Ash International is a British record company and audio-visual organisation started in 1993 by Mike Harding and Robin Rimbaud. In 1995 Robin Rimbaud left to pursue his music group Scanner full-time. Ash International is part of the Touch organisation, founded by Jon Wozencroft in 1981. In 1998, after the release of Ash 3.9 (a compact disc by Edvard Graham Lewis), Ash International was killed off and reborn as Ash International [R.I.P.]. As it is essentially a continuation of the same label, discographies list both Ash International and Ash International [R.I.P.] releases. The experimental music magazine EST (Summer 1996 issue) described Ash International releases as existing "somewhere in the gap between post-industrial and techno, with releases ranging from the notorious (Scanner) to the relatively accessible (S.E.T.I., Aurobindo) to the hopelessly idiosyncratic (Runaway Train, Mesmer)."