Asian Canadians

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Asian Canadians
Asian ancestry in Canada.png
Asian ancestry % in Canada (2016)
Total population
17.7% of the Canadian population (2016)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Western Canada · Central Canada · Urban
less prevalent in the Atlantic and North
Canadian English · Canadian French
Mandarin · Cantonese · Punjabi · Arabic · Tagalog
Other Asian languages
Christianity · Buddhism and other East Asian religions · Islam · Hinduism · Sikhism · Judaism · Non-religious · Other
Related ethnic groups
Asian Americans · Asian Australians · Asian Britons · Asian New Zealanders · Asian people

Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people. Canadians with Asian ancestry comprise both the largest and fastest growing group in Canada, after European Canadians, with roughly 17.7% of the Canadian population. Most Asian Canadians are concentrated in the urban areas of Southern Ontario, Southwestern British Columbia, Central Alberta, and other large Canadian cities.

Asian Canadians are considered visible minorities and may be classified as East Asian Canadians, Southeast Asian Canadians, South Asian Canadians, Central Asian Canadians, or West Asian Canadians.[3]


In the Canadian Census, people with origins or ancestry in East Asia (e.g. Chinese Canadians, Korean Canadians, Japanese Canadians, Tibetan Canadians), South Asia (e.g. Bangladeshi Canadians, Indian Canadians, Pakistani Canadians, Sri Lankan Canadians), Southeast Asia (e.g. Laotian Canadians, Cambodian Canadians, Filipino Canadians, Vietnamese Canadians), West Asia (e.g. Iranian Canadians, Iraqi Canadians, Israeli Canadians, Lebanese Canadians, Turkish Canadians), or Central Asia (e.g. Afghan Canadians, Uzbek Canadians, Kazakh Canadians) are all classified as part of the Asian race.


Chinese labourers working on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 1884
South Asians at a lumber camp in British Columbia, circa 1914
Damage after the September 1907 anti-Asian riot in Vancouver
Indians in Vancouver, 1908
South Asians aboard Komagata Maru in Vancouver, 1914
Founding members of the Canadian Japanese Association at the Japanese Canadian War Memorial in Vancouver, 1920.

18th century[edit]

The first record of Asians in what is known as Canada today can be dated back to the late 18th century. In 1788, renegade British Captain John Meares hired a group of Chinese carpenters from Macau and employed them to build a ship at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.[4]: 312  After the outpost was seized by Spanish forces, the eventual whereabouts of the carpenters was largely unknown.

19th century[edit]

During the mid 19th century, many Chinese arrived to take part in the British Columbia gold rushes. Beginning in 1858, early settlers formed Victoria's Chinatown and other Chinese communities in New Westminster, Yale and Lillooet. Estimates indicate that about 1/3 of the non-native population of the Fraser goldfields was Chinese.[5][6] Later, the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway prompted another wave of immigration from the East Asian country. Mainly hailing from Guangdong Province, the Chinese helped build the Canadian Pacific Railway through the Fraser Canyon.

Many Japanese people also arrived in Canada during the mid to late 19th century and became fishermen and merchants in British Columbia. Early immigrants from the East Asian island nation most notably worked in canneries such as Steveston along the pacific coast.

Similarly in the late 19th century, many Indians hailing from Punjab Province settled in British Columbia and worked in the forestry industry.[7] Most early immigrants hailing from South Asia first settled around sawmill towns along the Fraser River in southwestern British Columbia such as Kitsilano, Fraser Mills and Queensborough.[8] Later, many Indian immigrants also settled on Vancouver Island, working on local sawmills in Victoria, Coombs, Duncan, Ocean Falls and Paldi.[9]

Early West Asian Canadian history featured Lebanese and Syrians first immigrating in Canada during the late 19th century; as both countries were under Ottoman dominion at the time they were originally known as Turks. Settling in the Montreal area of southern Quebec, they became the first West Asian group to immigrate to Canada.[10] The first Lebanese immigrant to Canada was Abraham Bounadere (Ibrahim Abu Nadir) from Zahlé in Lebanon who settled in Montreal in 1882.[11] Because of situations within Lebanon and restrictive Canadian laws these immigrants were 90% Christian. These immigrants were mostly economic migrants seeking greater prosperity in the New World.

