|Date||July 6, 2013|
|Summary||Controlled flight into terrain due to pilot error and pilot fatigue|
|Site||San Francisco International Airport, California, United States |
|Aircraft type||Boeing 777-28EER|
|IATA flight No.||OZ214|
|ICAO flight No.||AAR214|
|Call sign||ASIANA 214|
|Flight origin||Incheon International Airport, Jung District, Incheon, South Korea|
|Destination||San Francisco International Airport, San Mateo County, United States|
Asiana Airlines Flight 214 was a scheduled transpacific passenger flight originating from Incheon International Airport near Seoul, South Korea. On the morning of July 6, 2013, the Boeing 777-200ER operating the flight stalled and crashed on final approach into San Francisco International Airport in the United States. Of the 307 people on board, three died; another 187 were injured, 49 of them seriously.: 13 Among the seriously injured were four flight attendants who were thrown onto the runway while still strapped in their seats when the tail section broke off after striking the seawall short of the runway. It was the first fatal crash of a Boeing 777 since the aircraft type entered service in 1995.
The investigation by the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) concluded that the accident was caused by the flight crew's mismanagement of the airplane's final approach. Deficiencies in Boeing's documentation of complex flight control systems and in Asiana Airlines' pilot training were also cited as contributory factors.: 129
The Boeing 777-200ER, registration HL7742, was powered by two Pratt and Whitney PW4090 engines. It was delivered new to Asiana Airlines on March 7, 2006, and at the time of the crash had accumulated 37,120 flight hours and 5,388 (takeoff-and-landing) cycles.: 20
The Boeing 777 has a good reputation for safety. This was its first fatal accident, second crash (after British Airways Flight 38), and third hull loss since the 777 began operating commercially in 1995.
Crew and passengers
The aircrew consisted of three captains and one first officer. 49-year-old Captain Lee Jeong-min in the right seat (first officer position), filled the dual role of a check/instructor captain and pilot in command, responsible for the safe operation of the flight. He had 12,387 hours of flying experience, of which 3,220 hours were in a 777. This was his first flight as an instructor.
45-year-old Lee Kang-kook in the left seat (captain's position), was receiving his initial operating experience (IOE) training and was halfway through Asiana's IOE requirements. He had 9,793 hours of flying experience, of which 43 were in a 777 over nine flights, and was operating the controls under the supervision of the instructor in the right seat.
At the time of the crash, 40-year-old relief first officer Bong Dong-won was observing from the cockpit jump seat. 52-year-old Relief Captain Lee Jong-joo occupied a business-class seat in the passenger cabin. Bong Dong-won received medical treatment for a cracked rib; none of the other pilots needed hospital care.
Twelve flight attendants were on board, ten South Korean and two Thai. Six flight attendants received physical and emotional treatment. The other six returned to South Korea.
Wang Linjia and Ye Mengyuan, both Chinese, were found dead outside the aircraft soon after the crash after having been thrown out of the plane during the accident.: 108–110  Neither victim had been wearing their seatbelts.: 108–110 It is likely that these passengers would have remained in the cabin and survived had they been wearing their seatbelts.: xii, 110 On July 19, 2013, the San Mateo County Coroner's office determined that Mengyuan was still alive before being run over by a rescue vehicle, and was killed by blunt force trauma. On January 28, 2014, the San Francisco city attorney's office announced its conclusion that she was already dead when she was run over.
A third passenger, Liu Yipeng, died of her Injuries at San Francisco General Hospital six days after the accident.: 108–110  She had been wearing her seatbelt and was seated in seat 42A, which is in the last row of passenger seats on the left side of the aircraft, immediately forward of door 4L. During the crash, the back of Yipeng's seat rotated back and against the floor, leaving her exposed. Her injuries were likely the result of having been struck by door 4L, which separated during the airplane's final impact.: 110
Ten people in critical condition were admitted to San Francisco General Hospital and a few to Stanford Medical Center. Nine hospitals in the area admitted a total of 182 injured people. San Francisco Fire Department Chief Joanne Hayes-White, after checking with two intake points at the airport, told reporters that all on board had been accounted for.
Of the passengers, 141 (almost half) were Chinese citizens. More than 90 of them had boarded Asiana Airlines Flight 362 from Shanghai Pudong International Airport, connecting to Flight 214 at Incheon. Incheon serves as a major connecting point between China and North America. In July 2013, Asiana Airlines operated between Incheon (Seoul) and 21 cities in mainland China.
Seventy students and teachers traveling to the United States for summer camp were among the Chinese passengers. Thirty of the students and teachers were from Shanxi, and the others were from Zhejiang. Five of the teachers and 29 of the students were from Jiangshan High School in Zhejiang; they were traveling together. Thirty-five of the students were to attend a West Valley Christian School summer camp. The Shanxi students originated from Taiyuan, with 22 students and teachers from the Taiyuan Number Five Secondary School and 14 students and teachers from the Taiyuan Foreign Language School. The three passengers who died were in the Jiangshan High School group to West Valley camp.
On July 6, 2013, Flight OZ214 took off from Incheon International Airport (ICN) at 5:04 p.m. KST (08:04 UTC), 34 minutes after its scheduled departure time. It was scheduled to land at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) at 11:04 a.m. PDT (18:04 UTC). The flight was uneventful until its landing.
The instrument landing system's vertical guidance (glide slope) on Runway 28L was unavailable, as it had been taken out of service on June 1 and a notice to airmen to that effect had been issued. Therefore, a precision ILS approach to the runway was not possible.
