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Lady Asherah of the Sea[1]
Goddess of fertility
Asherah statue, Eretz Israel Museum, Tel Aviv
Other namesAthirat
Major cult centerMiddle-East
Formerly Jerusalem
SymbolAsherah pole, trees of life (esp. caprid-flanked)
  • 70 sons (Ugaritic religion)
  • 77 or 88 sons (Hittite religion)
Greek equivalentRhea[2]

Asherah (/ˈæʃərə/;[3] Hebrew: אֲשֵׁרָה, romanizedʾĂšērā; Ugaritic: 𐎀𐎘𐎗𐎚, romanized: ʾAṯiratu; Akkadian: 𒀀𒅆𒋥, romanized: Aširat;[4] Qatabanian: 𐩱𐩻𐩧𐩩 ʾṯrt)[5] is the great goddess in ancient Semitic religion. She also appears in Hittite writings as Ašerdu(s) or Ašertu(s) (Hittite: 𒀀𒊺𒅕𒌈, romanized: a-še-ir-tu4).[6] Her name is Aṯeratum to the Amorites and Athirat in Ugarit. Asherah is synonymous with outdated spelling Ashteroth.[citation needed]



The common NW Semitic meaning of šr is "king, prince, ruler."[7] The Arabit root ʾṯr means (أثر‎) "trace," "tread". Further notes on etymology follow throughout.


The -ot plural "Asherot" is found three times in the Tanakh,[8] with -im "Asherim" making up the great majority.[9] The significance is unclear, as the interaction of gender and number in Hebrew is not robustly understood.[10]


Her titles often include "rabat" Lady or "qodesh" holy. These are spelled over languages and writing systems with the letters equivalent to rbt & qds.

Significance and roles[edit]

Asherah is identified as the consort of the Sumerian god Anu, and Ugaritic ʾEl,[11] the oldest deities of their respective pantheons.[12][13] The name Dione, which like ʾElat means "goddess", is clearly associated with Asherah in the Phoenician History of Sanchuniathon, because the same common epithet (ʾElat) of "the Goddess par excellence" was used[14] to describe her at Ugarit.[15] The title "Queen of Heaven"[a] may refer to her in Jeremiah 7:16–18[16] and Jeremiah 44:17–19, 25.[17]

Worship and suppression[edit]

Episodes in the Tanakh show a gender imbalance in the Hebrew religion: the texts state their patriarchal nature. Asherah was patronized by female royals such as the Queen Mother Maacah (1 Kings 15:13). But Asherah was tremendously popular and was worshiped within the household and her offerings were performed by family matriarchs. As the women of Jerusalem attested, "When we burned incense to the Queen of Heaven and poured out drink offerings to her, did not our husbands know that we were making cakes impressed with her image and pouring out drink offerings to her?" Another raisin-cake reference is found in Hosea. (Jeremiah 44:19 and Hosea 3:1). This passage corroborates a number of archaeological excavations showing altar spaces in Hebrew homes. The "household idols" variously referred to in the Bible may also be linked to the hundreds of female pillar-base figurines that have been discovered.[18] However, if true this would hardly solve the mystery of teraphim and scholars continue to study them.

Jezebel brought hundreds of prophets for Baal and Asherah with her into the Israelite court.[19]

The Hebrew Bible frequently and graphically associates goddess worship with prostitution ("whoredom") in material written after the reforms of Josiah. Jeremiah, and Ezekiel blame the goddess religion for making Yahweh "jealous", and cite his jealousy as the reason Yahweh allowed the destruction of Jerusalem. Some interpret Hosea as a historical divorce ceremony.[20] As for sexual and fertility rites, it is likely that once they were held in honor in Israel, as they were throughout the ancient world. Although their nature remains uncertain, sexual rites typically revolved around women of power and influence, such as Maacah. The Hebrew term qadishtu, formerly translated as "temple prostitutes" or "shrine prostitutes", literally means "priestesses" or "priests"[21] from qds meaning "holy". However, there is a growing scholarly consensus that sacred prostitution never existed, and that sex acts within the temple were strictly limited to yearly sacred fertility rites aimed at assuring an abundant harvest.[22]

Deuteronomy 12 has Yahweh commanding the destruction of her shrines so as to maintain purity of his worship.[23]


Beside the obvious links between goddesses who sometimes can't be distinguished, some scholars have found an early link between Asherah and Eve, based upon the coincidence of their common title as "the mother of all living" in the Book of Genesis 3:20[24] through the identification with the Hurrian mother goddess Hebat.[25][26] Olyan says Eve (hawwa) is an attested epithet of Tannit/Asherah in the first millennium BCE.[27][28]

There is further speculation that the Shekhinah as a feminine aspect of Yahweh, may be a cultural memory or devolution of Asherah. Another such aspect is seen in the feminine (grammatically or otherwise) treatment of the Holy Spirit or Sophia or even in the body of Jesus in John's Revelation.[29]