Similar to late 19th century through early 20th century Lebanese immigration and settler patterns, while the vast majority of Syrians migrated to South America, a small percentage made their way to America, and an even smaller percentage settled in Canada. Once again, in a similar demographic to early Lebanese settlers to Canada, the overwhelming majority of Syrians who settled in Canada from the 1880s-1960s were of the Christian faith. The so-called Shepard of the lost flock, Saint Raphael Hawaweeny of Brooklyn, New York, came to Montreal in 1896 to help establish a Christian association called the Syrian Benevolent Society and then later on an Orthodox church in Montreal for the newly arrived Syrian faithful.[12]

By 1884 Nanaimo, New Westminster, Yale and Victoria had the largest Chinese populations in the province. Other settlements such as Quesnelle Forks were majority Chinese and many early immigrants from the East Asian country settled on Vancouver Island, most notably in Cumberland.[13] In addition to work on the railway, most Chinese in the late 19th century British Columbia lived among other Chinese and worked in market gardens, coal mines, sawmills, and salmon canneries.[14]

In 1885, soon after the construction on the railway was completed, the federal government passed the Chinese Immigration Act, whereby the government began to charge a substantial head tax for each Chinese person trying to immigrate to Canada.[15] A decade later, the fear of the "Yellow Peril" prompted the government of Mackenzie Bowell to pass an act forbidding any East Asian Canadian from voting or holding office.[15]

Many Chinese workers settled in Canada after the railway was constructed, however most could not bring the rest of their families, including immediate relatives, due to government restrictions and enormous processing fees. They established Chinatowns and societies in undesirable sections of the cities, such as East Pender Street in Vancouver, which had been the focus of the early city's red-light district until Chinese merchants took over the area from the 1890s onwards.[16]

20th century[edit]

Immigration restrictions stemming from anti-Asian sentiment in Canada continued during the early 20th century. Parliament voted to increase the Chinese head tax to $500 dollars in 1902; this temporarily caused Chinese immigration to Canada to stop. However, in following years, Chinese immigration to Canada recommenced as many saved up money to pay the head tax. Due to the decrease in Chinese immigration, Steamship lines began recruiting Indians to make up for the loss of business; the Fraser River Canners' Association and the Kootchang Fruit Growers' Association asked the Canadian government to abolish immigration restrictions. Letters from persons settling in Canada gave persons still in India encouragement to move to Canada, and there was an advertising campaign to promote British Columbia as an immigration destination.[17] Around that time, in 1902, a notable moment of Asian Canadian history occurred when Punjabi Sikh settlers first arrived in Golden, British Columbia to work at the Columbia River Lumber Company.[18]

The early Punjabi Sikh settlers in Golden built the first Gurdwara (Sikh Temple) in Canada and North America in 1905,[19][20] which would later be destroyed by fire in 1926.[21] The second Gurdwara to be built in Canada was in 1908 in Kitsilano (Vancouver), aimed at serving a growing number of Punjabi Sikh settlers who worked at nearby sawmills along False Creek at the time.[22] The Gurdwara would later close and be demolished in 1970, with the temple society relocating to the newly built Gurdwara on Ross Street, in South Vancouver. As a result, the oldest existing Gurdwara in Canada today is the Gur Sikh Temple, located in Abbotsford, British Columbia. Built in 1911, the temple was designated as a national historic site of Canada in 2002 and is the third-oldest Gurdwara in the country. Soon later, the fourth Gurdwara to be built Canada was established at the Fraser Mills (Coquitlam) settlement in 1913 followed by the fifth at the Queensborough (New Westminster) settlement in 1919,[23][24][25] and the sixth at the Paldi (Vancouver Island) settlement, also in 1919.[26][27][28][29]

Heightened anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the infamous anti-Asian pogrom in Vancouver in 1907. Spurred by similar riots in Bellingham targeting South Asian settlers, The Asiatic Exclusion League organized attacks against homes and businesses owned by East Asian immigrants under the slogan "White Canada Forever!"; though no one was killed, much property damage was done and numerous East Asian Canadians were beaten up.

In 1908, the British Columbia government passed a law preventing South Asian Canadians from voting. Because eligibility for federal elections originated from provincial voting lists, Indians were also unable to vote in federal elections.[30] Later, the Canadian government enacted a $200 head tax and passed the continuous journey regulation which indirectly halted Indian immigration to Canada, thus restricting all immigration from South Asia.

