|Subspecies:||P. l. persica|
|Panthera leo persica
|Current distribution of the Asiatic lion in the wild|
Panthera leo asiaticus
The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), also known as the Indian lion and Persian lion, is a lion subspecies that lives as a single population in Gujarat, India. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List because of its small population size.
The Asiatic lion was first described by the Austrian zoologist Johann N. Meyer under the trinomen Felis leo persicus. Its historical range included eastern Turkey, Iran, Mesopotamia, and from east of the Indus River in the former Sind Province to Bengal and Narmada River in Central India.
Since 2010, the lion population in and around Gir Forest National Park has steadily increased. In May 2015, the 14th Asiatic Lion Census was conducted over an area of about 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi); the lion population was estimated at 523 individuals, comprising 109 adult males, 201 adult females and 213 cubs. In August 2017, the Asiatic Lion Census reveals 650 individuals in the wild.
- 1 Taxonomic history
- 2 Evolution
- 3 Characteristics
- 4 Distribution and habitat
- 5 Ecology and behaviour
- 6 Threats
- 7 Conservation
- 8 In mythology, religion, culture and art
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Following Meyer's first description of an Asiatic lion skin from Persia, other naturalists and zoologists also described lions from other parts of Asia that today are all considered synonyms of P. l. persica:
- In 1829, Edward Turner Bennett published a book about the animals kept in the Tower Menagerie. His essay about lions contains a drawing titled "Bengal lion Felis leo bengalensis".
- In 1833, Walter Smee exhibited two skins of lions killed in Gujarat in a meeting of the Zoological Society of London. He presented these skins of maneless lions under the name Felis leo goojratensis.
- In 1834, Sir William Jardine, 7th Baronet proposed the name Leo asiaticus for the Asiatic lion.
- In 1843, Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville published a drawing of an Asiatic lion skull under the name Felis leo indicus.
Fossil remains found in the Cromer Stage suggest that the lion or a lion-like animal that entered Europe was of a gigantic size. Frequently encountered lion bones in cave deposits from Eemian times suggest that the late Pleistocene Eurasian cave lion Panthera leo spelaea survived in the Balkans and Asia Minor. There was probably a continuous population extending into India. Cave lions appeared about 600,000 years ago and were distributed throughout Europe, across Siberia and into western Alaska. The gradual formation of dense forest likely caused the decline in geographic range of lions near the end of the late Pleistocene. Phylogenetic analysis of cave lion DNA samples showed that they were highly distinct from their living relatives, and represent lineages that were isolated from lions in Africa and Asia ever since their dispersal over Europe in prehistoric times, and became extinct without mitochondrial descendants on other continents, around the 10th millennium BC.
Fossil remains of lions were found in Pleistocene deposits in West Bengal. A fossil carnassial found in the Batadomba Cave indicates that Panthera leo sinhaleyus inhabited Sri Lanka during the late Pleistocene, and is thought to have become extinct around 39,000 years ago. This subspecies was described by Deraniyagala in 1939. It is distinct from the extant Asiatic lion.
A phylogeographic analysis based on mtDNA sequences of lions from across their entire range indicates that Sub-Saharan African lions are phylogenetically basal to all modern lions. These findings support an African origin of modern lion evolution with a probable centre in eastern–southern Africa, from where lions migrated to West Africa, eastern North Africa and via the periphery of the Arabian Peninsula into Turkey, southern Europe and northern India during the last 20,000 years. Natural barriers to lion dispersal comprise the Sahara Desert, equatorial rainforests and the Great Rift Valley.
In a study about lion evolution, genetic markers of 357 samples from captive and wild lions from Africa and India were examined. Results suggest four lineages of lion populations: one from Kenya, one from Southern Africa, one from Central and Northern Africa to Asia, and one from Southern and Eastern Africa. The authors conclude that the first wave of lion expansion occurred about 118,000 years ago from Eastern Africa into West Asia, and the second wave at the transition of Pleistocene and Holocene periods from Southern Africa towards East Africa. Lions in Southern and East Africa are genetically different from West-Central African lions, which are more closely related to the Asiatic and North African lions. The modern Asiatic lion is estimated to have separated from its African cousin about 100,000 years ago, which was long before the cave lion became extinct in Eurasia.