The flight was cleared for a visual approach to Runway 28L at 11:21 a.m. PDT, and told to maintain a speed of 180 knots (330 km/h; 210 mph) until the aircraft was 5 nautical miles (9.3 km; 5.8 mi) from the runway. At 11:26 a.m., Northern California TRACON ("NorCal Approach") handed the flight off to San Francisco tower. A tower controller acknowledged the second call from the crew at 11:27 a.m. when the plane was 1.5 miles (2.4 km) away, and gave clearance to land.
The weather was very good; the latest METAR reported light wind, 10 miles (16 km) visibility (the maximum it can report), no precipitation, and no forecast or reports of wind shear. The pilots performed a visual approach assisted by the runway's precision approach path indicator (PAPI).
Preliminary analysis indicated that the plane's approach was too slow and too low. Eighty-two seconds before impact, at an altitude of about 1,600 feet (490 m), the autopilot was turned off, the throttles were set to idle, and the plane was operated manually during final descent. NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman stated the pilots did not "set the aircraft for an auto-land situation ... They had been cleared for a visual approach and they were hand-flying the airplane," adding: "During the approach there were statements made in the cockpit first about being above the glide path, then about being on the glide path, then later reporting about being below the glide path. All of these statements were made as they were on the approach to San Francisco..." Based on preliminary data from the flight data recorder (FDR), the NTSB found that the plane's airspeed on final approach had fallen well below its target approach speed. A preliminary review of FAA radar return data did not show an abnormally steep descent curve, although the crew did recognize that they began high on the final approach.
At a height of 125 feet (38 m), eight seconds before impact, the airspeed had dropped to 112 knots (207 km/h; 129 mph). According to initial reports from the cockpit crew, the plane's autothrottle was set for the correct reference speed, but until the runway's precision approach path indicator (PAPI) showed them significantly below the glide path, the pilots were unaware that the autothrottle was failing to maintain that speed. The instructor pilot stated that the PAPI indicated a deviation below the glide path at approximately 500 ft (150 m) above ground level, and he attempted to correct it at that time. Between 500 and 200 ft (152 and 61 m), the instructor pilot also reported a lateral deviation that the crew attempted to correct. Seven seconds before impact, one pilot called for an increase in speed. The FDR showed the throttles were advanced from idle at that time. The instructor pilot reported that he had called for an increase in speed, but that the pilot flying had already advanced the throttles by the time that he reached for the throttles. The sound of the stick shaker (warning of imminent stall) could be heard four seconds before impact on the cockpit voice recorder. Airspeed reached a minimum of 103 knots (191 km/h; 119 mph) (34 knots below the target speed) three seconds before impact, with engines at 50% power and increasing. The co-pilot called for a go-around 1.5 seconds before impact. At impact, airspeed had increased to 106 knots (196 km/h; 122 mph).
At 11:28 a.m., the plane crashed short of Runway 28L's threshold. The landing gear and then the tail struck the seawall that projects into San Francisco Bay. The left engine and the tail section separated from the aircraft. The NTSB noted that the main landing gear, the first part of the aircraft to hit the seawall, "separated cleanly from [the] aircraft as designed" to protect the wing fuel tank structure.: 34 The vertical and both horizontal stabilizers fell on the runway before the threshold.
The remainder of the fuselage and wings rotated counter-clockwise approximately 330 degrees as the plane slid westward. Video showed it pivoting about the wing and the nose while sharply inclined to the ground. It came to rest to the left of the runway, 2,400 ft (730 m) from the initial point of impact at the seawall.
After a minute or so, a dark plume of smoke was observed rising from the wreckage. The fire was traced to a ruptured oil tank above the right engine. The leaking oil fell onto the hot engine and ignited. The fire was not fed by jet fuel. All three fire handles were extended; these operate safety equipment intended to extinguish fires on the aircraft (a handle for each engine and the auxiliary power unit). The speedbrake lever was down, showing that it was not being used.
Two evacuation slides were deployed on the left side of the airliner and used for evacuation. Despite damage to the aircraft, "many ... were able to walk away on their own." The slides for the first and second doors on the right side of the aircraft (doors 1R and 2R) deployed inside the aircraft during the crash, pinning the flight attendants seated nearby.: 41–42
According to NBC reports in September 2013, the U.S. government had been concerned about the reliability of evacuation slides for decades: "Federal safety reports and government databases reveal that the NTSB has recommended multiple improvements to escape slides and that the Federal Aviation Administration has collected thousands of complaints about them." Two months before the accident at SFO, the FAA issued an airworthiness directive ordering inspection of the slide-release mechanism on certain Boeing 777 aircraft in order to detect and correct corrosion that might interfere with slide deployment.
This was the third fatal crash in Asiana's 25-year history.
Survivor and eyewitness accounts
Several passengers recalled noticing the plane's unusual proximity to the water on final approach, which caused water to thrust upward as the engines were spooling up in the final seconds before impact.
In the initial moments after the crash, the cockpit crew told flight attendants to delay evacuating the aircraft as they were communicating with the tower. A flight attendant seated at the second door on the left side (door 2L) observed fire outside the aircraft near row 10 and informed the cockpit crew, and the evacuation order was then given, approximately 90 seconds after the aircraft had come to rest. Flight attendants told NTSB investigators that there was no fire inside the cabin when the evacuation began.
The crew also helped several passengers who were unable to escape on their own, and a pilot carried out one passenger with an injured leg. One flight attendant said that many Chinese passengers who sat at the back of the plane near the third exit were not aware of the evacuation.
During the crash, two of the inflatable chutes deployed into the cabin.: 41–42 The first chute, which blocked the forward right exit, nearly suffocated a flight attendant and was deflated by a pilot with a crash axe from the cockpit. The second chute expanded toward the center of the aircraft near the fire. It trapped a second flight attendant until a co-pilot deflated it with a dinner knife.