A direct result of the continuous journey regulation was the Komagata Maru Incident in Vancouver. In May 1914, hundreds of South Asians hailing from Punjab were denied entry into the country, eventually forced to depart for India. By 1916, despite a declining population due to immigration restrictions, many Indian settlers established the Paldi mill colony on Vancouver Island.[31]

During the first world war, Turkish Canadians were placed in “enemy alien" internment camps.[32]

In 1923, the federal government passed the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, which banned all Chinese immigration, and led to immigration restrictions for all East Asians. In 1947, the act was repealed.

The second world war prompted the federal government used the War Measures Act to brand Japanese Canadians enemy aliens and categorized them as security threats in 1942. Tens of thousands of Japanese Canadians were placed in internment camps in British Columbia; prison of war camps in Ontario; and families were also sent as forced labourers to farms throughout the prairies. By 1943, all properties owned by Japanese Canadians in British Columbia were seized and sold without consent.

The Iranian revolution of 1979 resulted in a spike of immigration to Canada from the West Asian country.[33] In the aftermath, many Iranian-Canadians began to categorize themselves as "Persian" rather than "Iranian", mainly to dissociate themselves from the Islamic regime of Iran and the negativity associated with it, and also to distinguish themselves as being of Persian ethnicity.[34][35]

During and after the Vietnam War, a large wave of Vietnamese refugees began arriving in Canada. The Canadian Parliament created the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada in 1985 to better address issues surrounding Asia–Canada relations, including trade, citizenship and immigration. When Hong Kong reverted to mainland Chinese rule, people emigrated and found new homes in Canada.

21st century[edit]

In 2016, the Canadian government issued a full apology in Parliament for the Komagata Maru Incident.

According to Statistics Canada, in 2016, 48.1% of the immigrant population in Canada was born in Asia. Furthermore, Asian countries accounted for seven of the top ten countries of birth for recent immigrants, including the Philippines, India, China, Iran, Pakistan, Syria and South Korea.[36]

In recent decades, a large number of people have come to Canada from India and other South Asian countries. As of 2016, South Asians make up nearly 17 percent of the Greater Toronto Area's population, and are projected to make up 24 percent of the region's population by 2031.[37]

Today, Asian Canadians form a significant minority within the population, and over 6 million ethnic Asians call Canada their home. Asian Canadian students, in particular those of East Asian or South Asian background, make up the majority of students at several Canadian universities.


Asian Canadian population in Canada
Year Population % of total population
1871[38][39] 4 0%
1881[38] 4,383 0.1%
1901[38] 23,731 0.44%
1911[38] 43,213 0.6%
1921[38][39] 65,914 0.75%
1931[38][39] 84,548 0.81%
1941[38][39] 74,064 0.64%
1951[38][39] 72,827 0.52%
1961[38][39][40] 121,753 0.67%
1971[38][39][40] 285,540 1.32%
1981[40] 694,830 2.89%
1991[40] 1,607,230 5.95%
1996[41][42] 2,591,160 8.98%
2001[43] 3,234,290 10.91%
2006[44] 4,181,755 13.39%
2011[45] 5,011,225 15.25%
2016[46] 6,095,235 17.69%


The Canadian population who reported full or partial Asian ethnic origin, including West Central Asian and Middle Eastern, according to the 2016 census:[47]

Province or territory Asian origins %
 Ontario 3,100,455 23.4%
 British Columbia 1,312,445 28.8%
 Alberta 756,335 19.0%
 Québec 563,150 7.1%
 Manitoba 178,650 14.4%
 Saskatchewan 99,125 9.3%
 Nova Scotia 42,495 4.7%
 New Brunswick 19,410 2.7%
 Newfoundland and Labrador 10,090 2.0%
 Prince Edward Island 6,485 4.6%
 Northwest Territories 3,125 7.6%
 Yukon 2,855 8.1%
 Nunavut 615 1.7%
 Canada 6,095,235 17.7%

Ethnic Origins[edit]

Pie chart of the Pan-Ethnic breakdown of Asian Canadians from the 2016 census.[48]

  East Asian (34.2%)
  South Asian (31.3%)
  Southeast Asian (18.9%)
  West Asian (13.6%)
  Central Asian (2.0%)

While the Asian Canadian population is diverse, many have ancestry from a few select countries in the continent. Nearly four million or 66% of Asian Canadians can trace their roots to just three countries; China, India and the Philippines.