The Asiatic lion's fur ranges in colour from ruddy-tawny, heavily speckled with black, to sandy or buffish grey, sometimes with a silvery sheen in certain lights. Males have only moderate mane growth at the top of the head, so that their ears are always visible. The mane is scanty on the cheeks and throat where it is only 10 cm (3.9 in) long. About half of Asiatic lions' skulls from the Gir forest have divided infraorbital foramina, whereas in African lions, there is only one foramen on either side. The sagittal crest is more strongly developed, and the post-orbital area is shorter than in African lion. Skull length in adult males ranges from 330 to 340 mm (13 to 13 in), and in females from 292 to 302 mm (11.5 to 11.9 in). It differs from the African lion by a larger tail tuft and less inflated auditory bullae. The most striking morphological character of the Asiatic lion is a longitudinal fold of skin running along its belly.
Recorded flesh measurements of two lions in Gir Forest were head-and-body measurements of 1.98 m (78 in) each, with tail-lengths of 0.79–0.89 m (31–35 in) and total lengths of 2.82–2.87 m (111–113 in), respectively. The Gir lion is similar in size to the Central African lion, and smaller than large African lions.
Colour and development of manes in male lions varies between regions, among populations and with age of lions. The Asiatic lion differs from the African lion by a less developed mane. Manes of most lions in ancient Greece and Asia Minor were also less developed without extending to below the belly, sides or ulnar. Lions with such smaller manes were also known in the Syrian region, Arabian peninsula and Egypt.
In contrast, depictions of lions from the Mesopotamian Plain, such as in Nineveh, show them having underbelly hair. Apart from captive lions in temperate climates, the only other lions that were noted to have underbelly hair were Barbary and Cape lions. For this reason, it was suspected that the Mesopotamian lion was a distinct subspecies, for which the taxonomic name Panthera leo mesopotamica was proposed.
Exceptionally sized lions
The record total length of a male Indian lion is 2.92 m (115 in), including the tail.
During the year 1841, in Khuzestan, Iran, Austen Henry Layard, accompanied by hunters from Luristan, saw a lion which "had done much damage in the plain of Ram Hormuz," before one of his companions killed it. He described it as being "unusually large and of very dark brown colour," with some parts of it body being almost black.
Though the last lion of what is now Pakistan was thought to have been killed near Kot Diji in Sindh Province in 1810, a British Admiral, while traveling on a train accompanied by two others, reportedly saw a maneless lion eating a goat near Quetta in 1935. He wrote "It was a large lion, very stocky, light tawny in colour, and I may say that no one of us three had the slightest doubt of what we had seen until, on our arrival at Quetta, many officers expressed doubts as to its identity, or to the possibility of there being a lion in the district."
Distribution and habitat
In the Gir Forest, an area of 1,412.1 km2 (545.2 sq mi) was declared as a sanctuary for Asiatic lion conservation in 1965. This sanctuary and the surrounding areas in Saurashtra, Western India, are the only wild habitats supporting the Asiatic lion. After 1965, a national park covering an area of 258.71 km2 (99.89 sq mi) was established where no human activity is allowed. In the surrounding sanctuary only Maldharis have the right to graze their livestock.
The population recovered from the brink of extinction to 411 individuals in 2010. Lions occupy remnant forest habitats in the two hill systems of Gir and Girnar that comprise Gujarat's largest tracts of dry deciduous forest, thorny forest and savanna and provide valuable habitat for a diverse flora and fauna. Five protected areas currently exist to protect the Asiatic lion: Gir Sanctuary, Gir National Park, Pania Sanctuary, Mitiyala Sanctuary, and Girnar Sanctuary. The first three protected areas form the Gir Conservation Area, a 1,452 km2 (561 sq mi) forest block that represents the core habitat of the Asiatic lions. The other two sanctuaries, Mitiyala and Girnar, protect satellite areas within dispersal distance of the Gir Conservation Area. An additional sanctuary is being established in the nearby Barda Wildlife Sanctuary to serve as an alternative home for Gir lions. The drier eastern part is vegetated with acacia thorn savanna and receives about 650 mm (26 in) annual rainfall; rainfall in the west is higher at about 1,000 mm (39 in) per year.
As of 2010, approximately 105 lions, comprising 35 males, 35 females, 19 subadults, and 16 cubs existed outside the Gir forest, representing a full quarter of the entire lion population. The increase in satellite lion populations may represent the saturation of the lion population in the Gir forest and subsequent dispersal by sub-adults compelled to search for new territories outside their natal pride. Over the past two decades, these satellite areas became established, self-sustaining populations as evidenced by the presence of cubs since 1995.