There are many symbols associated, but the symbols equivalent to the Goddess have been taken for some time to be the sacred tree and the pubic triangle.[14]

Small figures[edit]

Archaeological digs usually find more male figures in metal, and the vast majority of clay figures female. [30] More female figures are found overall. The broad division was between two types, standing Judean pillar figurines and plaques that lie flat. ("JPFs" were earlier recognized as Asherah by Raphael Patai.) The Revadim Asherah has been accepted as a third type, and there are finer distinctions available. The first cataloguing attempt was in Pilz 1924.[31]



Kawwanim are the cakes baked for the Queen of Heaven in Jeremiah.[32] It's likely a loan word from the Akkadian kamanu, "cake."[citation needed] Some have suggested the cakes were made "in her image" by use of molds, like the buxom and hippy clay molds found at Mari.[33][full citation needed]


An especially common Asherah tree in visual art is the date palm. Some expect living trees, but Olyan sees a stylized, non-living palm or pole[34][page needed] and snakes.

"Asherahs" as poles[edit]


Trees inconsistently translated as oak, terebinth, poplar contain the divine name El (elah, elim, elon, allah, elon) and are sometimes utterly homophonous with 'Elat. [35]


Like the oak, almonds have an etymology with a possible goddess link by homophony. "Two strains grow in Israel: amygdalus communis var. dulcis, which has pink blossoms and sweet fruit, and amygdalus communis var. amara, with white blossoms and bitter fruit.[36] Yarden points out that the name itself is curious. The Latin name amygdala probably derives from a Semitic root, meaning ’great mother’, which was in Mesopotamian amagallu, and in Sumerian In Hebrew it would have been ’em g'dola."[37] The almond may have its fertile association from its early blooming, which also gave it its other Hebrew name shaqed or vigilant/watcher. (A note on the word is here.[38])The name "luz" means both almond and Betyl.

Other Trees[edit]

Some sacred trees may have been left to archaeology.[39]

Joan Taylor says "the trees of the Lachish ewer may be Asherim."

As further proof, Hestrin noted[40][full citation needed] that in a group of other pottery vessels found in the Fosse Temple the usual depiction of the sacred tree flanked by ibexes or birds is in one goblet replaced by a pubic triangle flanked by ibexes. The interchange between the tree and the pubic triangle prove, according to Hestrin, that the tree symbolizes the fertility goddess Asherah. Hestrin draws parallels between this and representations of Hathor as the sycamore tree goddess in Egypt, and suggests that during the period of Egyptian rule in Palestine the Hathor cult penetrated the region so extensively that Hathor became identified with Asherah. Other motifs in the ewer such as a lion, fallow deer and ibexes seem to have a close relationship with the iconography associated with her.[41][full citation needed] Moreover, the numerous clay images of a goddess, often called ’Astarte figurines’, found in Israelite levels of many sites are representative of Asherah as a tree. These figurines have bodies which resemble tree trunk. § The Almond Tree and the Menorah[This quote needs a citation]

Ugaritic and other amulets show a miniature "tree of life" growing out of Asherah's belly.[18][page needed]

Asherah poles were prohibited by the Deuteronomic Code that commanded: "You shall not plant any tree as an Asherah beside the altar of the Lord your God".[42] The prohibition, as Dever notes, is also a testament to the practice of putting up Asherah poles beside Yahweh's altars (cf. 2 Kings 21:7) amongst Israelites. Another significant biblical reference occurs in the legend of Deborah, a female ruler of Israel who held court under a sacred tree (Book of Judges 4:5), which was preserved for many generations. Morrow further notes that the "funeral pillars of the kings" described by the Book of Ezekiel (43:9, variously translated as "funeral offerings" or even "carcasses of the kings") (ובפגרי מלכיהמ במותמ) were likely constructed of sacred wood, since the prophet connects them with "prostitution."[43]

Mistress of animals[edit]

The lioness made a ubiquitous symbol for goddesses of the ancient Middle East that was similar to the dove[18] and the tree. Lionesses figure prominently in Asherah's iconography, including the tenth-century BC Ta'anach cult stand, which also includes the tree motif. A Hebrew arrowhead from the eleventh century BC bears the inscription "Servant of the Lion Lady".[18]


The symbols around Asherah are so many (8+ pointed star, caprids and the like, along with lunisolar, arboreal, florid, serpentine) that a listing would approach meaninglessness as it neared exhaustiveness. Fravel's 1000-page dissertation ends philosophically and enigmatically with the pronouncement "Es gibt keine genuine Ascheraikonographie."[clarification needed][44][45]

By region[edit]

In Ugaritic texts[edit]