Population of Asian Canadian Groups, 2016 Census[47]
Ethnic Origins Population
Chinese Canadians 1,769,195
Indian Canadians 1,374,715
Filipino Canadians 851,410
Vietnamese Canadians 240,615
Lebanese Canadians 219,555
Pakistani Canadians 215,560
Iranian Canadians 210,405
Korean Canadians 198,210
Sri Lankan Canadians 152,595
Japanese Canadians 121,485
Punjabi Canadians 118,395
Arab Canadians
(not otherwise specified)
Afghan Canadians 83,995
Syrian Canadians 77,045
South Asian Canadians
(not included elsewhere)
Iraqi Canadians 70,920
Turkish Canadians 63,995
Armenian Canadians 63,810
Tamil Canadians 48,670
Bangladeshi Canadian 45,940
Palestinian Canadians 44,820
Cambodian Canadians 38,495
Taiwanese Canadians 36,515 (94,000[49]–173,000[50])
Israeli Canadians 28,735
West Central Asian and Middle Eastern
(not included elsewhere)
Laotian Canadians 24,575
Bengali Canadians 22,900
Other Asian origins
(not included elsewhere)
Indonesian Canadians 21,395
Thai Canadians 19,010
Nepali Canadians 17,140
Malaysian Canadians 16,920
Kurdish Canadians 16,315
Jordanian Canadians 14,250
Assyrian Canadians 13,830
Burmese Canadians 9,330
Gujarati Canadians 8,350
Tibetan Canadians 8,040
Mongolian Canadians 7,475
Sinhalese Canadians 7,285
Saudi Arabian Canadians 6,810
Yemeni Canadians 6,645
East and Southeast Asian
(not included elsewhere)
Azerbaijani Canadians 6,425
Goan Canadians 6,070
Tatar Canadians 4,825
Pashtun Canadians 4,810
Georgian Canadians 4,775
Karen Canadians 4,515
Uzbek Canadians 3,920
Bhutanese Canadians 3,600
Kazakh Canadians 3,330
Kashmiri Canadians 3,115
Tajik Canadians 2,905
Singaporean Canadians 2,845
Kuwaiti Canadians 2,240
Uighur Canadians 1,555
Hazara Canadians 1,520
Kyrgyz Canadians 1,055
Turkmen Canadians 1,040
Hmong Canadians 805


Pie chart breakdown of the spoken Asian language families of Canadians from the 2016 census.[51]

  Indo-Iranian (31.03%)
  Sino-Tibetan (26.78%)
  Semitic (Asian) (13.68%)
  Austronesian (12.28%)
  Dravidian (4.68%)
  Austro-Asiatic (4.21%)
  Koreanic (3.23%)
  Japonic (1.55%)
  Turkic (1.13%)
  Other (1.44%)

Knowledge of language[edit]

As of 2016, 6,044,885 or 17.5 percent of Canadians speak an Asian language. Of this, the top five Asian tongues spoken include Mandarin (13.5%), Cantonese (11.6%), Punjabi (11.1%), Arabic (10.4%) and Tagalog (10.1%).