As of May 2016, the lion population was estimated at 493 individuals, comprising 258 individuals in the Junagadh district, 39 in the Gir Somnath District, 164 in the Amreli District and 32 in the Bhavnagar District.
The Asiatic lion used to live in Eastern Europe, West, Central and South Asia in historic times. The type specimen of the Asiatic lion was first described from Persia in 1826, followed by descriptions of specimens from Hariana and Basra. It also occurred in Arabia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Baluchistan.
It inhabited the southern part of the Balkan peninsula up to Macedonia and probably the Danube River, but disappeared in Greece around the first century. In South Caucasia (where Absheron is located), it was known since the Holocene and became extinct in the 10th century. Until the middle of the 19th century, it survived in regions adjoining Mesopotamia and Syria, and was still sighted in the upper reaches of the Euphrates River in the early 1870s. By the late 19th century, the Asiatic lion had become extinct in Turkey. The last known lion in Iraq was killed on the lower Tigris in 1918.
Historical records in Iran indicate that it ranged from the Khuzestan Plain to the Fars Province at elevations below 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in steppe vegetation and pistachio-almond woodlands. It was widespread in the country, but in the 1870s, it was sighted only on the western slopes of the Zagros Mountains, and in the forest regions south of Shiraz. It served as the national emblem and appeared on the country's flag. Some of the country's last lions were sighted in 1941 between Shiraz and Jahrom in the Fars Province, and in 1942, a lion was spotted about 65 km (40 mi) northwest of Dezful. In 1944, the corpse of a lioness was found on the banks of the Karun River in Iran's Khuzestan Province.
Reginald Innes Pocock suggested that the restricted distribution of the Asiatic lion in India indicates that it was a comparatively recent immigrant and arrived in the country through Persia and Baluchistan, before humans limited its dispersal. In the early 19th century, the Asiatic lion occurred in Sind, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Gujarat, Rajastan, Hariana, Bihar and eastward as far as Palamau and Rewa, Madhya Pradesh. It once ranged to Bengal in the east and up to the Narmada River in the south, but declined under heavy hunting pressure. The advent and increasing availability of firearms led to its extinction over large areas.
Heavy hunting by British colonial officers and Indian rulers led to a steady and marked decline of lion numbers in the country. Lions were exterminated in Palamau by 1814, in Baroda, Hariana and Ahmedabad district in the 1830s, in Kot Diji and Damoh in the 1840s. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a British officer shot 300 lions. The last lions of Gwalior and Rewah were shot in the 1860s. One lion was killed near Allahabad in 1866. The last lion of Mount Abu in Rajasthan, which has a wildlife sanctuary in its vicinity, was spotted in 1872. By the late 1870s, lions were extinct in Rajastan. By 1880, no lion survived in Guna, Deesa and Palanpur, and only about a dozen lions were left in Junagadh district. By the turn of the century, the Gir Forest held the only Asiatic lion population in India, which was protected by the Nawab of Junagarh in his private hunting grounds.
Ecology and behaviour
Asiatic lions live in prides. Mean pride size, measured by the number of adult females, tends to be smaller than for those in Africa lions, apart perhaps from those in Western and Central Africa. Most Gir prides contain just two adult females, with the largest having five. Coalitions of males defend home ranges containing one or more groups of females; but, unlike African lions, Gir males generally associate with their pride females only when mating or on a large kill. A lesser degree of sociability in the Gir lions may be a function of the smaller prey available to them: the most commonly taken species (45% of known kills), the chital, weighs only around 50 kg (110 lb).
In general, lions prefer large prey species within a weight range of 190 to 550 kg (420 to 1,210 lb) irrespective of their availability. Yet they predominately take prey substantially smaller than this, reflecting their opportunistic hunting behaviour. Within this range, they prefer species that weigh 350 kg (770 lb), which is much larger than the largest recorded weight of lion. The group hunting strategy of lions enables exceptionally large prey items to be taken. Hunting success in lions is influenced by hunting-group size and composition, the hunting method used and by environmental factors such as grass and shrub cover, time of day, moon presence and terrain. Domestic cattle have historically been a major component of the Gir lions' diet.