In Ugaritic texts, Asherah appears as ʾAṯirat (Ugaritic: 𐎀𐎘𐎗𐎚), anglicised Athirat. Sources from before 1200 BC almost always credit Athirat with her full title rbt ʾṯrt ym (or rbt ʾṯrt).[b] The phrase occurs 12 times in the Baʿal Epic alone.[46] The title rbt is most often vocalised as rabītu,[47] although rabat and rabīti are sometimes used by scholars.[48] Apparently of Akkadian origin, rabītu means "lady" (literally "female great one").[49] She appears to champion her son, Yam, god of the sea, in his struggle against Baʾal. Yam's ascription as god of the sea in the English translation is somewhat misleading, however, as yām (Hebrew: יָם) is a common western Semitic root that literally means "sea". Consequently, one should understand Yam to be the deified sea itself rather than a deity who holds dominion over it. Athirat's title can therefore be translated as "Lady ʾAṯirat of the Sea",[50] alternatively, "she who walks on the sea",[51] or even "the Great Lady-who-tramples-Yam".[52] A suggestion in 2010 by a scholar is that the name Athirat might be derived from a passive participle form, referring to the "one followed by (the gods)", that is, "progenitress or originatress", which would correspond to Asherah's image as the "mother of the gods" in Ugaritic literature.[53]

Certain translators and commentators theorise that Athirat's name is from the Ugaritic root ʾaṯr, "to stride", a cognate of the Hebrew root ʾšr, of the same meaning. Alternative translations of her title have been tendered that follow this suggested etymology, such as "she who treads on the sea dragon",[54] or "she who treads on Tyre"[55]—the former of which appears to be an attempt to grant the Ugaritic texts a type of Chaoskampf (struggle against Chaos). A more recent analysis of this epithet has resulted in the proposition of a radically different translation, namely "Lady Asherah of the day", or, more simply, "Lady Day".[56] The common Semitic root ywm (for reconstructed Proto-Semitic *yawm-),[57] from which derives (Hebrew: יוֹם), meaning "day", appears in several instances in the Masoretic Texts with the second-root letter (-w-) having been dropped, and in a select few cases, replaced with an A-class vowel of the Niqqud,[58] resulting in the word becoming y(a)m. Such occurrences, as well as the fact that the plural, "days", can be read as both yōmîm and yāmîm (Hebrew: יָמִים), gives credence to this alternate translation.

Another primary epithet of Athirat was qnyt ʾilm,[c][59] which may be translated as "the creatrix of the deities".[46] In those texts, Athirat is the consort of the god ʾEl; there is one reference to the 70 sons of Athirat, presumably the same as the 70 sons of ʾEl. Among the Hittites this goddess appears as Ašerdu(s) or Ašertu(s), the consort of Elkunirsa ("El, the Creator of Earth") and mother of either 77 or 88 sons. Within the Amarna letters is found a reference to a king of the Amorites by the name of Abdi-Ashirta, "servant of Asherah".[60]

In the Ugaritic sources she is also called ʾElat,[d] "goddess", the feminine form of ʾEl (compare Allāt); she is also called Qodeš, "holiness",[e] in these sources.

In Eastern Semitic texts[edit]

In Akkadian texts, Asherah appears as Aširatu; though her exact role in the pantheon is unclear; as a separate goddess, Antu, was considered the wife of Anu, the god of Heaven. In contrast, ʿAshtart is believed to be linked to the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar who is sometimes portrayed as the daughter of Anu while in Ugaritic myth, ʿAshtart is one of the daughters of ʾEl, the West Semitic counterpart of Anu. Several Akkadian sources also preserve what are considered to be Amorite theophoric names which use Asherah—usually appearing as Aširatu or Ašratu.[61]

In Israel and Judah[edit]

Between the tenth century BC and the beginning of their Babylonian exile in 586 BC, polytheism was normal throughout Israel.[62] Worship solely of Yahweh became established only after the exile, and possibly, only as late as the time of the Maccabees (2nd century BC). That is when monotheism became universal among the Jews.[63][64][65][This quote needs a citation][full citation needed][better source needed] Some biblical scholars believe that Asherah at one time was worshipped as the consort of Yahweh, the national god of Israel.[64][66][67]

There are references to the worship of numerous deities throughout the Books of Kings: Solomon builds temples to many deities and Josiah is reported as cutting down the statues of Asherah in the temple Solomon built for Yahweh (2 Kings 23:14). Josiah's grandfather Manasseh had erected one such statue (2 Kings 21:7).[68]

Further evidence for Asherah-worship includes, for example, an eighth-century BC combination of iconography and inscriptions discovered at Kuntillet Ajrud in the northern Sinai desert[69] where a storage jar shows three anthropomorphic figures and several inscriptions.[18][70] The inscriptions found refer to "Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah" and "Yahweh of Teman and his Asherah."[71] The references to Samaria (capital of the kingdom of Israel) and Teman (in Edom) suggest that Yahweh had a temple in Samaria, while raising questions about the relationship between Yahweh and Qos, the national god of Edom.[72] The Asherah in question is sometimes called a mere cultic object,[73] but Winter says the goddess and her symbol should not be distinguished.[74]

