|First event||1951 Asian Games in New Delhi, India|
|Occur every||Four years|
|Last event||2022 Asian Games in Hangzhou, China|
|Next event||2026 Asian Games in Nagoya, Japan|
|Purpose||Multi-sport event for nations in Asia|
The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a continental multi-sport event held every fourth year among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation (AGF) from the first Games in New Delhi, India in 1951, until the 1978 Games. Since the 1982 Games, they have been organized by the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), after the breakup of the Asian Games Federation. The Games are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and are described as the second largest multi-sport event after the Olympic Games.
Nine nations have hosted the Asian Games. Forty-six nations have participated in the Games, including Israel, which was excluded from the Games after its last participation in 1974. The last edition of the games was held in Hangzhou, China from 23 September to 8 October 2023.
Since 2010, it has been common for the host of the Asian Games to host the Asian Para Games held shortly after the end of the Games. This event is exclusive for athletes with disabilities as with the continental version of the Paralympic Games. But unlike what happens in the Paralympic Games where the host city's contract mentions the holding of both events, the case of Asia does not mention the mandatory holding of both. Instead, the exclusion of the Asian Para Games from the Asian Games host city's contract means that both events run independently from one other, and may lead to occasions in the future that the two events be held in different cities and countries.
The Far Eastern Championship Games existed previous to the Asian Games, the former mooted in 1912 for a location set between Japan, the Philippines, and China. The inaugural Far Eastern Games were held in Manila in 1913 with 6 participating nations. There were ten Far Eastern Games held by 1934. The second Sino-Japanese War in 1934, and Japan's insistence on including the Manchu Empire as a competitor nation in the Games, brought China to announce its withdrawal from participation. The Far Eastern Games scheduled for 1938 were cancelled. The organization was discontinued.
After World War II, several areas in Asia became sovereign states. Many of these countries sought to exhibit Asian prowess without violence. At the London 1948 Summer Olympics, a conversation started amongst China and the Philippines to restore the idea of the Far Eastern Games. Guru Dutt Sondhi, the Indian International Olympic Committee representative, believed that the restoration of the Far Eastern Games would sufficiently display the spirit of unity and level of achievement taking place in Asian sports. He proposed the idea of a new competition – which came to be the Asian Games. The Asian Athletic Federation would eventually be formed. A preparatory committee was set up to draft the charter for this new body. On 13 February 1949, the Asian Athletic Federation was formally inaugurated in and New Delhi, announced as the inaugural host city to be held in 1950.
Tumultuous years of crises
In 1962, the Games were hit by several crises. The host country Indonesia, refused to permit the participation of Israel and Taiwan due to political recognition issues. The IOC terminated its sponsorship of the Games and terminated Indonesia's membership in the IOC. The Asian Football Confederation (AFC), International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) and International Weightlifting Federation (IWF), also removed their recognition of the Games.
South Korea renounced its plan to host the 1970 Asian Games on the grounds of a national security crisis; the main reason was due to a financial crisis. The previous host, Thailand, would host the Games in Bangkok using funds transferred from South Korea. Japan was asked to host but declined the opportunity as they were already committed to Expo '70 in Osaka. This edition marked the Games' inaugural television broadcasting, world-wide. In Tehran, in 1974, the Games formally recognized the participation of China, North Korea, and Mongolia. Israel was allowed to participate despite the opposition from the Arab world, while Taiwan was permitted to continue taking part (as "Chinese Taipei") although its status was abolished in general meeting on 16 November 1973 by Games Federation.
Prior to the 1978 Games, Pakistan retracted its plan to host the 1975 Games due to a financial crisis and political issues. Thailand offer to host and the Games were held in Bangkok. As in 1962, Taiwan and Israel were refused the participation by Games Federation, amid political issues and security fears. Several governing bodies protested the ban. The International Olympic Committee threatened to bar the participating athletes from the 1980 Summer Olympics. Several nations withdraw prior to the Games opening.
Reorganization and expansion
These events led the National Olympic Committees in Asia to revise the constitution of the Asian Games Federation. The Olympic Council of Asia was created in November 1981, excluding Israel and Taiwan. India was scheduled to host in 1982 and the OCA decided to mantain the old AGF timetable. The OCA formally started to supervise the Games starting with the 1986 Asian Games scheduled for Seoul, South Korea. In the 1990 Asian Games, held in Beijing, Taiwan (Republic of China) was re-admitted, under pressure by the People's Republic of China to compete as Chinese Taipei.