In 1974, the Forest Department estimated the wild ungulate population at 9,650 individuals. In the following decades, the wild ungulate population has grown consistently to 31,490 in 1990 and 64,850 in 2010, including 52,490 spotted deer, 4,440 wild boar, 4,000 sambar, 2,890 blue bull, 740 chinkara, and 290 four-horned antelope. In contrast, populations of domestic buffalo and cattle declined following resettlement, largely due to direct removal of resident livestock from the Gir Conservation Area. The population of 24,250 domestic livestock in the 1970s declined to 12,500 in the mid-1980s, but increased to 23,440 animals in 2010. Following changes in both predator and prey communities, Asiatic lions shifted their predation patterns. Today, very few livestock kills occur within the sanctuary, and instead most occur in peripheral villages. In and around the Gir forest, depredation records indicate that lions killed on average 2,023 livestock annually between 2005 and 2009, and an additional 696 individuals in satellite areas.
The Gir forest and surrounding landscapes are home for the Indian leopard and the striped hyena. The presence of jungle cat, Asiatic wildcat and rusty-spotted cat has also been reported. The golden jackal scavenges on carcasses of large herbivores, and preys on chital fawn and Indian hares.
In the past, when its range was more extensive, other sympatric carnivores included the Asiatic cheetah, tiger, wolf, and sloth bear. Depending on the region or circumstances, they would have fed on the same prey as the lion, such as the kulan in the Trans-Caucasus.
Asiatic lion and tiger
Before the end of the 19th century, the Asiatic lion had coexisted with the tiger throughout much of Asia, and clashes between them were reported. Specifically, the lion coexisted with the Bengal tiger in India, besides occurring in areas inhabited by the Caspian tiger, like northern Iraq, northern Persia and the Trans-Caucasus. These were before factors, such as persecution by humans, led to the disappearance or reduction in numbers of lions or tigers in the countries which they shared.
Today, the Asiatic lion is not found in countries where the Caspian tiger was present, but in India, where the Bengal tiger is still present. Though the Bengal tiger does not share its range with the lion, both inhabit the ecoregion of Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests. Though the lion's population has grown to the extent that it is no longer confined to the Gir Forest, it is still restricted to the Kathiawar Peninsula in Saurashtra, and the nearest place with the presence of Bengal tigers is the border-triangle of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. If the project to move some lions to Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary was successful, then the lion and tiger could have once again coexisted in India, as there are tigers in that sanctuary.
The Asiatic lion currently exists as a single subpopulation, and is thus vulnerable to extinction from unpredictable events, such as an epidemic or large forest fire. There are indications of poaching incidents in recent years. There are reports that organized gangs have switched attention from tigers to these lions. There have also been a number of drowning incidents after lions fell into wells.
Prior to the resettlement of Maldharis, the Gir forest was heavily degraded and used by livestock, which competed with and restricted the population sizes of native ungulates. Various studies reveal tremendous habitat recovery and increases in wild ungulate populations following the Maldhari resettlement during the last four decades.
Conflicts with humans
Since the mid 1990s, the Asiatic lion population has increased to an extent that by 2015 about a third resided outside the protected area. Hence, conflict between local residents and wildlife also increased. Local people protect their crops from nilgai, wild pigs and other herbivores by using electrical fences that are powered with high voltage. Some consider the presence of predators a benefit, as latter keep the herbivore population in check. But some people also fear the lions and killed several in retaliation for attacks on livestock.
Nearly 20,000 open wells dug by farmers in the area for irrigation have also acted as traps, which led to many lions drowning. To counteract the problem, suggestions for walls around the wells, as well as the use of "drilled tube wells" have been made.
In July 2012, a lion dragged a man from the veranda of his house and killed him about 50–60 km (31–37 mi) from the Gir Forest National Park. This was the second attack by a lion in this area, six months after a 25-year-old man was attacked and killed in Dhodadar.
In the 1950s, biologists advised the Indian government to re-establish at least one wild population in the Asiatic lion's former range to ensure the population's reproductive health and to prevent it from being affected by an outbreak of an epidemic. In 1956, the Indian Board for Wildlife accepted a proposal by the Government of Uttar Pradesh to establish a new sanctuary for the envisaged reintroduction, that is Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, covering 96 km2 (37 sq mi) in eastern Uttar Pradesh, where climate, terrain and vegetation is similar to the conditions in the Gir Forest. In 1957, one male and two female wild-caught Asiatic lions were set free in the sanctuary. This population comprised 11 animals in 1965, which all disappeared thereafter.