It has been suggested that the Israelites may have considered Asherah as the consort of Baʿal, due to the anti-Asherah ideology that was influenced by the Deuteronomistic Historians, at the later period of the kingdom.[75] Also, it has been suggested by several scholars [76][77] that there is a relationship between the position of the gəḇīrā in the royal court and the worship (orthodox or not) of Asherah.[78] In a potsherd inscription of blessings from "Yahweh and his Asherah", there appears a cow feeding its calf.[79] This ambiguous-suckling motif has diverse examples, see figs 413-419 in Winter.[80] Already Flinders Petrie in the 1930s was referring to Davies on the memorable stereotype.[81][full citation needed] Numerous Canaanite artworks depict a woman wearing a bouffant wig similar to the Egyptian Hathor. Again Petrie and his public domain Hyksos-era Gaza volumes showed early examples of Canaanite-Egyptian art including same.[82][citation not found][better source needed]

William Dever's book Did God Have a Wife? adduces further archaeological evidence—for instance, the many female pillar figurines unearthed in ancient Israel, as supporting the view that during Israelite folk religion of the monarchical period, Asherah functioned as a goddess and a consort of Yahweh and was worshiped as the queen of heaven, for whose festival the Hebrews baked small cakes. Dever also points to the discovery of multiple shrines and temples within ancient Israel and Judah. The temple site at Arad is particularly interesting for the presence of two (possibly three) massebot, standing stones representing the presence of deities. Although the identity of the deities associated with the massebot is uncertain, Yahweh and Asherah or Asherah and Baal remain strong candidates, as Dever notes: "The only goddess whose name is well attested in the Hebrew Bible (or in ancient Israel generally) is Asherah."

Illustration of hathor-type goddess

The name Asherah appears forty times in the Hebrew Bible, but it is much reduced in English translations. The word ʾăšērâ is translated in Greek as Greek: ἄλσος (grove; plural: ἄλση) in every instance apart from Isaiah 17:8; 27:9 and 2 Chronicles 15:16; 24:18, with Greek: δένδρα (trees) being used for the former, and, peculiarly, Ἀστάρτη (Astarte) for the latter. The Vulgate in Latin provided lucus or nemus, a grove or a wood. From the Vulgate, the King James translation of the Bible uses grove or groves instead of Asherah's name. Non-scholarly English language readers of the Bible would not have read her name for more than 400 years afterward.[83] The association of Asherah with trees in the Hebrew Bible is very strong. For example, she is found under trees (1 Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 17:10) and is made of wood by human beings (1 Kings 14:15, 2 Kings 16:3–4). The farther from the time of Josiah's reforms, the broader the perception of an Asherah became. Trees described in later Jewish texts as being an asherah or part of an asherah include grapevines, pomegranates, walnuts, myrtles, and willows.[84] Eventually, monotheistic leaders and the culture would begin failing to distinguish a precious or suspicious tree from an Asherah.

In Egyptian sources[edit]

A digital collage showing an image of Qetesh together with hieroglyphs taken from a separate Egyptian relief (the "Triple Goddess stone"). Egyptologists used to believe that Qetesh was derived from Asherah, but now it's thought that Qetesh is an Egyptian deity drawn from Levantine influences.

Beginning during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, a Semitic goddess named Qetesh ("holiness", sometimes reconstructed as Qudshu) appears prominently. That dynasty follows expulsion of occupying foreigners from an intermediary period. René Dussard suggested a connection to Asherah in 1941. Subsequent studies tried to find further evidence for equivalence of Qetesh and Asherah, despite dissimilar functions and symbols.[85]

The arguments presenting Qetesh and Asherah as the same goddess rely on the erroneous notion that Asherah, Astarte and Anat were the only three prominent goddesses in the religion of the ancient Levant, and formed a trinity.[85] However, while Ashtart (Astarte) and Anat were closely associated with each other in Ugarit, in Egyptian sources, and elsewhere,[86][87] there is no evidence for conflation of Athirat and Ashtart, nor is Athirat associated closely with Ashtart and Anat in Ugaritic texts.[88] The concept of Athirat, Anat and Ashtart as a trinity and the only prominent goddesses in the entire region (popularized by authors like Tikva Frymer-Kensky) is modern and ignores the large role of other female deities, for example Shapash, in known texts, as well as the fact El appears to be the deity most closely linked to Athirat in primary sources.[89]

In Arabia[edit]

As ʾAṯirat (Qatabanian: 𐩱𐩻𐩧𐩩 ʾṯrt) she was attested in pre-Islamic south Arabia as the consort of the moon-god ʿAmm.[90]

