, Arunachal Pradesh has come to face threats from certain insurgent groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), who are believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang and Tirap. There are occasional reports of these groups harassing local people and extorting protection money.
Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army has a considerable presence due to concerns about Chinese intentions in the region. Special permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh through any of its checkgates on the border with Assam.
Arunachal Pradesh is located between 26.28° N and 29.30° N latitude and 91.20° E and 97.30° E longitude and has 83,743 square kilometre area.
Most of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas. The land is mostly mountainous with the Himalayan ranges running north south. These divide the state into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All these are fed by snow from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets. The mightiest of these rivers is Siang, called the Tsangpo in Tibet, which becomes the Brahmaputra after it is joined by the Dibang and the Lohit in the plains of Assam.
The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from Tibet. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.
The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalaya close to the Tibetan border have an alpine or tundra climate. Below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a temperate climate. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience humid, sub-tropical climate with hot summers and mild winters.
Arunachal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of 2,000 to 4,100 millimetres (79 to 161 in) annually, most of it between May and September. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak, pine, maple, fir, and juniper; sal (Shorea robusta) and teak are the main economically valuable species.
Bio-geographically it lies in the Eastern Himalayan province, the richest biogeographical province of the Himalayan zone which is also classified as the biodiversity hotspot. Arunachal Pradesh is endowed with diverse forests and magnificent wildlife. It harbors over 5000 plants, about 85 terrestrial mammals, over 500 birds and a large number of butterflies, insects and reptiles. At the lowest elevations, essentially at Arunachal Pradesh's border with Assam, are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the state, including the Himalayan foothills and the Patkai hills, are home to Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests. Toward the northern border with Tibet, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks. It supports a large number of medicinal plants and within Ziro valley of Lower Subansiri district 158 medicinal plants are being used by its inhabitants.
Arunachal Pradesh is divided into twenty districts, each administered by a district collector. The districts are:
- Tawang District
- West Kameng District
- East Kameng District
- Papum Pare District
- Kurung Kumey District
- Kra Daadi District
- Lower Subansiri District
- Upper Subansiri District
- West Siang District
- Central Siang District
- East Siang District
- Upper Siang District
- Upper Dibang Valley District
- Lower Dibang Valley District
- Anjaw District
- Lohit District
- Namsai District
- Changlang District
- Tirap District
- Longding District
Below are the major towns in Arunachal Pradesh.
The chart below displays the trend of the gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh at market prices by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in billions of Indian Rupees.
|Year||Gross Domestic Product (Billion INR)|
Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product was estimated at US$706 million at current prices in 2004 and US$1.75 billion at current prices in 2012. Agriculture primarily drives the economy. Jhum, the local term used for shifting cultivation is being widely practised among the tribal groups, though owing to the gradual growth of other sources of income in the recent years, it is not being practised as prominently as it was earlier. Arunachal Pradesh has close to 61,000 square kilometres of forests, and forest products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation and processing units, and handloom handicrafts. Sawmills and plywood trades are prohibited under law. There are many saw mills in AP. 
Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage share of India's untapped hydroelectric potential. In 2008, the government of Arunachal Pradesh signed numerous memorandum of understanding with various companies planning some 42 hydroelectric schemes that will produce electricity in excess of 27,000 MW. Construction of the Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project, which is expected to generate between 10,000 and 12,000 MW, began in April 2009.
The state, on account of its unrivalled aesthetics and diverse cultural heritage possesses a great tourism potential. Popular tourist attractions include Tawang (a town with a Buddhist monastery) at 3000 m elevation, Ziro (which holds cultural festivals),Yomcha (limestone caves called 'tapen uru'), the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang district and Sela lake near Bomdila with its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest include Malinithan in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near Roing (the place as per the popular Hindu mythology, Rukmini, Lord Krishna's wife, said to have lived), and Parshuram Kund in Lohit district as Puranas is the lake where sage Parshuram washed away his sins, The Ganga lake(Gyaker sinyi or Gekar Sinyi)and various other tourist hot spots.