Some passengers sitting at the rear of the aircraft escaped through the hole left by the missing tail section.
Eyewitnesses to the crash included the cockpit crew and many passengers on board United Airlines Flight 885 (UA 885), a Boeing 747-400 that was holding on Taxiway F, next to the runway. Others saw it from the terminal and near the airport. At least one person recorded it on video. Writing on the Professional Pilots Rumour Network internet forum, the first officer of UA 885 described what he saw:
I then noticed at the apparent descent rate and closure to the runway environment the aircraft looked as though it was going to impact the approach lights mounted on piers in the SF Bay. The aircraft made a fairly drastic-looking pull up in the last few feet and it appeared and sounded as if they had applied maximum thrust. However the descent path they were on continued and the thrust applied didn't appear to come soon enough to prevent impact. The tail cone and empennage of the 777 impacted the bulkhead seawall and departed the airplane and the main landing gear sheared off instantly.
Passengers and others praised the flight attendants' conduct after the crash. Cabin manager Lee Yoon-hye was the last to leave the burning plane. San Francisco fire chief Hayes-White praised Lee's courage, saying, "She wanted to make sure that everyone was off. ... She was a hero."
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) sent a team of 20 to the scene to investigate. On July 7, 2013, NTSB investigators recovered the flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder and transported them to Washington, D.C., for analysis. Additional parties to the investigation include the Federal Aviation Administration, airframe manufacturer Boeing, engine manufacturer Pratt & Whitney, and the Korean Aviation and Railway Accident Investigation Board (ARAIB). ARAIB's technical adviser is Asiana Airlines.
Hersman said that the NTSB conducted a four-hour interview with each pilot, adding that the pilots were open and cooperative. She said both pilots at the controls had ample rest before they left South Korea and during the flight when they were relieved by the backup crew. All three pilots told NTSB investigators that they were relying on the 777's automated devices for speed control during final descent. The relief first officer also stated to NTSB investigators that he had called out "sink rate" to call attention to the rate at which the plane was descending during the final approach. This "sink rate" warning was repeated several times during the last minute of the descent. ARAIB tested the pilots for drug use four weeks after the accident; the tests proved negative.: 36
The NTSB's investigative team completed the examination of the airplane wreckage and runway. The wreckage was removed to a secure storage location at San Francisco International Airport. The Airplane Systems, Structures, Powerplants, Airplane Performance, and Air Traffic Control investigative groups completed their on-scene work. The Flight Data Recorder and Cockpit Voice Recorder groups completed their work in Washington. The Survival Factors/Airport group completed their interviews of the first responders. The next phase of the investigation included additional interviews, examination of the evacuation slides and other airplane components, and a more detailed analysis of the airplane's performance. Based on a preliminary review of FDR data, the NTSB stated there was no anomalous behavior of the engines, the autopilot, the flight director, or the autothrottle. The autothrottle control was found to be in the "armed" position during documentation of cockpit levers and switches, differing from both the "on" and "off" positions. Furthermore, the pilot flying's flight director (Primary Flight Display) was deactivated whereas the instructor pilot's was activated. (This may prove to be significant, as deactivating neither or both Flight Directors enables and forces an autothrottle "wake-up" whereas deactivating only one Flight Director inhibits an autothrottle "wake-up".)
Hersman said: "In this flight, in the last 2.5 minutes of the flight, from data on the flight data recorder we see multiple autopilot modes and multiple autothrottle modes ... We need to understand what those modes were, if they were commanded by pilots, if they were activated inadvertently, if the pilots understood what the mode was doing." Hersman has repeatedly emphasized it is the pilot's responsibility to monitor and maintain correct approach speed and that the crew's actions in the cockpit are the primary focus of the investigation.[failed verification]
The final report into the crash was released on June 24, 2014. The NTSB found that the "Mismanagement of Approach and Inadequate Monitoring of Airspeed led to the Crash of Asiana flight 214". The NTSB determined that the flight crew mismanaged the initial approach and that the airplane was well above the desired glidepath. In response, the captain selected an inappropriate autopilot mode (FLCH, or Flight Level Change) which resulted in the autothrottle no longer controlling airspeed. The aircraft then descended below the desired glidepath with the crew unaware of the decreasing airspeed. The attempted go-around was conducted below 100 feet, by which time it was too late. Over-reliance on automation and lack of systems understanding by the pilots were cited as major factors contributing to the accident.
The NTSB further determined that the pilot's faulty mental model of the airplane's automation logic led to his inadvertent deactivation of automatic airspeed control. In addition, Asiana's automation policy emphasized the full use of all automation and did not encourage manual flight during line operations. The flight crew's mismanagement of the airplane's vertical profile during the initial approach led to a period of increased workload that reduced the monitoring pilot's awareness of the flying pilot's actions around the time of the unintended deactivation of automatic airspeed control. Insufficient flight crew monitoring of airspeed indications during the approach likely resulted from expectancy, increased workload, fatigue, and automation reliance. Lack of compliance with standard operating procedures and crew resource management were cited as additional factors.