One of the Tema stones (CIS II 113) discovered by Charles Huber in 1883 in the ancient oasis of Tema, northwestern Arabia, and now located at the Louvre, believed to date to the time of Nabonidus's retirement there in 549 BC, bears an inscription in Aramaic that mentions Ṣelem of Maḥram (צלם זי מחרמ‎), Šingalāʾ (שנגלא‎), and ʾAšîrāʾ (אשירא‎) as the deities of Tema. This ʾAšîrāʾ may be Asherah. It is unclear whether the name would be an Aramaic vocalisation of the Ugaritic ʾAṯirat or a later borrowing of the Hebrew ʾĂšērāh or similar form. In any event, the root of both names is a Proto-Semitic *ʾṯrt.[91]

The Arabic root ʾṯr (as in أثرʾaṯar, "trace") is similar in meaning to the Hebrew ʾāšar, indicating "to tread", used as a basis to explain Asherah's epithet "of the sea" as "she who treads the sea" (especially as the Arabic root يمyamm also means "sea").[92] Recently, it has been suggested that the goddess name Athirat might be derived from the passive participle form, referring to "one followed by (the gods)", that is, "progenitress or originatress", corresponding with Asherah's image as the "mother of the gods" in Ugaritic literature.[53]

The Punic West[edit]

Garbati[who?] says seeking Greek goddesses is an "age-old problem" and that "female iconographies circulating in the Phoenician regions [have] polysemic value."[citation needed]

The name Asherah "never appears" in the Western Punic and non-Hebrew Canaanite texts in the first century, despite evidence of her worship. If Tannit were her epithet, that could explain the absence of the name from Iron Age Canaanite texts.[93]

See also[edit]


Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hebrew: מְלֶכֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם
  2. ^ Ugaritic 𐎗𐎁𐎚 𐎀𐎘𐎗𐎚 𐎊𐎎, rbt ʾṯrt ym
  3. ^ Ugaritic 𐎖𐎐𐎊𐎚 𐎛𐎍𐎎, qnyt ʾlm
  4. ^ Ugaritic 𐎛𐎍𐎚, ʾilt
  5. ^ Ugaritic 𐎖𐎄𐎌, qdš