The state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting, trekking and hiking. Rafting and trekking are common activities. Some suggested routes for travel or trekking are
- Tezpur–Tipi–Bomdila-Tawang-se la pass
- Itanagar–Ziro-Daporijo–Along (or Aalo)-pandighat.
- Aalo – Yomcha (52 km)
The Golden Pagoda Monastery at Namsai is another tourist attraction.
The state is rich in wildlife and has a number of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks with rare animals, birds and plants. Perhaps the highest diversity of mammals in India is in Arunachal Pradesh (200+ species). The diversity of birds is also very high, 700+ and is second only to Assam.
|Source:Census of India
First ever census was carried out in 1961.
Arunachal Pradesh can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion and material culture: the Tibetic area bordering Bhutan in the west, the Tani area in the centre of the state, the Mishmi area to the east of the Tani area, the Tai/Singpho/Tangsa area bordering Myanmar, and the "Naga" area to the south, which also borders Myanmar. In between there are transition zones, such as the Aka/Hruso/Miji/Sherdukpen area, which provides a "buffer" of sorts between the Tibetic Buddhist tribes and the animist Tani hill tribes. In addition, there are isolated peoples scattered throughout the state, such as the Sulung.
Within each of these cultural spheres, one finds populations of related tribes speaking related languages and sharing similar traditions. In the Tibetic area, one finds large numbers of Monpa tribespeople, with several subtribes speaking closely related but mutually incomprehensible languages, and also large numbers of Tibetan refugees. Within the Tani area, major tribes include the Nyishi, which many people have recently come to apply to encompass the derogatory words; like dafla & Hills Miri. Apatani also live among the Nyishi, but are distinct. In the centre, one finds predominantly Galo people, with the major sub-groups of Karka, Lodu, Bogum, Lare and Pugo among others, extending to the Ramo and Pailibo areas (which are close in many ways to Galo). In the east, one finds the Adi with many subtribes including Padam, Pasi, Minyong and Bokar, among others. Milang, while also falling within the general "Adi" sphere, are in many ways quite distinct. Moving east, the Idu, Miju and Digaru make up the "Mishmi" cultural-linguistic area, which may or may not form a coherent historical grouping.
Moving southeast, the Tai Khamti are linguistically distinct from their neighbours and culturally distinct from the majority of other Arunachalese tribes. They follow the Theravada∞ sect of Buddhism. They also exhibit considerable convergence with the Singpho and Tangsa tribes of the same area, all of which are also found in Burma. Besides, the Nocte and Wancho exhibit cultural and possibly also linguistic affinities to the tribes of Nagaland, which they border.
In addition, there are large numbers of migrants from Bangladesh, who, while legally not entitled to settle permanently, in practice stay indefinitely, progressively altering the traditional demographic makeup of the state.
Literacy has risen in official figures to 66.95% in 2011 from 54.74% in 2001. The literate population is said to number 789,943. The number of literate males is 454,532 (73.69%) and the number of literate females is 335,411 (59.57%).
An uncertain but relatively large percentage of Arunachal's population are nature worshippers (indigenous religions), and follow their own distinct traditional institutions like the Nyedar Namlo by the Nyishi, the Rangfrah by the Tangsa & Nocte, Medar Melo by the Apatani, the Kargu Gamgi by the Galo and Donyi-Polo Dere by the Adi under the umbrella of the indigenous religion the Donyi-Polo. A small number of Arunachali people have traditionally identified as Hindus, although the number is growing as animist traditions are merged with Hindu traditions. Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng, and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet. Theravada Buddhism is practised by groups living near the Burmese border. Around 30% of the population are followers of the Christian faith.
