Arundel Formation

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Arundel Formation
Stratigraphic range: Lower Cretaceous
Type sedimentary
Unit of Potomac Group
Underlies Patapsco Formation
Overlies Patuxent Formation
Thickness up to 125 feet[1]
Lithology
Primary clay
Location
Region  Maryland, Washington D. C.
Country United States
Type section
Named by W. B. Clark, 1897[1]

The Arundel Formation, also known as the Arundel Clay, is a clay-rich sedimentary rock formation, within the Potomac Group, found in Maryland[2] of the United States of America. It is of Aptian age (Lower Cretaceous). This rock unit had been economically important as a source of iron ore, but is now more notable for its dinosaur fossils. Although often considered a formation, it may be only oxbow swamp facies within the Potomac Group.[3]

Vertebrate paleofauna[edit]

Dinosaurs[edit]

Dinosaurs present include cf. Acrocanthosaurus,[4][5] the poorly known theropods "Allosaurus" medius, "Creosaurus" potens, and "Coelurus" gracilis, the ornithomimosaurian "Dryosaurus" grandis,[6] as well as other indeterminate ornithomimosauria,[7] the sauropods Astrodon and Pleurocoelus, the nodosaurid Priconodon,[8] a possible basal ceratopsian,[9] and potentially the ornithopod Tenontosaurus.[3] Other vertebrates are not as well-known from the formation, but include a freshwater shark, a lungfish.,[10] at least three genera of turtles, and at least one crocodilian.[3]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Dinosaurs reported from the Arundel Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Allosaurus[11]

"A." medius[11]

"Tooth."[12]

An indeterminate theropod tooth.

Astrodon[13]

A. johnstoni[13]

"Tooth."[15]

"Capitalsaurus"[16]

"C." potens

"Vertebra."[12]

A neotheropod.

Coelurus[11]

"C." gracilis

"Manual ungual and teeth."[12]

Probably a dromaeosaurid.

Creosaurus[11]

"C." potens[11]

Reclassified as "Capitalsaurus" potens

cf. Deinonychus[11]

Indeterminate[11]

A dromaeosaurid

Dryosaurus

"D." grandis

"Limb elements."[17]

An indeterminate member of Ornithomimosauria.

Ornithomimus

"O." affinis

Junior synonym of "Dryosaurus" grandis

Pleurocoelus[11]

P. altus[11]

"Tibia [and] fibula."[18]

P. nanus[11]

Priconodon[11]

P. crassus[11]

"Teeth, tibia."[19]

cf. Tenontosaurus[20]

Indeterminate[20]

Pterosaurs[edit]

Unassigned pteradactyloid tracks.[21]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Pterosaurs of the Arundel Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Abundance Notes Images

Pteraichnus[21]

[21]

Other fossils[edit]

W. B. Clark (1897) described lignitized trunks of trees often found in upright positions with their roots still intact.[1]

G. J. Brenner (1963) described spores and pollen within the formation.[22]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Clark, W.B., 1897, Outline of present knowledge of the physical features of Maryland: Maryland Geological Survey Volume Series, v. 1, pt. 3, p. 172-188. [1]
  2. ^ "Geologic Map Legends". Coastal Plain Rocks and Sediments. Maryland Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c Kranz, Peter M. (1998). "Mostly dinosaurs: a review of the vertebrates of the Potomac Group (Aptian Arundel Formation), USA". In Lucas, Spencer G.; Kirkland, James I.; Estep, J.W. Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 14. pp. 235–238. 
  4. ^ Harris, Jerald D. (1998). "Large, Early Cretaceous theropods in North America". In Lucas, Spencer G.; Kirkland, James I.; Estep, J.W. Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 14. pp. 225–228. 
  5. ^ Lipka, Thomas R. (1998). "The affinities of the enigmatic theropods of the Arundel Clay facies (Aptian), Potomac Formation, Atlantic Coastal Plain of Maryland". In Lucas, Spencer G.; Kirkland, James I.; Estep, J.W. Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 14. pp. 229–234. 
  6. ^ Brownstein, Chase D. "Redescription of Arundel formation Ornithomimosaur material and a reinterpretation of Nedcolbertia justinhofmanni as an "Ostrich Dinosaur": Biogeographic implications". PeerJ Preprints. e2308v1. 
  7. ^ Gilmore, Charles W. (24 October 1919). "AN ORNITHOMIMID DINOSAUR IN THE POTOMAC OF MARYLAND". Science. 50 (1295): 394–395. doi:10.1126/science.50.1295.394. PMID 17830121. 
  8. ^ Weishampel, David B.; Barrett, Paul M.; Coria, Rodolfo A.; Le Loueff, Jean; Xu Xing; Zhao Xijin; Sahni, Ashok; Gomani, Elizabeth M.P.; Noto, Christopher N. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution". In Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; Osmólska, Halszka. The Dinosauria (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 517–606. ISBN 0-520-24209-2. 
  9. ^ Chinnery, Brenda J.; Lipka, Thomas R.; Kirkland, James I.; Parrish, Michael J.; Brett-Surman, Michael K. "Neoceratopsian teeth from the Lower to Middle Cretaceous of North America". http://terpconnect.umd.edu/. Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin No. 14. 297-302 pp. Retrieved 1998.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help); External link in |website= (help)
  10. ^ Frederickson, J. A., Lipka, T. R., & Cifelli, R. L. (2016). A new species of the lungfish Ceratodus (Dipnoi) from the Early Cretaceous of the eastern USA. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1136316.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "3.25 Maryland, United States; 1. Arundel Clay," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 556.
  12. ^ a b c "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 78.
  13. ^ a b "3.25 Maryland, United States; 1. Arundel Clay" and "3.34 Washington D. C., United States; 1. Arundel Clay," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 556.
  14. ^ "3.34 Washington D. C., United States; 1. Arundel Clay," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 556.
  15. ^ "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 270.
  16. ^ Kranz, D. 1998. Mostly Dinosaurs: A Review of the Vertebrates of the Potomac Group (Aptian Arundel Formation), USA, in Lucas, Kirkland and Estep, eds., 1998: 235-238.
  17. ^ "Table 6.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 139.
  18. ^ "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 266.
  19. ^ "Table 17.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 368.
  20. ^ a b Listed as "?Tenontosaurus sp." in "3.25 Maryland, United States; 1. Arundel Clay," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 556.
  21. ^ a b c Lockley, M.; Harris, J.D.; and Mitchell, L. 2008. "A global overview of pterosaur ichnology: tracksite distribution in space and time." Zitteliana. B28. p. 187-198. ISSN 1612-4138.
  22. ^ Brenner, Gilbert J., 1963, The spores and pollen of the Potomac Group of Maryland: Maryland Geological Survey Bulletin, no. 27, 215 p. [2]

References[edit]

  • Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. 861 pp. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.

Coordinates: 39°3′N 76°38′W / 39.050°N 76.633°W / 39.050; -76.633