Ashraf Ali Thanwi
|Ashraf Ali Thanvi
اشرف علی تھانوی
|Born||19 August 1863|
|Died||20 July 1943(aged 79)|
|Resting place||Thana Bhawan|
|Main interest(s)||fiqh, sunni islam, sufism|
|Notable idea(s)||islamic fiqah|
|Notable work(s)||Bahishti Zewar|
|Alma mater||Darul Uloom Deoband|
|Disciple of||Haji Imdadullah|
Early life and career
Ashraf Ali Thanwi lost his mother at a young age and was raised by his father. His father took great pains in teaching Maulana and his younger brother discipline and good character.
After his graduation, Thanwi taught religious sciences in Kanpur. Over a short period of time, he acquired a reputable position as a religious scholar of Sufism among other subjects. His teaching attracted numerous students, his research and publications became well known in Islamic institutions. During these years, he traveled to various cities and villages, delivering lectures in the hope of reforming people. Printed versions of his lectures and discourses would usually become available shortly after these tours. Until then, few Islamic scholars had had their lectures printed and widely circulated in their own lifetimes. The desire to reform the masses intensified in him during his stay at Kanpur.
Fatwa and its refutation
In 1906, Ahmad Raza Khan issued a fatwa against Thanwi and other Deobandi leaders entitled Husam ul-Haramain (Urdu: Sword of Mecca and Medina), decrying them as unbelievers and Satanists. The fatwa was also signed by other scholars including from Hijaz.
Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi was a strong supporter of the Muslim League. In the 1946 elections most Deobandi ulama supported the Congress although some members of Deoband such as Ashraf Ali Thanvi and Shabbir Ahmad Usmani were in favour of the Muslim League. 
- Bahishti Zewar
- Shah Waliullah
- Muhammad Shafi
- Muhammad Taqi Usmani
- Muhammad Rafi Usmani
- Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari
- https://sites.google.com/site/islamandthequran/ah-years-converted-to-ad-years, 'Islamic Years Converted to AD years' on the Conversion Chart on google.com website, Retrieved 25 March 2017
- http://haqislam.org/maulana-ashraf-ali-thanwi/, Profile of Ashraf Ali Thanwi on haqislam.org website, Published 9 November 2014, Retrieved 25 March 2017
- Ali Abbasi, Shahid. (2008, January–March)
- Rethinking in Islam: Mawlana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi on Way and Way-faring. Hamdard Islamic-us, 21(1), 7–23. (Article on Ashraf 'Ali's teachings on Sufism.)
- http://sufimanzil.org/arabic-fatwa-against-deobandis/, 'Arabic Fatwa against Deobandis', Sufi Manzil website, Published 3 May 2010, Retrieved 25 March 2017
- Ahmad Raza Khan. Hussam-ul-Harmain
- Fatawa Hussam-ul-Hermayn by Khan,Ahmad Raza Qadri
- As-samare-ul-Hindiya by Khan,Hashmat Ali
- Madsen, Stig Toft; Nielsen, Kenneth Bo; Skoda, Uwe (2011-01-01). Trysts with Democracy: Political Practice in South Asia. Anthem Press. ISBN 9780857287731.
- Riaz, Ali (2008-01-01). Faithful Education: Madrassahs in South Asia. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813543451.
- https://www.dawn.com/news/1042583, 'What's wrong with Pakistan?', Dawn newspaper, Published 13 September 2013, Retrieved 25 March 2017
- Ingvar Svanberg; David Westerlund (6 December 2012). Islam Outside the Arab World. Routledge. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-136-11322-2.
- Rajshree Jetly (27 April 2012). Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics. Taylor & Francis. pp. 156–. ISBN 978-1-136-51696-2.
- Zaman, Muhammad Qasim, Ashraf `Ali Thanawi: Islam in Modern South Asia (Makers of the Muslim World), Oneworld, 2007.
- Ahmed, Muniruddin,