  • Languages with 5,000 or more speakers listed.
# Knowledge of language Population (2016)[52] % of Asian languages (2016)
1 Mandarin 814,450 13.47%
2 Cantonese 699,125 11.57%
3 Punjabi 668,240 11.05%
4 Arabic 629,055 10.41%
5 Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino) 612,735 10.14%
6 Hindi 433,365 7.17%
7 Urdu 322,220 5.33%
8 Persian (Farsi) 252,320 4.17%
9 Vietnamese 198,895 3.29%
10 Tamil 189,860 3.14%
11 Korean 172,755 2.86%
12 Gujarati 149,045 2.47%
13 Bengali 91,220 1.51%
14 Japanese 83,090 1.37%
15 Hebrew 75,020 1.24%
16 Turkish 50,775 0.84%
17 Min Nan
(Chaochow, Teochow, Fukien, Taiwanese)
42,840 0.71%
18 Chinese, n.o.s. 41,690 0.69%
19 Armenian 41,295 0.68%
20 Malayalam 37,810 0.63%
21 Ilocano 34,530 0.57%
22 Sinhala 27,825 0.46%
23 Cebuano 27,045 0.45%
24 Khmer (Cambodian) 27,035 0.45%
25 Pashto 23,180 0.38%
26 Telugu 23,160 0.38%
27 Malay 22,470 0.37%
28 Nepali 21,380 0.35%
29 Sindhi 20,260 0.34%
30 Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 19,745 0.33%
31 Lao 17,235 0.29%
32 Wu (Shanghainese) 16,530 0.27%
33 Marathi 15,570 0.26%
34 Thai 15,390 0.25%
35 Kurdish 15,290 0.25%
36 Hakka 12,445 0.21%
37 Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 8,875 0.15%
38 Kannada 8,245 0.14%
39 Hiligaynon 7,925 0.13%
40 Chaldean Neo-Aramaic 7,115 0.12%
41 Tibetan 7,050 0.12%
42 Konkani 6,790 0.11%
43 Austronesian languages, n.i.e. 5,585 0.09%
44 Azerbaijani 5,450 0.09%
45 Pampangan (Kapampangan, Pampango) 5,425 0.09%
46 Other 37,530 0.62%
Total 6,044,885 100%

Mother Tongue[edit]

As of 2016, 4,217,365 or 12.2 percent of Canadians speak an Asian language as a mother tongue. Of this, the top five Asian tongues spoken include Mandarin (14.0%), Cantonese (13.4%), Punjabi (11.9%), Tagalog (10.2%) and Arabic (10.0%).

  • Languages with 10,000 or more speakers listed.
# Mother Tongue Population (2016)[53] % of Asian languages (2016)
1 Mandarin 592,035 14.04%
2 Cantonese 565,275 13.4%
3 Punjabi 501,680 11.9%
4 Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino) 431,385 10.23%
5 Arabic 419,895 9.96%
6 Persian (Farsi) 214,200 5.08%
7 Urdu 210,820 5%
8 Vietnamese 156,430 3.71%
9 Korean 153,425 3.64%
10 Tamil 140,720 3.34%
11 Hindi 110,645 2.62%
12 Gujarati 108,775 2.58%
13 Bengali 73,125 1.73%
14 Japanese 43,640 1.03%
15 Chinese, n.o.s. 38,575 0.91%
16 Armenian 33,455 0.79%
17 Turkish 32,815 0.78%
18 Min Nan
(Teochow, Hokkien)
31,795 0.75%
19 Malayalam 28,570 0.68%
20 Ilocano 26,345 0.62%
21 Khmer (Cambodian) 20,130 0.48%
22 Cebuano 19,890 0.47%
23 Hebrew 19,530 0.46%
24 Nepali 18,275 0.43%
25 Pashto 16,910 0.4%
26 Sinhala 16,335 0.39%
27 Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 16,070 0.38%
28 Telugu 15,655 0.37%
29 Wu (Shanghainese) 12,920 0.31%
30 Malay 12,275 0.29%
31 Sindhi 11,860 0.28%
32 Kurdish 11,705 0.28%
33 Hakka 10,910 0.26%
34 Other 101,295 2.4%
Total 4,217,365 100%


Subdivisions with notable Asian Canadians[edit]

Chinatown, Vancouver
Vaisakhi Parade 2017, Punjabi Market (Little India), Vancouver
Turkish Canadians at the Victoria Day Parade 2005 in Downtown Victoria
Korean businesses and restaurants along Bloor Street in Toronto's Koreatown.
North York storefronts offering Iranian cuisine. North York has the largest West Asian population in Toronto.