  1. ^ Rahmouni, Aïcha (2008). Divine Epithets in the Ugaritic Alphabetic Texts. Translated by Ford, J. N. Leiden: Brill. p. 285. ISBN 978-9004157699. Margalit (1980) [...] consistently translates rbt ʾaṯrt ym as 'Lady-Asherah of the Sea', similar to the translation proposed in the present study, but his reference to 'Asherah, Great-Lady-of the-Sea' [...] is surely incorrect. An epithet *ʾaṯrt rbt ym is unattested and there is no basis for translating rbt ʾaṯrt ym in such a manner.
  2. ^ Miller, Patrick D. (1967). "El the Warrior". The Harvard Theological Review. 60 (4): 411–431. doi:10.1017/S0017816000003886. JSTOR 1509250. S2CID 162038758.
  3. ^ "Asherah". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2022. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  4. ^ Day, John. "Asherah in the Hebrew Bible and Northwest Semitic Literature." Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 105, no. 3, 1986, pp. 385–408. JSTOR, Accessed 5 Aug. 2021.
  5. ^ "DASI: Digital Archive for the Study of pre-islamic arabian Inscriptions: Word list occurrences". Archived from the original on 6 August 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  6. ^ 'Asertu, tablet concordance KUB XXXVI 35 - CTH 342 Archived 5 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine', Hittite Collection, Hatice Gonnet-Bağana; Koç University.
  7. ^ Pardee, COS I, p 277, DAWN AND DUSK
  8. ^ Judg. 3.7, 2 Chron. 19.3 and 3.3
  9. ^ Taylor 1995, pp. 39.
  10. ^ Pat-El, Na’ama (6 November 2018). "Comparative Semitic And Hebrew Plural Morphemes" (in French). Open Book Publishers. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  11. ^ "Asherah" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, pp. 623–624.
  12. ^ Leeming, David (17 November 2005). The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  13. ^ Binger, Tilde (1997). Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1st ed.). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 74. ISBN 9780567119766.
  14. ^ a b Taylor 1995, pp. 29–54.
  15. ^ Olyan 1988, p. 79.
  16. ^ "...pray thou not for this people... The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead [their] dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings to other gods, that they may provoke me to anger." (King James Version)
  17. ^ Rainer, Albertz (2010), "Personal piety", in Stavrakopoulou, Francesca; Barton, John (eds.), Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah (reprint ed.), Continuum International Publishing Group, pp. 135–146 (at 143), ISBN 9780567032164
  18. ^ a b c d e Dever 2005
  19. ^ Coogan, Michael (2010). God and Sex. Twelve. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-446-54525-9.
  20. ^ Maderna 2019.
  21. ^ Stone, Merlin (1976). When God Was A Woman: The landmark exploration of the ancient worship of the Great Goddess and the eventual suppression of women's rites. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 015696158X.
  22. ^ Coogan 2010, p. 133.
  23. ^ Deuteronomy 12: 3–4
  24. ^ Jenny Kein, (2000)"Reinstating the Divine Woman in Judaism" (Universal Publishers; 1 edition (January 15, 2000)
  25. ^ Bach, Alice Women in the Hebrew Bible Routledge; 1 edition (3 Nov 1998) ISBN 978-0-415-91561-8 p.171
  26. ^ Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 p.270.
  27. ^ Olyan 1988, p. 71.
  28. ^ 4 See KAT 89.1, rbt hwt “It, *rabbat hawwat ’ilat, “The Lady Hawwah, Elat,’” who is likely Asherah/Elat/Tannit. Elat is a well known epithet of Asherah both in the Bronze and Iron Ages. “The Lady” (rbt) is used frequently of Tannit in the Punic world. For another Punic attestation of hwt, see M. Lidzbarski, Ephemeris fuer semitische Epigraphik (GieBen: Topelmann, 1915) 3:285.
  29. ^ Rainbow, Jesse (2007). "Male μαστoι in Revelation 1.13". Journal for the Study of the New Testament. SAGE Publications. 30 (2): 249–253. doi:10.1177/0142064x07084777. ISSN 0142-064X.
  30. ^ Cornelius 2004, p. 24.
  31. ^ Cornelius 2004, p. 22.
  32. ^ Jerm 7 18; 44 19
  33. ^ Gender and Difference in Ancient Israel | p = 115[full citation needed]
  34. ^ Olyan 1988.
  35. ^
  36. ^ EncJud II col 666
  37. ^ Taylor 1995, pp. 47.
  38. ^ "shaked". Balashon. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  39. ^ Rich, Viktoria Greenboim (16 May 2022). "7,500-year-old Burial in Eilat Contains Earliest Asherah". Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  40. ^ Hestrin, ’Lachish Ewer’, p. 215.
  41. ^ ’Lachish Ewer’, pp. 218-20.
  42. ^ Deut 16:21
  43. ^ Morrow, Israel (2019). Gods of the Flesh: A Skeptic's Journey Through Sex, Politics and Religion. ISBN 9780578438290.
  44. ^ Cornelius 2004, p. 28 2019.
  45. ^ Aschera & der Ausschliesslichkeitsanspruch YHWH's, Frevel, 1995
  46. ^ a b Gibson, J. C. L.; Driver, G. R. (1978), Canaanite Myths and Legends, T. & T. Clark, ISBN 9780567023513
  47. ^ Wiggins, Steve A. (2007). Wyatt, N. (ed.). A Reassessment of Asherah: With Further Considerations of the Goddess. Gorgias Ugaritic Studies 2. NJ, USA: Gorgias Press. p. 77.
  48. ^ Ahlström, Gösta W. (1963). Engnell, Ivan; Furumark, Arne; Nordström, Carl-Otto (eds.). Aspects of Syncretism in Israelite Religion. Horae Soederblominae 5. Translated by Sharpe, Eric J. Lund, SE: C.W.K. Gleerup. p. 68.
  49. ^ Rahmouni, Aicha (2008). "Epithet 94: rbt ʾaṯrt ym". Divine Epithets in the Ugaritic Alphabetic Texts. Translated by Ford, J. N. Leiden, NE: Brill. pp. 278. ISBN 9789004157699.
  50. ^ Rahmouni, Aicha (2008). "Epithet 94: rbt ʾaṯrt ym". Divine Epithets in the Ugaritic Alphabetic Texts. Translated by Ford, J. N. Leiden, NE: Brill. pp. 281. ISBN 9789004157699.
  51. ^ Binger, Tilde (1997). Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1st ed.). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 44. ISBN 9780567119766.
  52. ^ Wyatt, N. (2003). Religious Texts from Ugarit (2nd ed.). London: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 131 et al.
  53. ^ a b Sung Jin Park, "Short Notes on the Etymology of Asherah", Ugarit Forschungen 42 (2010): 527–534.
  54. ^ Albright, W. F. (1968). Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths. London: University of London, Athlone Press. pp. 105–106. ISBN 9780931464010.