According to the 2011 Indian Census, the religions of Arunachal Pradesh break down as follows:
- Christian: 418,732 (30.26%)
- Hindu: 401,876 (29.04%)
- Others (mostly Donyi-Polo): 362,553 (26.2%)
- Buddhist: 162,815 (11.76%)
- Muslim: 27,045 (1.9%)
- Sikh: 1,865 (0.1%)
- Jain: 216 (<0.1%)
As per 2001 census, out of the 705,158 tribals living in Arunachal, 333,102 are Animist (47.24%), 186,617 are Christian (26.46%), 92,577 are Hindu (13.13%), and 82,634 are Buddhist (11.72%).
Out of the 101 recognised tribes, 37 have an animist majority (Nyishi, Adi Gallong, Tagin, Adi Minyong, Adi, Apatani.etc.), 23 have a Christian majority (Wancho, Mossang Tangsa, Bori, Yobin.etc.), 15 have a Hindu majority (Mishmi, Mishing/Miri, Deori, Aka, Longchang Tangsa.etc.) and 17 have a Buddhist majority (Monpa, Khampti, Tawang Monpa, Momba, Singpho, Sherdukpen.etc.). The remaining eight tribes are multi-faith, i.e., they do not have a dominant religion (Nocte, Tangsa, Naga.etc.).
Modern-day Arunachal Pradesh is one of the linguistically richest and most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least 30 and possibly as many as 50 distinct languages in addition to innumerable dialects and subdialects thereof. Boundaries between languages very often correlate with tribal divisions—for example, Apatani and Nyishi are tribally and linguistically distinct—but shifts in tribal identity and alignment over time have also ensured that a certain amount of complication enters into the picture—for example, Galo is and has seemingly always been linguistically distinct from Adi, whereas the earlier tribal alignment of Galo with Adi (i.e., "Adi Gallong") has only recently been essentially dissolved.
The vast majority of languages indigenous to modern-day Arunachal Pradesh belong to the Paleao-Mongoloid with Tibeto-Burman groups of language family. The majority of these in turn belong to a single branch of Tibeto-Burman, namely Abo-Tani language. Almost all Tani languages are indigenous to central Arunachal Pradesh, including (moving from west to east) speak Tani language viz., the Nyishi, the Apatani, the Tagin, the Galo, the Bokar, the Adi, the Padam, the Pasi, and the Minyong. The Tani language is noticeably characterised by an overall relative uniformity, suggesting relatively recent origin and dispersal within their present-day area of concentration. Most of the Tani languages are mutually intelligible with at least one other Tani language, meaning that the area constitutes a dialect chain, as was once found in much of Europe; only Apatani and Milang stand out as relatively unusual in the Tani context. Tani languages are among the better-studied languages of the region.
To the east of the Tani area lie three virtually undescribed and highly endangered languages of the "Mishmi" group of Tibeto-Burman, Idu, Digaru and Miju. A number of speakers of these languages are also found in Tibet. The relationships of these languages, both amongst one another and to other area languages, are as yet uncertain. Further south, one finds the Singpho (Kachin) language, which is primarily spoken by large populations in Myanmar, and the Nocte and Wancho languages, which show affiliations to certain Naga languages spoken to the south in modern-day Nagaland.
To the west and north of the Tani area are found at least one and possibly as many as four Bodic languages, including Dakpa and Tshangla; within modern-day India, these languages go by the cognate but, in usage, distinct designations Monpa and Memba. Most speakers of these languages or closely related Bodic languages are found in neighbouring Bhutan and Tibet, and Monpa and Memba populations remain closely adjacent to these border regions.
Between the Bodic and Tani areas lie a large number of almost completely undescribed and unclassified languages, which, speculatively considered Tibeto-Burman, exhibit many unique structural and lexical properties that probably reflect both a long history in the region and a complex history of language contact with neighbouring populations. Among them are Sherdukpen, Bugun, Aka/Hruso, Koro, Miji, Bangru and Puroik/Sulung. The high linguistic significance these languages is belied by the extreme paucity of documentation and description of them, even in view of their highly endangered status. Puroik, in particular, is perhaps one of the most culturally and linguistically unique and significant populations in all of Asia from proto-historical and anthropological-linguistic perspectives, and yet virtually no information of any real reliability regarding their culture or language can be found in print.