Source: Canada 2016 Census

National average: 17.7%


British Columbia[edit]





See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Canada [Country]". Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  2. ^ "Language". Census Profile, 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. November 29, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  3. ^ "Classification of visible minority". Statistics Canada. June 15, 2009. Archived from the original on July 18, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  4. ^ Laurence J. C. Ma; Carolyn L. Cartier (2003). The Chinese Diaspora: Space, Place, Mobility, and Identity. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-1756-1.
  5. ^ Claiming the Land, Dan Marshall, UBC Ph.D Thesis, 2002 (unpubl.)
  6. ^ McGowan's War, Donald J. Hauka, New Star Books, Vancouver (2000) ISBN 1-55420-001-6
  7. ^ Walton-Roberts and Hiebert, Immigration, Entrepreneurship, and the Family Archived 2014-10-18 at the Wayback Machine, p. 124.
  8. ^ "Sikh Heritage Month: The South Asian pioneers of Fraser Mills".
  9. ^ Das, p. 21 (Archive).
  10. ^ "History of Recent Arab Immigration to Canada".
  11. ^ "History of Recent Arab Immigration to Canada". Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  12. ^ "About us". Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  13. ^ Lim, Imogene L. "Pacific Entry, Pacific Century: Chinatowns and Chinese Canadian History" (Chapter 2). In: Lee, Josephine D., Imogene L. Lim, and Yuko Matsukawa (editors). Re/collecting Early Asian America: Essays in Cultural History. Temple University Press, 2002. ISBN 1439901201, 9781439901205. Start: 15. CITED: p. 18.
  14. ^ Harris, Cole. The Resettlement of British Columbia: Essays on Colonialism and Geographical Change. University of British Columbia Press, Nov 1, 2011. ISBN 0774842563, 9780774842563. p. 145.
  15. ^ a b "How Canada tried to bar the "yellow peril"" (PDF). Maclean's. July 1, 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
  16. ^ Lisa Rose Mar (2010). Brokering Belonging: Chinese in Canada's Exclusion Era, 1885-1945. Oxford University Press. p. 112. ISBN 9780199780051.
  17. ^ Singh, Hira, p. 94 (Archive).
  18. ^ "FIRST SIKH TEMPLE IN NORTH AMERICA". March 10, 2021. The first Sikhs came to Golden about 1902, arriving to work in the sawmill of the Columbia River Lumber Company. When the Sikhs arrived in Golden the community was in its infancy and the sawmill had recently opened. The Columbia River Lumber Company recognized the value of these tall strong men and had no problem with the men. They hired them to work in the lumberyard, planer, and sawmill. The first documented proof that we have of South Asians of the Sikh faith being residents of Golden is a copy of a telegram sent to G.T. Bradshaw, Chief of Police, New Westminster from Colin Cameron, Chief of Police, Golden, BC on July 20, 1902. It was sent collect and reads: Geha Singh of Golden sent a telegram to Santa Singh care of Small and Bucklin for one thousand dollars.
  19. ^ "Sikhs celebrate history in Golden". April 26, 2018. The original temple in Golden sat on a corner of a lot, in the south western area of town at the end of the street looking toward where Rona is now. The largest influx of men came from South Asia around 1905, which would be the time period that the temple in Golden would have began services. In 1926, a fire burned the timber limits of the Columbia River Lumber Company, where the South Asian men worked.
  20. ^ "Golden's Sikh heritage recognized on new Stop of Interest sign". November 9, 2016. “We acknowledge the Gurdwara in Golden as the first in B.C., and quite likely the first in North America,” said Pyara Lotay, on behalf of the local Sikh community. “We thank the B.C. government for recognizing Golden’s Sikh pioneers and their place of worship with this Stop of Interest.”
  21. ^ "Golden Gurdwara is recognized for its historical significance". June 7, 2017. The original temple sat on the corner of a lot, which is now owned by Gurmit Manhas, at the end of the street past the School Board Office looking towards the Rona. Plans are being put together to erect a kiosk there that would share information about the original building, the first South Asian people to Canada, the importance of the Gurdwara to the Sikh people and the history of why they left and what brought them back. The largest influx of men came from South Asia in about 1905-06, which would be the time period that the Temple would have begun services. In 1926 a fire burned the timber limits of the Columbia River Lumber Company, where all the South Asian men worked and the men left for the coast having no work to do. When the forest started to grow back the men came back and soon it was necessary to build the present Gurdwara on 13th Street South.
  22. ^ "First Sikh Temple • Vancouver Heritage Foundation".
