Arverne, Queens

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Arverne
Arverne-by-the-Sea development
Arverne-by-the-Sea development
Coordinates: 40°35′24″N 73°47′42″W / 40.59°N 73.795°W / 40.59; -73.795Coordinates: 40°35′24″N 73°47′42″W / 40.59°N 73.795°W / 40.59; -73.795
Country United States
State New York
City New York City
County/Borough Queens
Community DistrictQueens 14[1]
Named for"R. Vernam", the signature of Remington Vernam
Population
 (2010)
 • Total18,540
Race and Ethnicity
 • White16.4%
 • Black66.4%
 • Hispanic22.0%
 • Asian2.8%
 • other3.0%
Economics
 • Median income$39,373 [2]
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Code
11692
Area codes718, 347, 929, and 917

Arverne is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens, on the Rockaway Peninsula. It was initially developed by Remington Vernam, whose signature "R. Vernam" inspired the name of the neighborhood.[3] Arverne extends from Beach 56th Street to Beach 79th Street, along its main thoroughfare Beach Channel Drive, alternatively known as Rev. Joseph H. May Drive.

Arverne is located in Queens Community District 14 and its ZIP Code is 11692.[1] It is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 100th Precinct.

History[edit]

Original plan[edit]

Vernam's original plan was to name the neighborhood Arverne-by-the-Sea, and one grandiose plan, influenced by his wife, Florence, included a canal running through the neighborhood, reminiscent of the Amstel canal in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. When this plan fell through, the canal right-of-way was converted into a thoroughfare, Amstel Boulevard, which, except for a stub west of Beach 71st Street, was later incorporated into Beach Channel Drive.

While Arverne became well-known as a beachfront community with inexpensive summer bungalows, and hotels of varying levels of expense and luxury as well as amusements and boardwalk concessions, it also attracted year-round residents. On January 3, 1914, a violent storm devastated the peninsula's neighborhoods, and swept the 1,200-seat Arverne Pier Theater out to sea.[4] On June 15, 1922, a fire leveled a large part of Arverne, leaving about 10,000 people homeless, although the neighborhood was quick to rebuild.[5] In 1928, a project to build 5,000 bungalows in Arverne was announced.[6]

Decline[edit]

During the 1950s and 1960s, the advent of commercial jet air travel encouraged people to travel to distant destinations during the summer, rather than to local beaches and resorts. As a result, many of Arverne's summer bungalows became vacant. New York City's urban renewal projects of the 1960s leveled most of the summer resorts and some of the residences, many of which had been abandoned.[7][8]

The New York City Planning Commission approved the designation of a 302-acre (122 ha) Arverne renewal area in 1964,[9] and two years later, the renewal area was expanded by 19 blocks.[10] In expectation of the upcoming urban renewal, vacant bungalows were demolished.[11] However, the renewal project was delayed, and a grand jury was convened to find the causes of the delay.[12] A gap in funding from the U.S. federal government contributed to pressures to cancel the redevelopment.[13] In 1970, the city announced it would develop 970 apartments in Arverne by 1972.[14] By then, only about 100 of the original 900 bungalows remained. Controversy later arose when the city decided to place 100 mobile homes instead of permanent housing for low-income Puerto Ricans.[15] By 1973, Mayor John Lindsay was calling for 500 of 3,650 proposed housing units to be deleted from the Arverne redevelopment plan. As of yet, the 970 apartments in Arverne had not been developed.[16]

When the city opened Arverne to redevelopment again in 1984, a 123-acre (50 ha) patch of Arverne only contained one structure, PS 106.[8] In 1988, the administration of mayor Ed Koch started asking for private developers to build on the site.[17] The Dubos Point Wildlife Sanctuary was designated that year as part of the plans for redevelopment.[18] By 1991, the plans called for the construction of 7,500 apartments over 10 years at a cost of $1.5 billion.[19] A 322-unit development of two-family houses, which started in the late 1990s, became the first such development in the Arverne renewal area during its 35-year history to date.[20] The rest of the area's redevelopment was canceled after an economic downturn in the 1990s. People started dumping garbage in Dubos Point, to the consternation of residents.[18] According to a 2003 article in The New York Times:

For nearly four decades, grand plans were offered for the 52-block stretch from Beach 32nd to 84th Streets, between Rockaway Beach Boulevard and the boardwalk. [There was to be] a phalanx of mid- and high-rise condominium and rental apartment buildings, [as well as] more than $1 billion... enclosed amusement area on the Arverne site, to be called Destination Technodome, with rides, movie theaters, an indoor ski slope and a hotel.[21]

Redevelopment[edit]

In the early 2000s, Mayor Michael Bloomberg started to revitalize Arverne with new housing and parks.[22] This built upon a movement started in 1999, when 40 houses were built in the portion of the Arverne renewal area between Beach 59th and 61st Streets.[21] Arverne and other parts of the Rockaways increasingly got attention and press as the redevelopment of the beachfront continued.[23] To improve pedestrian accessibility, a section of Rockaway Freeway beneath the station was closed to through traffic[24] and the Beach 67th Street–Gaston Avenue station was renamed Beach 67th Street–Arverne by the Sea as a symbolic recognition of the neighborhood’s rebirth as a residential area and a summer waterfront destination.

One of the largest developments, the 2,300-unit Arverne by the Sea, first opened to residents in 2006.[25] Despite an economic downturn in 2008, the $1 billion development was mostly successful, and units sold at prices of up to $1 million.[26] By 2012, Arverne by the Sea was largely developed.[27] The area has new retail establishments, such as Stop and Shop Grocery Store, Chase bank branch, restaurants, and Subway sandwiches. Phase I was completed in 2011; Phase II was begun in 2006.[28]

As of 2003, 97 acres (39 ha) of the "Edgemere Urban Renewal Area" was to have 400 houses built within it.[7] Of these, 47 acres (19 ha) would be houses, 35 acres (14 ha) would be a nature preserve, and 15 acres (6.1 ha) would be a segment of preserved dunes on the beach.[28] Development continued with the start of construction on the Tides development in October 2018. By mid-2019, Arverne was undergoing gentrification as new businesses were opening in the area, which was still over 60% black and 20% Hispanic/Latino.[29]

Education[edit]

The New York City Department of Education operates Arverne's public schools. These schools include PS/MS 42 Robert Vernam School and PS 183 Dr. Richard R. Green.

The Queens Public Library operates the Arverne branch at 312 Beach 54th Street.[30]

Housing[edit]

  • NYCHA
    • Ocean Bay Houses (Oceanside), formerly Arverne Houses,
    • Ocean Bay Houses (Bayside), formerly Edgemere Houses,
    • Carleton Manor
  • Mitchell-Lama
    • Nordeck Apartments (co-operative)
  • DHCR
    • Arverne View

Transportation[edit]

Arverne can be accessed by the Beach 67th Street and Beach 60th Street stations of the New York City Subway, served by the A train.[31] The Q22, Q52 SBS, QM17 MTA Bus routes also serve the neighborhood.[32]

Parks[edit]

The 8.6-acre (3.5 ha) Kohlreiter Square is located on the north side of Rockaway Freeway between Beach 67th and Beach 69th Streets.