The NTSB reached the following final conclusion:
The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of this accident was the flight crew's mismanagement of the airplane's descent during the visual approach, the pilot flying's unintended deactivation of automatic airspeed control, the flight crew's inadequate monitoring of airspeed, and the flight crew's delayed execution of a go-around after they became aware that the airplane was below acceptable glidepath and airspeed tolerances. Contributing to the accident were (1) the complexities of the autothrottle and autopilot flight director systems that were inadequately described in Boeing's documentation and Asiana's pilot training, which increased the likelihood of mode error; (2) the flight crew's nonstandard communication and coordination regarding the use of the autothrottle and autopilot flight director systems; (3) the pilot flying's inadequate training on the planning and executing of visual approaches; (4) the pilot monitoring/instructor pilot's inadequate supervision of the pilot flying; and (5) flight crew fatigue, which likely degraded their performance.: 129
Shortly after the accident, the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) used Twitter and YouTube to inform the public about the investigation and quickly publish quotes from press conferences. NTSB first tweeted about Asiana 214 less than one hour after the crash. One hour after that, the NTSB announced via Twitter that officials would hold a press conference at Reagan Airport Hangar 6 before departing for San Francisco. Less than 12 hours after the crash, the NTSB released a photo showing investigators conducting their first site assessment. On June 24, 2014, the NTSB published to YouTube a narrated accident sequence animation.
South Korean investigation
The South Korean government announced in a Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) statement that it would investigate whether the crew followed procedures and how they were trained.[needs update]
The airport was closed for five hours after the crash. Flights destined for San Francisco were diverted to Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento, Los Angeles, Portland (OR), and Seattle–Tacoma. By 3:30 p.m. PDT, runway 1L/19R and runway 1R/19L (both of which run perpendicular across the runway of the accident) were reopened; runway 10L/28R (parallel to the runway of the accident) remained closed for more than 24 hours. The accident runway, 10R/28L, reopened on July 12 after being repaired. In August 2013, Asiana renumbered its Seoul-San Francisco route with the flight OZ212, on a retimed scheduled departure of 8:40 pm, using an Airbus A350-900 aircraft; the July 6 accident OZ214 had a scheduled 4:40 pm departure using a Boeing 777-200ER.
In the U.S., drug and alcohol tests are standard after air accidents, but this is not a requirement for pilots of foreign-registered aircraft, and the pilots were not tested immediately after the accident. The lack of alcohol testing received much public attention and was critically discussed by various media and politicians after the accident. Shortly after the accident, Congresswoman Jackie Speier stated that she would consider legislation to improve airline safety by requiring increased pilot training and mandatory drug and alcohol testing for international crews.
The crash damaged Asiana's reputation and that of South Korea's aviation industry following years of apparent improvements after a series of aircraft disasters in the 1980s and early 1990s. Asiana shares fell by 5.8% on the first day of trading after the crash.
Response from Asiana Airlines
In the hours after the accident, Asiana Airlines CEO Yoon Young-doo said his airline had ruled out mechanical failure as the cause of the crash. Later, he defended the flight crew, calling them "very experienced and competent pilots". On July 9, Yoon apologized directly to the parents of the two victims, then flew aboard Flight 214 to San Francisco, the same route as the crashed aircraft, to meet with NTSB officials. Asiana gave flights to San Francisco to the families of the victims.
Asiana Airlines announced on July 29, 2013, that it would retire flight numbers 214 and 213 on August 12, 2013. Flights from Incheon to San Francisco and the return leg would thenceforth operate as OZ212 and OZ211, respectively.
Asiana Airlines officials said the airline would improve training for its pilots: in particular, for pilots learning to fly different types of aircraft, and in various skills such as making visual approaches and flying on autopilot. Asiana officials also said they would seek to improve communications skills among crew members, introduce a system to manage "fatigue risk", set up separate maintenance teams for Boeing and Airbus planes, and improve safety management systems.
On August 12, 2013, Asiana Airlines announced initial payouts to crash survivors of US$10,000, (~$12,563 in 2022) stating the survivors "need money to go to hospital or for transportation so we are giving them the $10,000 first," Asiana spokeswoman Lee Hyo Min said in a telephone interview. "Even if they are not hurt or they don't go to hospital, we will still give them this money." "The carrier may pay more after the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board completes its investigation into the accident. The families of those who died were paid more than $10,000 as an initial compensation," Lee said, without providing a specific figure.
Response from the South Korean government
South Korean transport ministry officials ordered Korean Air and Asiana to check engines and landing equipment on all 48 of their model 777 aircraft and announced that the government would conduct special inspections on the nation's eight carriers through August 25, 2013. "The measures could include [changing] rules on training flights if needed," Deputy Minister for Civil Aviation Choi Jeong-ho told reporters. The officials also said South Korea had no fatal air crashes between December 1999 and the July 2011 crash of an Asiana freighter.
Response from the San Francisco Fire Department
Helmet-recorded images showed that firefighters on the scene saw two of the three victims still alive after being thrown from the plane. The driver of the fire engine ran over them. The firefighter is reported to have said "She got run over... I mean, shit happens, you know?" Afterward the incident was reported by the firefighter to San Francisco Fire Department Chief Joanne M. Hayes-White stating "Chief, there's a woman there who's been run over by one of our rigs." The chief asked if the victim had been crushed, to which the firefighter replied "like someone dropped a pumpkin."
Chief Hayes-White initially made a public statement lauding her firefighters for having "worked as best as it possibly could have". After two days, Hayes-White addressed the incident and said that "public officials most certainly have a duty to tell the truth," and that "it would have been speculative and irresponsible to report something without having confirmation" during the first two days while the San Francisco police and National Transportation Safety Board conducted their investigation. The San Mateo County prosecutors did not file criminal charges against San Francisco firefighters for what they described as a "tragic accident".
On July 15, 2013, two Korean passengers filed a lawsuit against Asiana Airlines in a California federal court for "an extensive litany of errors and omissions" and improper crew training and supervision. On the same day, 83 passengers filed a petition for discovery in Chicago, alleging a possible failure of the autothrottle system and malfunctioning evacuation slides and seat belts. An additional lawsuit against Asiana Airlines and Boeing Aircraft Company was filed on August 9, 2013. In addition to alleging product defects, the suits focus on the training provided to the Asiana crew.
