The Asano-gumi was formed in 1945 as a bakuto organization named the Oyama-ikka (大山一家, Ōyama-ikka) by Kunio Oyama. The group restarted as the Asano-gumi with the head of Shin'ichi Asano in April 1952 following Oyama's retirement. Yoshiaki Kushida succeeded as president in September 1983.
The Asano-gumi caused conflicts with the Yamaguchi-gumi and the Kyodo-kai in the late 20th century. In one notable case, Asano member(s) shot and murdered two Yamaguchi members in Kurashiki in 1987, as a retaliation for an earlier attack by Yamaguchi member(s) involving carving knives against two Asano members.
Since 1996, the Asano-gumi has been a member of an anti-Yamaguchi federation named the Gosha-kai, along with three other Chugoku-based organizations, the Kyosei-kai, the Kyodo-kai, the Goda-ikka, and the Shikoku-based Shinwa-kai.
- 1st (1952-1979): Shin'ichi Asano
- 2nd (1979-1983): Yoshio Hita
- 3rd (1983-2010): Yoshiaki Kushida
- 4th (2010-present): Fumiyasu Morita
- "Police of Japan 2011, Criminal Investigation : 2. Fight Against Organized Crime", December 2009, National Police Agency
- "2010 Police White Paper Chapter 2 : Furtherance of Organized Crime Countermeasures", 2010, National Police Agency (in Japanese)
- "1993 Police White Paper Chapter 1 : The Actual Condition of the Boryokudan", 1993, National Police Agency (in Japanese)
- "The Fourth Kyosei-kai", 20 February 2008, Matsue Joho Center (in Japanese)