The 1994 Games held in Hiroshima included the inaugural participation of the former 5 republics of the Soviet Union who were part of Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It was also the first edition of the Games held in a host country outside its capital city. However, Iraq was suspended from the Games due to the 1990 Persian Gulf War. North Korea boycotted the Games due to political issues with the host country. The Games were hampered during the opening ceremony due to a heart attack that killed Nareshkumar Adhikari, the chief of the Nepalese delegation.
The 1998 Games marked the fourth time the Games were held in Bangkok, Thailand. This time the city participated in a bidding process. The opening ceremony was on 6 December; the previous three were on 9 December. King Bhumibol Adulyadej opened the Games; the closing ceremony was on 20 December (the same date as all the previous games hosted by Thailand).
The Asian Games Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Asian Games charter. The Asian Games motto is "Ever Onward" which was designed and proposed by Guru Dutt Sondhi upon the creation of the Asian Games Federation in 1949. The Asian Games symbol is a bright sun in red with 16 rays and a white circle in the middle of its disc which represents the ever glimmering and warm spirit of the Asian people.
All 45 members affiliated to the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) are eligible to participate in the Games.
According to membership in the OCA, transcontinental Kazakhstan is an Asian country and could participate at Asian Games but this right could not applicate for Egypt as the country had 6% of the territory on Sinai, participating in the African Games instead. Various countries participating in the European Games rather than the Asian Games whose major geographical parts located in Asian continent: Turkey and Russia/Soviet Union; almost completely in Asia: Azerbaijan and Georgia; wholly in Asia: Cyprus and Armenia.
In history, 46 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) have sent competitors to the Games. Israel has been excluded from the Games since 1976, the reason cited as being due to security reasons. Israel requested to participate in the 1982 Games, but the request was rejected by the organizers due to the Munich massacre. Israel is now a member of the European Olympic Committees (EOC) and competes at the European Games.
Taiwan, Palestine, Hong Kong, and Macau participate in the Asian Games according to membership in OCA. Due to its continuing ambiguous political status, Taiwan participates in the Games under the flag of Chinese Taipei since 1990. Macau since 1990 Ganes is allowed to compete as one of the NOCs in Asian Games, despite not being recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for participation in the Olympic Games.
In 2007, the President of OCA, Sheikh Ahmed Al-Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah, rejected the proposal to allow Australia to participate in the Games. He stated that while Australia would add good value to the Asian Games, it would be unfair to the Oceania National Olympic Committees (ONOC). Being members of ONOC, Australia and New Zealand participate in Pacific Games since 2015. This motion was mooted again in 2017 after Australia's participation in the 2017 Asian Winter Games as they are in discussions to become a full Asian Games member in a near future. However, the Australian Olympic Committee announced that Australia would be allowed a small contingent of athletes for the 2022 Games, as long as the qualification for Summer Olympics events such as basketball and volleyball are through Asia-Pacific region.