Seventy-two passengers reached an undisclosed settlement that was filed in United States Federal court on March 3, 2015. On the same day the Los Angeles Times reported that, "At least 60 lawsuits against the airline filed in the Northern District of California ... have not reached settlements," and "dozens of claims have been filed against the airline in China and South Korea and against Boeing in an Illinois state court."
On July 30, 2013, an amendment to Transportation bill H.R. 2610 was adopted by voice vote for the transfer of $500,000 from the Next Generation Air Transportation System account to the air safety account to study implementing a verbal warning system for low air speed.
In popular culture
Mayday: Air Crash Investigation mentioned Asiana Airlines Flight 214 in its Season 13 episode, "Getting Out Alive," as part of a series of accidents and discussion of how passengers were able to escape. A season 15 episode focused solely on the Flight 214 accident, titled "Terror in San Francisco," aired on January 13, 2016.
San Francisco television station KTVU fell victim to a prank which led news anchor Tori Campbell to report the names of the pilots as "Captain Sum Ting Wong," "Wi Tu Lo," "Ho Lee Fuk," and "Bang Ding Ow," in the immediate aftermath of the crash. Viewers quickly realized that these "names" were phonetic double entendres. The prank was described as racist and offensive, and led to the firing of three veteran KTVU producers. While the source of these joke names remains unclear, the NTSB admitted in a statement that one of its summer interns had confirmed the erroneous names when they were stated by the news station.
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- British Airways Flight 38
- Turkish Airlines Flight 1951
- Lion Air Flight 904
- Delta Air Lines Flight 723
- Emirates Flight 521
- Sosoliso Airlines Flight 1145
- Korean Air Flight 801
- AIRES Flight 8250
- Asiana Airlines Flight 733
- Asiana Airlines Flight 162
- 1961 Ndola United Nations DC-6 crash
- Air Canada Flight 624
- UPS Airlines Flight 1354
- Descent Below Visual Glidepath and Impact With Seawall, Asiana Airlines Flight 214, Boeing 777-200ER, HL7742, San Francisco, California, July 6, 2013 (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. June 24, 2014. NTSB/AAR-14/01. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
- Ranter, Harro (July 6, 2013). "Accident description (Type: Boeing 777-28EER, Operator: Asiana Airlines, Registration: HL7742, C/n / msn: 29171/553)". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Archived from the original on July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- "Asiana 777 (AAR214) crashes upon landing at SFO". FlightAware. July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- NTSB (July 7, 2013). "NTSB Press Briefing (no. 1)". Press briefing by NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman uploaded to YouTube. San Francisco, California: NTSB. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- Stagis, Julie. "Pratt & Whitney Engines Powered Asiana Airlines Plane". Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on July 8, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- "HL7742 Asiana Airlines Boeing 777-28E(ER) – cn 29171 / ln 553". Planespotters.net. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- "Asiana Plane Crash Lands: 'No Engine Problems'". Sky News HD. London, United Kingdom: BSkyB. July 7, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- Nakaso, Dan (July 6, 2013). "Boeing 777 that crashed in SFO has a stellar reputation among pilots". San Jose Mercury News. San Jose, California: Media News Group. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Norris, Guy (July 6, 2013). "NTSB Investigates Asiana 777 Accident In San Francisco". Aviation Week. McGraw Hill Financial. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
The Asiana accident represents only the third hull loss for the 777 since the aircraft entered service in 1995. The Asiana accident is also the first involving a 777 which has resulted in a passenger fatality.
- Onishi, Norimitsu; Drew, Christopher; Wald, Matthew L.; Nir, Sarah Maslin (July 7, 2013). "Terror on Jet: Seeing Water, Not Runway". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Asiana Airlines (July 7, 2013). "Information for Incident Involving Asiana Flight HL7742". Press Release (in English, Korean, and Chinese). Asiana Airlines. Archived from the original on July 26, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- NTSB (July 8, 2013). "NTSB Press Briefing (no. 2)". Press briefing by NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman uploaded to YouTube. San Francisco, California: NTSB. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- Wilhelm, Steve (July 10, 2013). "NTSB focuses on pilots' communication, autopilot, in Asiana briefing". Puget Sound Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- "Asiana Airlines crash: The pilots". ITV. July 7, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Ng, Christina; Castellano, Anthony (July 9, 2013). "Two Asiana Airline Flight Attendants Thrown from Plane During Crash". ABC News. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Asiana Airlines Crash: Pilot Was in 9th Training Flight for Boeing 777". ABC News. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "Pilot was at his first landing with a B777". PlaneCrashes.org. July 8, 2013. Archived from the original on July 8, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- NTSB (July 9, 2013). "NTSB Press Briefing (no. 3)". Press briefing by NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman uploaded to YouTube. San Francisco, California: NTSB. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- "Pilots' memories of crash differ on details". Korea Joongang Daily. July 10, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- Chappell, Bill (July 9, 2013). "Asiana Crash Trip Was Pilot's First As Instructor, NTSB Says". Npr.org. Washington, D.C.: National Public Radio. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