There are three wildlife sanctuaries in Arverne as part of the Gateway National Recreation Area. The Dubos Point Wildlife Sanctuary is located northeast of the intersection of Da Costa Avenue and Beach 65th Street, fronting Jamaica Bay. It is named after microbiologist Dr. René Dubos and was acquired in 1988.[33][18] At the northwest corner of Arverne is Brant Point Wildlife Sanctuary, located west of Beach 72nd Street and north of Hillmeyer Avenue on Jamaica Bay. It was transferred to the jurisdiction of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation in 1992.[34] A third sanctuary, Vernam Barbadoes Preserve, is located on Terrapeninsula, a peninsula between two inlets of Jamaica Bay west of Beach 75th Street and north of Amstel Boulevard. It was designated as the "Terrapeninsula Preserve" in 1997, but is commonly referred to using the name of Robert Vernam.[35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-07-28. Retrieved 2018-08-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Vandam, Jeff (February 13, 2005). "On the Beach, a Brand New Life". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2007. His wife names the area Arverne because he signs his checks R. Vernam
  4. ^ The Wave of Long Island, January 10, 1914, p. 1
  5. ^ "400 Buildings Burned at Arverne; 10,000 Made Homeless; 60 Injured, Loss $4,000,000 in Half Square Mile". The New York Times. June 16, 1922. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
  6. ^ "Arverne Projects Are Announced". The New York Times. 1928-07-27. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  7. ^ a b "Nathan Kensinger Photography". kensinger.blogspot.com. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  8. ^ a b Sherman, Mark (1984-03-11). "City Opens Its Biggest Plot, in Arverne, to Development". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  9. ^ "Arverne Area for Renewal". The New York Times. 1964-11-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  10. ^ "Renewal Expansion Sought for Arverne". The New York Times. 1966-12-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  11. ^ Johnston, Laurie (1973-09-29). "Eroded Rockaway Is Hoping for a Revival". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  12. ^ Roberts, Steven V. (1966-12-08). "Deteriorating Arverne Awaiting Urban Renewal; Grand Jury Is Investigating Delays in Improving Area, an Old Vacation Spot". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  13. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (1967-01-15). "Delay in U.S. Funds Affects City Realty Projects; Arverne Extension Barred --Razing Plan Slowed U.S. FUNDS TARDY, PROJECTS SLOWED". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  14. ^ "Ărverne Housing Beset by Delays". The New York Times. 1970-12-20. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  15. ^ Weisman, Steven R. (1971-04-18). "Arverne Mirrors Renewal Woe". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  16. ^ "City Offers Proposals To Upgrade Rockaways". The New York Times. 1973-11-18. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  17. ^ Oser, Alan S. (1988-11-20). "PERSPECTIVES: The Arverne Plan; Oceanfront Site Terms Challenge Builders". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  18. ^ a b c Day, Sherri (2000-07-09). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: ARVERNE; Wildlife Refuge Becomes a Battleground for Humans". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  19. ^ Fried, Joseph P. (1991-03-07). "After 20 Lost Years, Arverne Skeptically Awaits Renewal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  20. ^ Oser, Alan S. (1997-02-09). "The New Approach in Arverne: Incrementalism". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  21. ^ a b Steven Hevesi (7 December 2003). "In Rockaways, a Tide Is Coming In". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Bloomberg's Big Day In Rockaway" (PDF). The Wave. November 10, 2006. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  23. ^ "Top 10 neighborhoods for real estate investment". New York Daily News. August 10, 2012. Retrieved Oct 15, 2012.
  24. ^ Rockaway Wave Editorial “Closing Rockaway Freeway a Plus for Rockaway” December 24, 2004 http://www.rockawave.com/news/2004-12-24/Editorial/035.html Archived 2016-11-04 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Vandam, Jeff (2006-06-25). "Waiting for High Tide". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  26. ^ Hughes, C. J. (2008-09-12). "Sitting Pretty by the Sea". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  27. ^ "Rockaway Beach becomes 'Hipster Hamptons". Newsday. August 13, 2012. Retrieved Oct 15, 2012.
  28. ^ a b Large-Scale Development: Arverne Archived February 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, nyc.gov
  29. ^ Branch, Kate (2019-05-17). "Are Surfer Cafes and Green Markets What a Working-Class Beach Neighborhood Needs?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  30. ^ "Branch Detailed Info: Arverne". Queens Library. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  31. ^ "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  32. ^ "Queens Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  33. ^ "Dubos Point Wildlife Sanctuary Highlights : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  34. ^ "Brant Point Wildlife Sanctuary Highlights : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  35. ^ "Vernam Barbadoes Peninsula Highlights : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2019-05-24.

External links[edit]