Finally, other then the Bodic and Tani language there is also certain migratory languages which are largely spoken by migratory and central Government employees who are serving in the state in different departments and institutions in modern-day Arunachal Pradesh. They are classified as Non-Tribal as per the provisions of the Constitution of India.
Outside of Tibeto-Burman, one finds in Arunachal Pradesh a single representative of the Tai languages language family, spoken by the tribe like the Khampti and Singpho which is closely affiliated to the Shan language of the Myanmar. Seemingly, Khampti is a recent arrival in Arunachal Pradesh whose presence dates from 18th and/or early 19th-century migrations from northern Burma. In addition to these non-Indo-European languages, the Indo-European languages Assamese, Bengali, English, Nepali and especially Hindi are making strong inroads into Arunachal Pradesh. Primarily as a result of the primary education system—in which classes are generally taught by Hindi-speaking immigrant teachers from Bihar and other Hindi-speaking parts of northern India—a large and growing section of the population now speaks a semi-creolized variety of Hindi as its mother tongue. Despite, or perhaps because of, the linguistic diversity of the region, English is the only official language recognised in the state.
The speakers of major languages of the state according to the 2001 census are Nyishi (208,337), Adi (193,379), Bengali (97,149), Nepali (94,919), Hindi (81,186), Monpa (55,428), Assamese (51,551), Wancho (48,544), Tangsa (34,231), Mishmi (33,522), Mishing (33,381), Nocte (32,591), and Others (64,711).
Itanagar Airport, a Greenfield project serving Itanagar is being planned at Holongi at a cost of Rs. 6.50 billion. The existing state owned Daporijo Airport, Ziro Airport, Along Airport, Tezu Airport and Pasighat Airport are small and are not in operation. The government has proposed to operationalise these airports. Before the state was connected by roads, these airstrips were originally used for the transportation of food.
Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the 336 km National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai with Dirak, and another highway, which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang. Arunachal Pradesh State Transport Services (or APSTS) is the state-owned road transport corporation. APSTS is running daily bus servicess from Itanagar to most district headquarters including Tezpur, Guwahati in Assam and Shillong in Meghalaya as well as Dimapur in Nagaland. As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal. Work on the ambitious 2,400 km two-lane Trans-Arunachal Highway Project announced by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 31 January 2008 on his maiden visit to the state, was scheduled to be completed by 2015–16 but now due to political and social reasons it may take another decade.
In 2014, two major highways were proposed to be built in the state: East-West Industrial Corridor Highway, Arunachal Pradesh in the lower foot hills of the state and 2,000-kilometre-long (1,200 mi) Mago-Thingbu to Vijaynagar Arunachal Pradesh Frontier Highway along the McMahon Line, alignment map of which can be seen here  and here.
Arunachal Pradesh got its first railway line in late 2013 with the opening of the new link line from Harmuti on the main Rangpara North-Murkongselak railway line to Naharlagun in Arunachal Pradesh. The construction of the 33 kilometre 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge railway line was completed in 2012, and the link became operational after the gauge conversion of the main line under Project Unigauge. The state capital Itanagar was added to the Indian railway map on 12 April 2014 via the newly built 20 kilometre Harmuti-Naharlagun railway line, when a train from Dekargaon in Assam reached Naharlagun railway station, 10 kilometres from the centre of Itanagar, a total distance of 181 kilometres.
On 20 February 2015 the first through train was run from New Delhi to Naharlagun, flagged off from the capital by the Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi. India plans to eventually extend the railway to Tawang, near the border with China.