- NTSB (July 10, 2013). "NTSB Press Briefing (no. 4)". Press briefing by NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman uploaded to YouTube. San Francisco, California: NTSB. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- Hull, Dana; DeBolt, David; Emmons, Mark; Sulek, Julia Prodis (July 10, 2013). "SFO crash: Three flight attendants ejected from plane strapped in their seats". San Jose Mercury News. San Jose, California: Media News Group. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Hradecky, Simon (July 7, 2013). "Accident: Asiana B772 at San Francisco on Jul 6th 2013, touched down short of the runway, broke up and burst into flames". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Botelho, Greg (July 7, 2013). "2 die, 305 survive after airliner crashes, burns at San Francisco airport". CNN. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- "The 2 victims were heading for a camp". Planecrashes.org. July 7, 2013. Archived from the original on July 11, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- "Asiana Crisis Management System". Asiana Airlines. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Noyes, Dan (July 27, 2013). "I-Team: Firefighter who hit Asiana crash victim was driving alone". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
- Branson-Potts, Hailey (July 19, 2013). "Asiana passenger likely killed by vehicle; fire chief 'heartbroken'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- Martinez, Michael; Hanna, Jason (July 19, 2013). "Coroner: Asiana Airline passenger killed by rescue vehicle, was alive at time". CNN. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- "SF City Attorney: Asiana Plane Crash Victim Already Dead When Run Over". CBS San Francisco. January 29, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- McCoy, Tryg; Carnes, Dale (January 17, 2014). "Accident Investigation Party Submission by the City and County of San Francisco under 49 CFR § 845.27" (PDF). CBS San Francisco. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 30, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- "Teenage girl killed in Asiana crash was hit by fire truck, S.F. police say". CBS Interactive, Inc. July 12, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "3rd fatality in Asiana flight crash". CBS News. Associated Press. July 12, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Botelho, Greg (July 12, 2013). "3rd person dies from Asiana crash, hospital says". CNN. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Salonga, Robert (July 12, 2013). "SFO crash: Child dies at hospital, becomes third fatality of Asiana Airlines disaster". San Jose Mercury News. San Jose, California: Media News Group. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- "Flight 214 Crash: Six Remain In Critical Condition At SF General". The San Francisco Appeal. Appeal Media, LLC. July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- Welch, William; Swartz, Jon M.; Strauss, Gary (July 6, 2013). "2 confirmed dead in San Francisco Airport crash". USA Today. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- "Two dead, dozens injured in Boeing 777 crash". Oakland, CA: KTVU-TV. KTVU and Wires. July 6, 2013. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- 韩亚失事航班90余名乘客由上海出发 [More than 90 passengers on the Asiana crash flight departed from Shanghai]. Xinhua News Agency (in Chinese (China)). July 7, 2013. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014.
- Staff writer(s) (July 7, 2013). "Why Nearly Half of Asiana Passengers Were Chinese". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- "Two dead in Asiana plane crash are Chinese citizens, identified as teenage girls". South China Morning Post. Reuters. July 7, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Yang, Sunny (July 7, 2013). "Asiana crash deaths ID'd as 2 Chinese teens". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
A teacher told Chinese television that there were 34 people traveling in the Jiangshan Middle School group — five teachers and 29 students.
- Hunt, Katie (July 7, 2013). "Girls killed in crash were headed for camp". CNN. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Chen, Stephen (July 8, 2013). "China mourns students from Zhejiang school killed in San Francisco air crash". Hong Kong: Agence France-Press. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- Bailey, Brandon (July 13, 2013). "Third teenager who died in the Asiana crash attended same school as other 2 victims". San Jose Mercury News. San Jose, California: Media News Group. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- "Biographies of 3 Chinese SF airliner crash victims". Associated Press. July 15, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
- "HL-7742 – 06-Jul-2013 – RKSI / ICN – KSFO". FlightAware. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "KSFO San Francisco Intl". PilotWeb. Federal Aviation Administration. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
06/005 SFO navigation instrument landing system Runway 28L glide path out of service with effect from or effective from 1306011400-1308222359
- Scott, Alwyn (July 9, 2013). "Timeline: Final moments of Asiana Airlines Flight 214 before crash". Reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- Bowens, Dan (July 7, 2013). "NTSB: Asiana flight flew too slow before crash". MyFox New York. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- This was in response to a chart showing an abnormal descent rate, that was later corrected. "An Uneven Descent". The New York Times. July 7, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
The corrected data show that the plane descended 200 feet in eight seconds, not 600 feet in nine seconds.
