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As-salāmu ʿalaykum (Arabic: ٱلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ [ʔæs.sæˈlæːmu ʕæˈlæjkʊm]) is a greeting in Arabic that means "Peace be upon you". The salaam is a religious salutation among Muslims when greeting, though it is also used by Arabic speakers of other religions, such as Arab Christians. The typical response to the greeting is wa ʿalaykumu s-salām (وَعَلَيْكُمُ ٱلسَّلَام [wæ ʕæˈlæjkʊmu s.sæˈlæm]) "And peace be upon you, too."
The phrase is normally pronounced according to local dialects of speakers and is very often shortened.
The expression uses the second person plural masculine, even when used to address one person. It may be modified by choosing the appropriate enclitic pronoun to address a person in the masculine and feminine singular form, the dual form, or the feminine plural form. The conjugations are as follows (note: according to the standard pronunciation rules of Classical Arabic, the last short vowel in each word is not pronounced unless it is followed by another word):
- masculine singular as-salāmu ʿalayka (عَلَيْكَ)
- feminine singular: as-salāmu ʿalayki (عَلَيْكِ)
- dual: as-salāmu ʿalaykumā (عَلَيْكُمَا)
- feminine plural: as-salāmu ʿalaykunna (عَلَيْكُنَّ)
A third-person variant, ʿalayhi as-salām "peace be upon him", is often used by Muslims for prophets other than Muhammad and for named angels.
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It is also preferred to use the greeting when arriving and also while leaving. It was reported that Abu Hurairah said "When one of you joins a gathering, let him say 'Peace'. When he wants to get up and leave, let him say 'Peace'. The former is not more important than the latter" (Hasan hadith reported in Jāmiʿ at-Tirmidhi).
- According to hadith, Muhammad was asked who should begin the greeting and he said, "The one who is riding should greet the one who is walking and the one who is walking should greet the one who is sitting and the smaller group should greet the larger group" (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 6234; Muslim, 2160).
- It is also stated that one should give the Salam greeting upon entering a house. This is based upon a verse of the Quran: "But when you enter the houses, greet one another with a greeting from God blessed and good" (An-Nur 24:61).
- Shortening the greeting to acronyms, such as A.S., As'kum (in Malaysia), or AsA is becoming common amongst Internet users in chat rooms and by people using SMS. This trend is similar to writing (S) or SAWS in place of ṣallā llāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam.
Usage by non-Arabic speakers
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- In India, the greeting mostly among Muslims is accompanied by raising the right hand to the chest (arz hai "regards"; adaab "respect") or a simple handshake or hug, the shorter greeting "Salam" is used in informal situations. Goodbye is supplanted by a "Khuda hafiz" (secular/less formal or to an acquaintance) or "Allah hafiz" (less secular/generally to strangers, formal), both of which mean "May God keep you safe".
- In Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Iran, Salām is used.
- In Albania and Kosovo, a diminutive form in the Albanian language, Selamun Alejkem or Selamun Alejqum is rarely used, the 'q' being a voiceless palatal stop typical of Balkan Turkish and Thracian Turkish phonology.
- In Amharic, the native Amharic term Selam is used in place of Tadias, which is the equivalent of "What's up".
- In Turkey, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, many religious people use this statement and shake hands and it is the same for saying "goodbye"; more secular and non-religious people say Selam as an equivalent to "Hello" or "Hi". However, many Turks pronounce it differently as "Selamün aleyküm".
- In Pakistan, the greeting is also associated with shaking right hands and is also often accompanied with a hug when meeting infrequently (only between the same gender). In some places, people put a hand on their heart as they shake your hand and greet. Also, the full greeting is preferred versus the shorter greeting, "salam". Goodbye is supplanted by a "Khuda Hafiz" (secular/less formal or to an acquaintance) or "Allah Hafiz" (less secular/generally to strangers, formal), both of which mean "May God keep you safe".
- In Bangladesh, Assalamu alaykum is a simple greeting.
- In Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, Assalomu aleykum is used as an informal greeting.
- In Indonesia, the greeting is usually accompanied with a kind of two-handed "handshake", whereby the shaker's palms remain closed, and the fingers alone open to admit the other's proffered hand – which briefly touches the proffered's fingers or fingertips alone. In this way more adherent males and females may greet though touching – but remain true to the Islamic or cultural teachings forbidding physical contact between the genders. Occasionally, the right hand will touch the left breast or heart area after this. In Indonesia's Javanese/Sasak culture, a remnant of feudalism is retained, where an elder's proffered right hand is taken and pressed briefly against the forehead. Some may instead briefly kiss the hand or the main ring. This is very common for young children to greet older relatives (of their parents' age, though, on occasion, if very polite children, younger). In slang words, this greeting is sometimes referred as "samlekom".
- In Chechnya and other parts of Caucasus, Salam Aleykum is used to say hi.
- In Senegal which has a majority of Islam with Sufi-orientation, it is a common greeting. Spelled and pronounced in Wolof: "(a)sala maaleykum", and the reply "maa lekum salaam."
- In Xinjiang, China, "Essalam eleykum" is used as a greeting by Uyghurs, and the reply is "We'eleykum essalam".
- In Portuguese, the expression "salamaleque" gained a totally distinct and curious meaning: because of the habit of Arabic cultures to bow down and wave the hand from the front ahead in greeting a person, the expression "salamaleque" is applied to exaggerated movements or acts in order to appear to be formal or entertaining or even fancy. "Os rapazes chegaram cheios de salamaleques". "Salamelecco" has the same meaning also in Italian.
- "Sayings of the Messenger (s.a.w) - Sahih Al-Bukhari- www.Ahadith.net". www.ahadith.net. Retrieved 2019-03-25.
- ""As-Salaamu-Alaikum" and "Wa-Alaikum-as-Salaam"". Ccnmtl.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid. "Is it mustahabb for one who gets up to leave a gathering to say salaam to those who are still sitting?". IslamQA.info.
- "As Salaamu Alaikom?". Archived from the original on 2010-11-20.[dead link][unreliable source?]
- "Surat An-Nur [24:61] - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم". Quran.com. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- Friedman, Victor A. "Balkan Turkish in Macedonia and Adjacent Areas" (PDF). University of Chicago: 12. Retrieved 18 December 2019. Cite journal requires
- "Introduction to the bangla language" (PDF). Peace Corps: 6. Retrieved 18 December 2019.