The state government is expanding the relatively underdeveloped education system with the assistance of NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra, leading to a sharp improvement in the state's literacy rate. The main universities are the Rajiv Gandhi University (formerly known as Arunachal University), Indira Gandhi Technological and Medical Sciences University and Himalayan University as well, together with nine affiliated Government Colleges as well as four private colleges. The first college, Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, was established in 1964. The First Technical University is Established in 2014 namely North East Frontier Technical University (NEFTU). In Aalo, West Siang District by The Automobile Society India, New Delhi. There is also a deemed university, the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology as well as the National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, established on 18 August 2010, is located in Yupia (headquarter of Itanagar). NERIST plays an important role in technical and management higher education. The directorate of technical education conducts examinations yearly so that students who qualify can continue on to higher studies in other states.
There are also trust institutes like Pali Vidyapith run by Buddhists. They teach Pali and Khamti scripts in addition to typical education subjects. Khamti is the only tribe in Arunachal Pradesh that has its own script. Libraries of scriptures are in a number of places in Lohit district, the largest one being in Chowkham.
The state has two polytechnic institutes: Rajiv Gandhi Government Polytechnic in Itanagar established in 2002 and Tomi Polytechnic College in Basar established in 2006. There is one law college called Arunachal Law Academy at Itanagar. The College of Horticulture and Forestry is affiliated to the Central Agricultural University, Imphal.
|State Bird||State Flower||State Animal||State Tree||Ref|
- Cuisine of Arunachal Pradesh
- Religion in Arunachal Pradesh
- List of people from Arunachal Pradesh
- List of institutions of higher education in Arunachal Pradesh
- Ministry for Development of North Eastern Region
- Sino-Indian border dispute
- "Pema Khandu sworn in as Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh". The Hindu.
- "BJP forms govt in Arunachal Pradesh". The Hindu. Arunachal Pradesh. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- "Basic Statistical Figure of Arunachal Pradesh" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- "Symbols of Arunachal Pradesh". knowindia.gov.in. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Symbols of Arunachal Pradesh". Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "State Trees and Flowers of India". flowersofindia.net. Retrieved 2016-01-27.
- "State Tree of Arunachal Pradesh" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- Wirsing, Robert G.; Christopher Jasparro; Daniel C. Stoll (2012). "Source of Transboundary River Disputes". International Conflict Over Water Resources in Himalayan Asia. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 103. ISBN 978-0230237834.
- Usha Sharma (2005). Discovery of North-East India. Mittal Publications. p. 65. ISBN 978-81-8324-034-5.
- Lonely Planet India
- "Official Web Page of Government of Arunachal Pradesh".
- 仓央嘉措生平疏议 Archived 12 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine. (Biography of Cangyang Gyaco; in Chinese) Archived 12 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Simla Convention". Tibetjustice.org. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- Lamb, Alastair, The McMahon line: a study in the relations between India, China and Tibet, 1904 to 1914, London, 1966, p529
- Ray, Jayanta Kumar (2007). Aspects of India's International relations, 1700 to 2000: South Asia and the World. History of science, philosophy, and culture in Indian civilization: Towards independence. Pearson PLC. p. 202. ISBN 978-81-317-0834-7.
- Ray, Jayanta Kumar (2007). Aspects of India's International Relations, 1700 to 2000: South Asia and the World. Pearson Education India. pp. 203–. ISBN 978-81-317-0834-7. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- Lamb, 1966, p580
- "The battle for the border". Rediff.com. 23 June 2003. Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- Maxwell, Neville (1970). India's China War. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 9780224618878.