  23. ^ "New Westminster Sikh temple celebrates 100-year anniversary". March 3, 2019. The Gurdwara Sahib Sukh Sagar is one of the oldest Sikh temples in the country and its members are celebrating the milestone anniversary by reflecting on its historic significance to the local Sikh community. The temple was actually founded more than 100 years ago when a pioneering Sikh named Bhai Bishan Singh bought a house next door to where the building is now. Singh paid $250 for the house, which served as a place of worship until the congregation grew too large. In 1919, Singh bought the neighbouring lot at 347 Wood Street and the Gurdwara Sahib Sukh Sagar was born.
  24. ^ "New Westminster Sikh temple welcomes community to celebrate its centennial anniversary". February 27, 2019. The Khalsa Diwan Society New Westminster is inviting community members to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Gurdwara Sahib Sukh Sagar in Queensborough. Since opening in 1919, the temple has become an integral part of the Queensborough and New Westminster communities, and has provided a place for Sikhs from New Westminster and the Lower Mainland to gather and to worship. “It is starting up on Thursday and it will be four days, with the main event on Sunday. It’s open to anyone within the community – in Queensborough and in New West. It’s to show support, learn about each other and the heritage,” said Jag Sall, a member of the committee that’s organizing the celebration. “I don’t think a lot of people know that the Sikh community has been in Queensborough for over 100 years, and/or the gurdwara itself has been there that long. Not just the Sikh community, but other communities in Queensborough have been living there for a century.”
  25. ^ "The Gurdwara of New West Shares a Century of Stories". January 23, 2020. Every Sunday in 1919, the Sikhs of Queensborough on the Fraser River would stroll over to the house of Bhai Bishan Singh for worship. Singh, like many Punjabi immigrants, settled in the New Westminster neighbourhood because he worked upriver at a sawmill. A devout Sikh, he had the holy scripture installed in his home, the Guru Granth Sahib. Singh was a bachelor and gave much of his earnings to the local Khalsa Diwan Society, which in 1908 had built B.C.’s first gurdwara, the Sikh place of worship, in Vancouver. In March 1919, Singh helped the Sikhs of New Westminster start a gurdwara of their own. For $250, Singh bought the property next door and donated it to the society. Later, he would donate his house as well.
  26. ^ "Paldi Sikh Temple in Cowichan celebrating 100 years". June 26, 2019. The town’s cultural centres were the Japanese community hall and the Sikh Temple, which officially opened July 1, 1919, to coincide with Dominion Day.
  27. ^ "Sikh temple celebrates 100 years of acceptance in Vancouver Island ghost town". June 29, 2019. Paldi's Gurdwara was built in 1919 and soon became one of the most important fixtures of the community, even surviving several town fires.
  28. ^ "THE FOUNDING OF PALDI". In 1919, Mayo built a Sikh temple, or a gurdwara.
  29. ^ "PALDI: Town soaked in Sikh History". Wherever there are five or more Sikh’s there will be Sikh Temple even just a spare room in some ones house. Therefore it was only that once the natural that once the mill and bunkhouses were erected the next building should be a Temple. The first official Temple in Paldi was built in 1919. On the same spot where the present Temple is located.
  30. ^ Nayar, The Punjabis in British Columbia, page 15.
  31. ^ Nayar, The Punjabis in British Columbia, p. 29.
  32. ^ "First World War Timeline". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  33. ^ "Iranians". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  34. ^ Daha, Maryam (September 2011). "Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents". Journal of Adolescent Research. 26 (5): 543–569. doi:10.1177/0743558411402335. S2CID 146592244. ... the majority of the participants self-identified themselves as Persian instead of Iranian, due to the stereotypes and negative portrayals of Iranians in the media and politics. Adolescents from Jewish and Baha'i faiths asserted their religious identity more than their ethnic identity. The fact Iranians use Persian interchangeably is nothing to do with current Iranian government because the name Iran was used before this period as well. Linguistically modern Persian is a branch of Old Persian in the family of Indo-European languages and that includes all the minorities as well more inclusively.
  35. ^ Bozorgmehr, Mehdi (2009). "Iran". In Mary C. Waters; Reed Ueda; Helen B. Marrow (eds.). The New Americans: A Guide to Immigration since 1965. Harvard University Press. p. 469. ISBN 978-0-674-04493-7.
  36. ^ "Asian Heritage Month... by the numbers". Statistics Canada. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  37. ^ Gee, Marcus (July 4, 2011). "South Asian immigrants are transforming Toronto". The Globe and Mail.
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