List of Asian Games
|Edition||Year||Host||Games dates /
|1||1951||New Delhi||4–11 March 1951
President Rajendra Prasad
|2||1954||Manila||1–9 May 1954
President Ramon Magsaysay
|3||1958||Tokyo||24 May – 1 June 1958
|4||1962||Jakarta||24 August – 4 September 1962
|5||1966||Bangkok||9–20 December 1966
King Bhumibol Adulyadej
|6||1970||Bangkok||9–20 December 1970
King Bhumibol Adulyadej
|7||1974||Tehran||1–16 September 1974
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
|8||1978||Bangkok||9–20 December 1978
King Bhumibol Adulyadej
|9||1982||New Delhi||19 November – 4 December 1982
President Zail Singh
|10||1986||Seoul||20 September – 2 October 1986
President Chun Doo-hwan
|11||1990||Beijing||22 September – 7 October 1990
President Yang Shangkun
|12||1994||Hiroshima||2–16 October 1994
|13||1998||Bangkok||6–20 December 1998
King Bhumibol Adulyadej
|14||2002||Busan||29 September – 14 October 2002
President Kim Dae-jung
|15||2006||Doha||1–15 December 2006
Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
|16||2010||Guangzhou||12–27 November 2010
Premier Wen Jiabao[b]
|17||2014||Incheon||19 September – 4 October 2014
President Park Geun-hye
|18||2018||Jakarta and Palembang||18 August – 2 September 2018
President Joko Widodo
|19||2022||Hangzhou||23 September – 8 October 2023[c]
President Xi Jinping
|20||2026||Aichi-Nagoya||19 September – 4 October 2026
Emperor Naruhito (expected)
- North Korea
- Hong Kong
- South Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- Sri Lanka
- East Timor
- Chinese Taipei
- United Arab Emirates
The average for the edition of events by the edition of the Asian Games is of nearly 260 events with 24 sports by edition. Fifty-one sports, spanning 39 different disciplines and nearly 400 events, have been part of the Asian Games program at one point or another, including the 2018 Games in Indonesia. The edition where the largest number of events happened was the Guangzhou 2010 Games, where 476 events in 42 sports were conducted. The number of events varies according to edition and the demands of the local organizing committee, along with those of the host country. It was established in 2011, that the Games program would respect the eventual changes to the Olympic Games program along with this, eight extremely popular sports in Asia are in the program, plus up to 7 chosen by the local organization.
|Aquatics||Artistic Swimming||Since 1994|
|Marathon swimming||Since 2022|
|3x3 basketball||Since 2018|
|Board games||Chess||2006–2010, since 2022|
|Contract bridge||Since 2018|
|Go||2010, since 2022|
|Xiangqi||2010, since 2022|
|Canoeing||Slalom canoeing||Since 2010|
|Sprint canoeing||Since 1990|
|Cycling||BMX racing||Since 2010|
|Mountain biking||1998–2002, since 2010|
|Road cycling||1951, since 1958|
|Track cycling||1951, 1958, since 1966|
|Gymnastics||Artistic gymnastics||Since 1974|
|Rhythmic gymnastics||Since 1994|
|Martial arts||Pencak silat||2018 only|
|Roller sports||Artistic roller skating||2010, since 2022|
|Inline freestyle skating||Since 2022|
|Roller speed skating||2010, since 2018|
|Rugby union||Rugby union||1998–2002|
|Rugby sevens||Since 1998|
|Tennis||Tennis||1958–1966, since 1974|
|Soft tennis||Since 1994|
|Beach volleyball||Since 1998|
Of the 46 National Olympic Committees participating throughout the history of the Games, 43 nations have won at least a single medal in the competition, leaving three nations: Bhutan, Maldives and Timor-Leste yet to win a single medal. 38 nations have won at least one gold medal (only Japan and India have done so at every Asian Games), while Japan and China became the only two nations in history to emerge as overall champions.
India became the fourth nation in the history after Japan, China and South Korea to cross the 100 medal-mark in one edition. China, together with Japan and South Korea became the first three countries to cross the overall 200 medal-mark in one edition. China became the first nation to surpass the threshold of 100 gold medals, 200 gold medals, 300 overall medals and 400 overall medals in a single edition.
|Totals (10 entries)||4573||4204||4601||13378|
Most valuable player award
The most valuable player (MVP) award was introduced since 1998 Games in Bangkok, Thailand. The awards had originally been awarded to one individual, until 2023, when the 2022 Games in Hangzhou, have started separate women's and men's awards.
Below is the list of winners:
|2006||Park Tae-hwan||South Korea|||
On 8 November 2012, the OCA decided at its 31st General Assembly in Macau to create a special multi-sport event called Asian Games Centennial Festival in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Oriental Games (later became Far Eastern Championship Games). OCA awarded the Philippines the hosting rights as it was also the host 100 years previous. The event was originally scheduled to be held in Boracay, Malay, Aklan on 27 to 29 November 2013 but due to the events surrounding Typhoon Haiyan, it was moved to January 2014.
- Names & offices in italics reflect an opener who was not head of state when opening the Games. If the office is partially italicized, the non-italicized portion is the office & name of the head of state being represented.
- Representing Hu Jintao, President of the People's Republic of China.
- Originally scheduled for 10–25 September 2022, the Games were postponed by one year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, since the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.
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