- Ramachandran, Sudha (27 June 2008). "China toys with India's border". South Asia. Asia Times. Archived from the original on 22 November 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- "Tawang is part of India: Dalai Lama". TNN. 4 June 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
- "Dalai Lama's visit to Arunachal nostalgic: Top aide" Hindustan Times dated Dharamsala, 8 November 2009
- PM to visit Arunachal in mid-Feb[dead link]
- http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/News-of-Chinese-incursion-in-Arunachal-Pradesh-incorrect-MoS-Rijiju/articleshow/54560708.cms[permanent dead link]
- Thousands flock to see Dalai Lama in Indian state. Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Dalai Lama stresses on peace as 30,000 attend Tawang discourse". Sify. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
- "Apang rules out Chakma compromise". Calcutta, India: Telegraphindia.com. 12 August 2003. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
-  Archived 8 May 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Trekking in Arunachal, Trekking Tour in Arunachal Pradesh, Adventure Trekking in Arunachal Pradesh". North-east-india.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- Govt of Arunachal Pradesh. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
- Kala, CP (2005). "Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India". J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 1: 11. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-1-11. PMC . PMID 16288657.
- Arunachal Pradesh Economy Archived 8 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine., This Is My India
- "Massive dam plans for Arunachal". Indiatogether.org. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- "India pre-empts Chinese design in Arunachal". The New Indian Express.
- "Best Places To Visit In Arunachal Pradesh". Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "70,000 devotees take holy dip in Parshuram Kund". Indian Express. Jan 18, 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
- "Itanagar". Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum..
- "President to visit Arunachal Pradesh". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 14 October 2002.
..Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum..
- Hundred novice monks ordained at the Golden Pagoda Archived 22 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The Arunachal Times
- Choudhury, Anwaruddin (2003) The mammals of Arunachal Pradesh. Regency Pub., New Delhi.
- Choudhury, Anwaruddin (2006) A pocket guide to the birds of Arunachal Pradesh. Gibbon Books & Rhino Foundation (supported by OBC, UK), Guwahati, India.
- "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- "Census of India: Provisional Population Tables – Census 2011" (PDF). Censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
- "Census of India : C-1 Population By Religious Community".
- "Census of India – Religious Composition". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Table ST-14, Census of India 2001
- "Distribution of the 22 Scheduled Languages". Census of India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- "Census Reference Tables, A-Series – Total Population". Census of India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
-  Census 2011 Non scheduled languages
- http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/partb.htm Archived 11 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. 2001 census language data
- http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/parta.htm Archived 17 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Scheduled languages, census 2001
- "PMO ends tussle between AAI and Arunachal". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 28 July 2012. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Govt considering setting up of 3 greenfield airports in NE". The Hindu Businessline. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Oral Answers to Questions September 13, 1991 Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Parliament of India
- Itanagar-Dimapur bus service flagged off
- Night coach bus services introduced
-  Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Top officials to meet to expedite road building along China border". Dipak Kumar Dash. timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Narendra Modi government to provide funds for restoration of damaged highways". dnaindia. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Indian Government Plans Highway Along Disputed China Border". Ankit Panda. thediplomat.com. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Govt planning road along McMohan line in Arunachal Pradesh: Kiren Rijiju". Live Mint. Retrieved 2014-10-26.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- "China warns India against paving road in Arunachal". Ajay Banerjee. tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2014-10-26.
- "Arunachal Pradesh Capital Itanagar Put On India's Railway Map". indiatimes.com.
- "Arunachal Pradesh now on railway map, train reaches Naharlagun, a town near capital Itanagar". timesofindia-economictimes.
- Kalita, Prabin (2015-02-20). "Modi to flag off first train from Arunachal to Delhi". The Times of India. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
- "Quality higher education". articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "NIT Arunachal Pradesh, Govt. of India".
- "Web India". Webindia123.com. 3 October 2007. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- "Arunachal Pradesh at a glance". Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh.
- Official Site of the government of Arunachal Pradesh
- Official Tourism Site of Arunachal Pradesh, India
- General information
- Arunachal Pradesh Encyclopædia Britannica entry
- Arunachal Pradesh at DMOZ
- Geographic data related to Arunachal Pradesh at OpenStreetMap
||Tibet Autonomous Region, China|
|Samdrup Jongkhar, Trashigang and Trashiyangtse Districts, Bhutan||Kachin State, Myanmar|
|Assam||Nagaland||Sagaing Region, Myanmar|