  55. ^ Emerton, J. A. (1982). "New Light on Israelite Religion: The Implications of the Inscriptions from Kuntillet ʿAjrud", Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 94. Brill. p. 8. doi:10.1515/zatw.1982.94.1.2. S2CID 170614720.
  56. ^ Binger, Tilde (1997). Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1st ed.). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 42–93. ISBN 9780567119766.
  57. ^ Kogan, Leonid (2012). "Proto-Semitic Lexicon". In Weninger, Stefan (ed.). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 179–258.
  58. ^ Numbers 6:5, Job 7:6
  59. ^ see KTU 1.4 I 23.
  60. ^ Noted by Raphael Patai, "The Goddess Asherah", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 24.1/2 (1965: 37–52), p. 39.
  61. ^ Hess, Richard S. "Asherah or Asherata?" Orientalia, vol. 65, no. 3, 1996, pp. 209–219. JSTOR, Accessed 6 Aug. 2021.
  62. ^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Silberman, Neil Asher, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, Simon & Schuster, 2002, pp. 241–242.
  63. ^ Barton, John (2012). The Theology of the Book of Amos. Old Testament Theology. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-107-37715-8. Retrieved 5 September 2023. There can be little doubt that polytheism was the normal religion of Israel in practice. [...] On popular religion in Israel see Francesca Stavrakopoulou , "'Popular' Religion and 'Official' Religion: Practice, Perception, Portrayal," in Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah (eds. F. Stavrakopoulou and J. Barton ; London: T & T Clark, 2010), 37–58. This essay problematizes the distinction between popular and official religion, a distinction that was not necessarily obvious at the time to everyone, even though the Old Testament gives the impression that it was.
  64. ^ a b "BBC Two - Bible's Buried Secrets, Did God Have a Wife?". BBC. 21 December 2011. Archived from the original on 15 January 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  65. ^ Quote from the BBC documentary[which?] (prof. Herbert Niehr): "Between the 10th century and the beginning of their exile in 586 there was polytheism as normal religion all throughout Israel; only afterward things begin to change and very slowly they begin to change. I would say it [the sentence "Jews were monotheists" - n.n.] is only correct for the last centuries, maybe only from the period of the Maccabees, that means the second century BC, so in the time of Jesus of Nazareth it is true, but for the time before it, it is not true."[This quote needs a citation]
  66. ^ Wesler, Kit W. (2012). An Archaeology of Religion. University Press of America. p. 193. ISBN 978-0761858454. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  67. ^ Mills, Watson, ed. (31 December 1999). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Reprint ed.). Mercer University Press. p. 494. ISBN 978-0865543737. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  68. ^ "Genesis Chapter 1 (NKJV)". Blue Letter Bible. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  69. ^ Ze'ev Meshel, Kuntillet 'Ajrud: An Israelite Religious Center in Northern Sinai Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Expedition 20 (Summer 1978), pp. 50–55
  70. ^ Hadley 2000, pp. 122–136
  71. ^ Bonanno, Anthony (1986). Archaeology and Fertility Cult in the Ancient Mediterranean: Papers Presented at the First International Conference on Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean, University of Malta, 2–5 September 1985. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 238. ISBN 9789060322888. Archived from the original on 18 January 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  72. ^ Keel, Othmar; Uehlinger, Christoph (1998). Gods, Goddesses, And Images of God. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 228. ISBN 9780567085917. Archived from the original on 15 June 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  73. ^ Keel, Othmar; Uehlinger, Christoph (1 January 1998). Gods, Goddesses, And Images of God. Edinburgh: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-567-08591-7.
  74. ^ Winter 1983, See §1.3.2 "Die Goettin & ihr Kultobjekt sind nicht zu trennen".
  75. ^ Sung Jin Park, "The Cultic Identity of Asherah in Deuteronomistic Ideology of Israel," Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 123/4 (2011): 553–564.
  76. ^ Ackerman, Susan (1993). "The Queen Mother and the Cult in Ancient Israel". Journal of Biblical Literature. 112 (3): 385–401. doi:10.2307/3267740. JSTOR 3267740.
  77. ^ Bowen, Nancy (2001). "The Quest for the Historical Gĕbîrâ". Catholic Biblical Quarterly. 64: 597–618.
  78. ^ 1 Kings 15:13; 18:19, 2 Kings 10:13
  79. ^ Dever 2005, p. 163.
  80. ^ Winter 1983.
  81. ^ 1 NEWBERRY Beni Hasan i Pl xiii register 4 Cf PETRIE Deshasheh Pl v register 3 there is a very example in DAVIES Ptahhetep ii Pl xvii
  82. ^[citation not found]
  83. ^ "Asherah". Archived from the original on 5 January 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  84. ^ Danby, Herbert (1933). The Mishnah: Translated from the Hebrew With Introduction and Brief Explanatory Notes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 90, 176. ISBN 9780198154020.
  85. ^ a b Wiggins, Steve A. (1 January 1991). "The Myth of Asherah: Lion Lady and Serpent Goddess". Ugarit-Forschungen: Internationales Jahrbuch für ...
  86. ^ Smith, Mark. "'Athtart in Late Bronze Age Syrian Texts". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  87. ^ Lete, Gregorio Del Olmo. "2013-KTU 1.107: A miscellany of incantations against snakebite". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  88. ^ Wiggins, Steve A. (2007). "A Reassessment of Asherah". A Reassessment of Asherah: i.
  89. ^ Wiggins, Steve A. (1 January 1994). "Shapsh, Lamp of the Gods". Ugarit, Religion and Culture. Proceedings of the ...
  90. ^ Jordan, Michael (14 May 2014). Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses. Infobase Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 9781438109855.
  91. ^ Watkins, Justin (2007). "Athirat: As Found at Ras Shamra". Studia Antiqua. 5 (1): 45–55. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  92. ^ Lucy Goodison and Christine E. Morris, Ancient Goddesses: Myths and Evidence (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998), 79.
  93. ^ Olyan 1988, p. 59.

