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Asculum, also known as Ausculum, was the ancient name of two Italian cities.
The first is Ascoli Piceno, the Ausculum in ancient Picenum (modern Marche). It is situated in the valley of the Truentus (mod. Tronto) river on the via Salaria. It was originally a Sabine city (Festus 235.16-17). Following its defeat by the Romans in 268 BC (Eutr. 2,16), Asculum became a civitas foederata. It was the first Italian city to rise up against Rome in 90 BC during the Social War, and it was besieged and captured following the Battle of Asculum (89 BC). Following the war, it became a municipium. In the triumviral period or under Augustus it became a colonia.
- the Battle of Asculum (279 BC), first King Pyrrhus of Epirus's Pyrrhic victory against the Roman Republic during the Pyrrhic War;
- the Battle of Asculum (209 BC), during the Second Punic War, in which Hannibal defeated a Roman army commanded by Marcus Claudius Marcellus in an indecisive battle.
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