- "San Francisco crash Boeing 'tried to abort landing'". BBC News. July 8, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Dan Nakaso (July 11, 2013). "NTSB wants to expedite investigation of Asiana Flight 214 crash". San Jose Mercury News. San Jose, California: Media News Group. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Chelsea J. Carter, Mike Ahlers and Ed Payne (July 12, 2013). "NTSB: 2 Asiana pilots call for landing to be aborted". edition.cnn.com. Atlanta, Georgia: CNN. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- Chappell, Bill (July 8, 2013). "Asiana Crash: Plane Was 34 Knots Below Target Speed, NTSB Says". NPR.org. Washington, D.C.: NPR. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Where Asiana Flight 214 Came to Rest". The New York Times. July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- "San Francisco crash Boeing 'tried to abort landing'". BBC News. July 7, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Arkin, Daniel (July 6, 2013). "Boeing 777 crashes while landing at San Francisco airport". NBC News. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Somaiya, Ravi (July 6, 2013). "Plane Crashes on Landing in San Francisco". The New York Times. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Young, Kathryn M. (July 12, 2013). "NTSB completes work at Asiana 777 crash site; no systems anomalies found". Atwonline.com. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "Boeing 777 plane crash-lands at San Francisco airport". BBC News. July 7, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- NTSB (July 11, 2013). "NTSB Press Briefing (no. 5)". Press briefing by NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman uploaded to YouTube. San Francisco, California: NTSB. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- "What happened with Asiana Flight 214?". CNN.com. Atlanta, Georgia: CNN. July 12, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
- Ahlers, Mike; Botelho, Greg (July 9, 2013). "NTSB: Asiana jet's landing gear slammed into seawall at San Francisco airport". CNN. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Kirchner, Elyce. "Federal Records Show History of Problems with Escape Slides". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- "Asiana Airline Evacuation Slides Were Faulty – And The Feds Knew". Huffingtonpost.com. September 19, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- "Asiana jet crash further tarnishes Korean carrier's safety record". Reuters. July 7, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Welch, William M.; Woodyard, Chris; Stanglin, Doug (July 8, 2013). "NTSB: Jet was traveling below target speed before crash". USA Today. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Kim, Victoria (July 8, 2013). "Asiana flight attendant, last person off jet, describes ordeal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Lee Romney, Victoria Kim & Kate Mather (July 8, 2013). "After Asiana jet crash, a dramatic race to rescue passengers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- Dearen, Jason; Lowy, Joan (July 8, 2013) [July 6, 2013]. "Officials probe why crashed SF jet flew too slow". Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Lazare, Lewis (July 8, 2013). "United Flight 885: Too close for comfort?". Chicago Business Journal. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Romney, Lee; Reston, Maeve; Groves, Martha (July 6, 2013). "San Francisco plane crash: Onlookers stunned, stranded, delayed". LA Times. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Smith, Matt; Hall, Lindy (July 8, 2013). "'Oh, Lord have mercy': Witness captures fatal jet crash". CNN. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Hayes, Fred. Man catches plane crash on camera (YouTube). CNN. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Noyes, Dan (July 9, 2013). "United Airlines pilot witnesses Asiana Flight 214 crash". KGO-TV. KGO-TV, ABC. Archived from the original on July 18, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
- Boeing 777 crash at San Francisco International. Getty Images. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Lazare, Lewis (July 9, 2013). "Inside United Flight 885: A pilot's gripping account". Chicago Business Journal. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Asiana flight crash at San Francisco". July 9, 2013. Archived from the original on September 3, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
- Mutzbaugh, Ben (July 8, 2013). "Asiana flight 214 flight attendants applauded as 'heroes'". USA Today. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Yoon, Julie; Bruton, F. Brinley; DeLuca, Matthew (July 7, 2013). "NTSB: Officials recover black boxes from San Francisco crash site". NBC News. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Weikel, Dan; Vartabedian, Ralph; Nelson, Laura (July 9, 2013). "Asiana Airlines pilots say auto-throttle didn't maintain landing speed". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Alan Levin, Kyunghee Park & Rose Kim (July 11, 2013). "Asiana Evacuation Delayed as Fire Erupted Outside Crash". www.bloomberg.com. Bloomberg News. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- "San Francisco Crash: Pilot Warnings 'Ignored'". Sky News HD. London, United Kingdom: BSkyB. July 10, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- "NTSB issues investigative update on crash of Asiana Flight 214". NTSB Press Release. NTSB. July 15, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- "Asiana 214 pilot realised plane flying too low". BBC News. July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "NTSB: Asiana pilots say they used automatic speed controls for landing that went tragically wrong in San Francisco". CBSNews.com. CBS News. CBS/Associated Press. July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- The Associated Press reported,
... the captain flying the plane, Lee Kang Kuk, 45, who was new to the 777, inadvertently deactivated the autothrottle, putting it into a hold mode. A training captain who was sitting next to Kuk in the right seat didn't notice the error, and then compounded it by turning off only one of two other key systems for managing the flight [by turning-off the pilot flying's Primary Flight Display, while maintaining his own, thereby requiring the pilot flying to continuously scan his "six-pack" backup flight instruments to know how his airplane was performing, rather than by concentrating on his single Primary Flight Display]. Both [Primary Flight Display] systems are supposed to be on or off, but not one on and one off [and should one be on and the other off, then the autothrottle "wake-up" function is disabled].
- Mendoza, Martha; Lowy, Joan (July 9, 2013). "NTSB: Pilots of Asiana 214 relied on automatic speed control, as plane flew too slow, too low". Associated Press. Archived from the original on August 20, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Botelho, Greg (June 17, 2013). "Asiana pilot was halfway through 777 training". Ktvz.com. CNN. Archived from the original on July 14, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Johnston, Ian (July 9, 2013). "Asiana Airline chief says it plans to improve pilot training after San Francisco crash". NBC News. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Young, Kathryn M. (July 10, 2013). "Asiana Flight 214 pilots' actions scrutinized". Atwonline.com. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Sze, Kristen (June 19, 2014). "Former NTSB Chair Deborah Hersman shares insights ahead of Asiana SFO crash anniversary". Abc7news.com. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Holloway, Keith (June 24, 2014). "NTSB Finds Mismanagement of Approach and Inadequate Monitoring of Airspeed Led to Crash of Asiana flight 214" (Press release). Office of Public Affairs, National Transportation Safety Board. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- "Crash of Asiana Flight 214 Accident Report Summary". Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- Derner, Phil (July 8, 2013). "The NTSB Uses Social Media During Asiana 214 Investigation". Nycaviation.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- on YouTube