General sources[edit]

  • Ahlström, Gösta W. (1963), Engnell, Ivan; Furumark, Arne; Nordström, Carl-Otto (eds.), Aspects of Syncretism in Israelite Religion, Horae Soederblominae 5, translated by Sharpe, Eric J., Lund, SE: C.W.K. Gleerup, p. 68
  • Albright, W. F. (1968), Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths, London: University of London, Athlone Press, pp. 105–106, ISBN 9780931464010
  • Barker, Margaret (2012), The Mother of the Lord Volume 1: The Lady in the Temple, T & T Clark, ISBN 9780567528155
  • Binger, Tilde (1997), Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1st ed.), Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, pp. 42–93, ISBN 9780567119766
  • Cornelius, Sakkie (2004). "A PRELIMINARY TYPOLOGY FOR THE FEMALE PLAQUE FIGURINES AND THEIR VALUE FOR THE RELIGION OF ANCIENT PALESTINE AND JORDAN" (PDF). Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 30/1: 21–39. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  • Dever, William G. (2005), Did God Have A Wife?: Archaeology And Folk Religion In Ancient Israel, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 9780802828521
  • Emerton, J. A. (1982). "New Light on Israelite Religion: The Implications of the Inscriptions from Kuntillet ʿAjrud". Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. 94: 2–20. doi:10.1515/zatw.1982.94.1.2. S2CID 170614720.
  • Hadley, Judith M. (2000), The Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel and Judah: The Evidence for a Hebrew Goddess, University of Cambridge Oriental publications, 57, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521662352
  • Kien, Jenny (2000), Reinstating the Divine Woman in Judaism, Universal Publishers, ISBN 9781581127638, OCLC 45500083
  • Long, Asphodel P. (1993), In a Chariot Drawn by Lions: The Search for the Female in Deity, Crossing Press, ISBN 9780895945754.
  • Maderna, Santiago Rostom (29 October 2019). "Divorce scene between Yahweh and Asherah. Dramatic origin in the Hos 2, 4-15 composition". Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  • Margalit, Baruch (1989), "SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE INSCRIPTION AND DRAWING FROM KHIRBET EL-QÔM", Vetus Testamentum, XXXIX (3): 372
  • Myer, Allen C. (2000), "Asherah", Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, Amsterdam University Press
  • Olyan, Saul M. (1988). Asherah and the Cult of Yahweh in Israel. Atlanta, Georgia: Atlanta, Ga. : Scholars Press. ISBN 978-1-55540-253-2.
  • Park, Sung Jin (2010). "Short Notes on the Etymology of Asherah". Ugarit Forschungen. 42: 527–534.
  • Park, Sung Jin (2011). "The Cultic Identity of Asherah in Deuteronomistic Ideology of Israel". Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. 123 (4): 553–564. doi:10.1515/zaw.2011.036. S2CID 170589596.
  • Patai, Raphael (1990), The Hebrew Goddess, Jewish folklore and anthropology, Wayne State University Press, ISBN 9780814322710, OCLC 20692501.
  • Rahmouni, Aicha (2008), Divine Epithets in the Ugaritic Alphabetic Texts, translated by Ford, J. N., Leiden, NE: Brill
  • Reed, William Laforest (1949), The Asherah in the Old Testament, Texas Christian University Press, OCLC 491761457.
  • Taylor, Joan E. (1995), "The Asherah, the Menorah and the Sacred Tree", Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, University of Sheffield, Dept. of Biblical Studies, 20 (66): 29–54, doi:10.1177/030908929502006602, ISSN 0309-0892, OCLC 88542166, S2CID 170422840
  • Wiggins, Steve A. (1993), A Reassessment of 'Asherah': A Study according to the Textual Sources of the First Two Millennia B.C.E, Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Bd. 235., Verlag Butzon & Bercker, ISBN 9783788714796
  • Wiggins, Steve A. (2007), Wyatt, N. (ed.), A Reassessment of Asherah: With Further Considerations of the Goddess, Gorgias Ugaritic Studies 2 (2nd ed.), New Jersey: Gorgias Press
  • Winter, Urs (1983). Frau und Göttin (in German). Freiburg, Schweiz Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-53673-9.
  • Wyatt, N. (2003), Religious Texts from Ugarit (2nd ed.), London: Sheffield Academic Press

External links[edit]


Kuntillet ʿAjrud inscriptions[edit]