Ashéninka language

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Ashéninka
Campa
Native to Peru, Brazil
Ethnicity Ashéninka people
Native speakers
9,881 (2017)[1]
Arawakan
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
prq – Perené
cpu – Pichis
cpc – Apurucayali
cpb – Ucayali-Yurúa
cjo – Pajonal
cpy – South Ucayali
Glottolog asha1242  Ashe-Asha Norte, Asheninka[2]

Ashéninka (Ashéninca, Ashéninga) is the name that some varieties included in the Ashéninka-Asháninka dialect complex have traditionally received, which belongs to the Kampan branch of the Arawak family[3]. The Ethnologue distinguishes seven languages throughout the whole complex, while Pedrós[3] proposes a division in three languages (Ashéninka, Asháninka and Northern Ashé-Ashá) based on the principle of mutual intelligibility. The varieties included in Ashéninka and Northern Ashé-Ashá have traditionally been called Ashéninka. The Glottolog reflects Pedrós’ proposal, although considering the languages proposed by him as groupings of the languages that the Ethnologue distinguishes.

According to the indigenous peoples database of the Peruvian Ministry of Education,[1] there are 13,496 people living in Ashéninka communities, of whom 9,881 (73%) claim to be able to speak the language. The Ethnologue gives much higher figures for the different Ashéninka varieties.

The classification of the different varieties was first established by David Payne in his Apurucayali Axininca grammar,[4] but he referred to them as dialects and not as different languages.[4]:3–5

Ashéninka is a locally official language in Peru, as are all native Peruvian languages. It and its relatives are also known by the largely pejorative term Campa.

Alphabet[edit]

Ashéninka was recognized as a separate language from Asháninka in 2017, and the process to fix an alphabet was underway during 2018.[5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Base de Datos Oficial de Pueblos Indígenas u Originarios". Base de Datos de Pueblos Indígenas u Originarios. Ministerio de Cultura del Perú. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Asheninka". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ a b Pedrós, Toni (2018). "Ashéninka y asháninka: ¿de cuántas lenguas hablamos?". Cadernos de etnolingüística. 6 (1): 1–30. Retrieved 6 September 2018. 
  4. ^ a b Payne, David L. (1981). The Phonology and Morphology of Axininca Campa. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 
  5. ^ "Urpia participará del primer taller de normalización del alfabeto Ashéninka". Gaceta Ucayalina. 3 April 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018. 
  6. ^ "Minedu exhibe alfabetos oficiales y materiales educativos en lenguas originarias". Andina. Agencia Peruana de Noticias. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.