- Wald, Matthew (July 9, 2013). "Inquiry Suggests Chance That Mechanical Failure Had Role in Crash". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 11, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Levin, Alan. "Korean Pilots Avoided Manual Flying, Former Trainers Say". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
- "Plane crash at San Francisco airport, 2 dead". CBS News. Associated Press. July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Nelson, Laura J; Romney, Lee (July 7, 2013). "Third of four runways reopens at SFO, officials say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- "SFO Runway Involved In Asiana 214 Crash Reopens". CBS. July 12, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Lowy, Joan (July 10, 2013). "NTSB: Pilots of Asiana 214 relied on automatic speed control, as plane flew too slow, too low". Star Tribune. Minneapolis: Star Tribune Media Company LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- Macintosh, Jeane (July 10, 2013). "Four foreign pilots of Asiana Flight 214 not tested for drugs or alcohol". NYPOST.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Klein, Karin (July 9, 2013). "A lame reason for not drug-testing Asiana pilots – Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Alex Davies (July 9, 2013). "Asiana 214 Pilots Not Drug Tested". Business Insider. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "Airline Safety". Speier.house.gov. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Hawon, Jung (July 9, 2013). "Crash 'mars Asiana's image' after years of efforts". AFP. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Evans, Rachel. "Asiana Offers San Francisco Crash Victims $10,000 Payout". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (July 8, 2013). "Asiana President Says Pilot Was in Training". The New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Jin, Hyunjoo; Chance, David (July 7, 2013). Tait, Paul (ed.). "Plane, engines not at fault in Asiana crash: CEO". Reuters. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Asiana CEO defends 'very experienced' crash pilots". ABS-CBNnews.com. Agence France-Presse. July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Asiana chief defends "very experienced" crash pilots". Channel NewsAsia. AFP/nd. July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Asiana Airlines CEO Apologizes to Families". NBC Bay Area News. July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Shih, Gerry (July 9, 2013). "Asiana Airlines CEO in San Francisco for crash probe". Reuters. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Asiana Airlines flying in victims' families from overseas". www.ktvu.com. July 7, 2013. Archived from the original on July 10, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Mather, Kate (August 6, 2013). "Asiana Airlines to change number of Seoul-S.F. flight after crash". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "Asiana Airline to improve pilot training after San Francisco plane crash – Society – Panorama – Armenian news". Panorama.am. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "Asiana Airlines plans to improve pilots training". Allvoices.com. July 6, 2013. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "Asiana Airline chief says it plans to improve pilot training after San Francisco crash – U.S. News". NBC News. July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "Asiana says to beef up training of pilots shifting to new jets". Reuters.com. July 15, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Nakaso, Dan (August 12, 2013). "Asiana denies responsibility in SFO crash, offers surviving passengers $10,000 each". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Kyunghee Park, Bloomberg (July 8, 2013). "Asiana Airlines crash may spur Korean air travel regulations overhaul". Skift. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Kong, Kanga (July 10, 2013). "South Korea Inspects Airlines After Asiana Crash". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Woolfolk, John (July 6, 2018). "Firefighter said "s— happens" after girl run over at SFO in 2013 Asiana crash". The Mercury News. Archived from the original on July 7, 2018. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
- Van Derbeken, Jaxon (March 7, 2014). "SF fire chief bans helmet cameras in wake of crash". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Dye, Jessica (July 17, 2013). "Passengers eye legal action against Boeing, Asiana over crash". Reuters. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- Kim, Victoria; Mather, Kate (July 16, 2013). "83 Asiana victims file legal papers against Boeing, cite malfunction". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "Passengers begin legal action against Boeing after Asiana Airlines crash". Cable News Network. July 16, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Pitre, Frank M. (August 9, 2013). "Copy of complaint: US District Court, Northern District of California Case#CV133684 (Filing only)" (PDF). Cotchett, Pitre & McCarthy, LLP. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Hamilton, Matt (March 3, 2015). "Asiana crash: 72 passengers settle lawsuits against airline". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- "Asiana Airlines confirms it will sue KTVU-TV over broadcast of racist fake pilot names". CBS News. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "Asiana Airlines not to sue U.S. TV station". yonhapnews.co.kr. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- "H.Amdt.423 to H.R.2610, 113th Congress (2013–2014)". United States Legislative Information. Washington, D.C.: United States Congress. July 30, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
Sponsor: Rep. Speier, Jackie [D-CA-14] (Offered 07/30/2013)
- Nakaso, Dan (February 25, 2014). "Asiana Airlines hit with unprecedented fine in response to fatal SFO crash". The Mercury News. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- "Getting Out Alive". Mayday. Season 13. Episode 11. 2014. Discovery Channel Canada / National Geographic Channel.
- "Terror in San Francisco". Mayday. Season 15. Episode 2. 2016. Discovery Channel Canada / National Geographic Channel.
- "Asiana pilot names: NTSB intern 'no longer with agency,' report says". Los Angeles Times. July 15, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- Matier, Philip; Ross, Andrew (July 24, 2013). "KTVU firings over airing of prank Asiana pilots' names". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "The Craziest Things News Anchors Have Said And Done On Air – Page 29 of 66 – trendchaser". trend-chaser.com. KTVU via Trend-Chaser. July 6, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2017.[permanent dead link] Includes screen-grab of the prank names.
- Engel, Pamela. "NTSB Intern 'Erroneously' Confirmed Racist Asiana Pilot Names To KTVU Station". Business Insider.
- Abad-Santos, Alexander (July 12, 2013). "No, These Racist 'Asian' Names Aren't Really the Pilots of Asiana Flight 214". The Atlantic.
- Mullin, Joe (July 24, 2013). "TV station tries—and fails—to use copyright to hide its racist news blunder". Ars Technica.
- Farhi, Paul (July 15, 2013). "NTSB cans intern who 'confirmed' names of Asiana pilots". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
- Information for Incident Involving Asiana Flight OZ 214 at the Wayback Machine (archived July 26, 2013)
- National Transportation Safety Board
- Asiana 214 traffic with SFO Tower, July 6, 2013 (radio recording)
- on YouTube