The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project to find an alternative habitat for reintroducing Asiatic lions was pursued in the early 1990s. Biologists from the Wildlife Institute of India assessed several potential translocation sites for their suitability regarding existing prey population and habitat conditions. The Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, in northern Madhya Pradesh, was ranked as the most promising location, followed by Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary and Darrah National Park. Until 2000, 1,100 families from 16 villages had been resettled from the Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, and another 500 families from eight villages envisaged to be resettled. With this resettlement scheme the protected area was expanded by 345 km2 (133 sq mi).
Gujarat state officials resisted the relocation, since it would make the Gir Sanctuary lose its status as the world's only home of the Asiatic lion. Gujarat has raised a number of objections to the proposal, and the matter is now before the Indian Supreme Court. In April 2013, the Indian Supreme Court ordered the Gujarat state to send some of their Gir lions to Madhya Pradesh to establish a second population there. The court has given wildlife authorities six months to complete the transfer. The number of lions and which ones to be transported will be decided at a later date.
In 1977, Iran attempted to restore its lion population by transporting Gir lions to Arzhan National Park, but the project met resistance from the local population, and thus it was not implemented. However, this did not stop Iran from seeking to bring back the lion.
Until the late 1990s, captive Asiatic lions in Indian zoos were haphazardly interbred with African lions confiscated from circuses, leading to genetic pollution in the captive Asiatic lion stock. Once discovered, this led to the complete shutdown of the European and American endangered species breeding programs for Asiatic lions, as its founder animals were captive-bred Asiatic lions originally imported from India and were ascertained to be intraspecific hybrids of African and Asian lions. In North American zoos, several Indian-African lion crosses were inadvertently bred, and researchers noted that "the fecundity, reproductive success, and spermatozoal development improved dramatically."
In 2006, the Central Zoo Authority of India stopped breeding Indian-African cross lions stating that "hybrid lions have no conservation value and it is not worth to spend resources on them". Now only pure native Asiatic lions are bred in India.
The Asiatic lion International Studbook was initiated in 1977, followed in 1983 by the North American Species Survival Plan (SSP). The North American population of captive Asiatic lions was composed of descendants of five founder lions, three of which were pure Asian and two were African or African-Asian hybrids. The lions kept in the framework of the SSP consisted of animals with high inbreeding coefficients.
In the early 1990s, three European zoos imported pure Asiatic lions from India: the London Zoo obtained two pairs; the Zürich Zoologischer Garten one pair; and the Helsinki Zoo one male and two females. In 1994, the European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) for Asiatic lions was initiated. The European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) published the first European Studbook in 1999. By 2005, there were 80 Asiatic lions kept in the EEP — the only captive population outside of India.
There are now over 100 Asiatic lions in the EEP. The SSP did not yet resume; pure-bred Asiatic lions are needed to form a new founder population for breeding in American zoos.
In mythology, religion, culture and art
- The Sanskrit word for 'lion' is 'सिंह' (sinha), which also signifies the Leo of the Zodiac. The Mahabharata (Sanskrit: महाभारत) contains literature on the lion, such as a comparison to the tiger.
- Since ancient times, lion statues adorned palaces and temples and other important buildings in India, and in Buddhist culture, the lion was depicted as the protector of Dharma. In Hinduism lions are associated with Gods and Goddesses. Narasimha (Narasingh or Narasinga – man-lion) is described as an incarnation (avatar) of Vishnu within the Puranic texts of Hinduism and is worshiped as "Lion God". Thus, Asiatic lions are considered sacred by all Hindus in India. A lion-faced dakini also appears in Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism. The Hindu deity is known as Narasimha and the Tibetan Buddhist form is known as Siṃhamukhā in Sanskrit and Senge Dongma (Wyl. seng ge gdong ma) in Tibetan. The lion is found on numerous flags and coats of arms all across Asia and Europe, and also appears on the Emblem of India and on the flag of Sri Lanka. Singhāsana, meaning seat of a lion, is the traditional Sanskrit name for the throne of a Hindu kingdom in India and Sinhalese kingdom in Sri Lanka since antiquity.
- The surnames Singh, Singha and Sinha are related to the Prakrit word siṁgha and Sanskrit word siṃhḥ which refer to lions, tigers and leopards. These are common Hindu and Sikh surnames dating back over 2000 years to ancient India. They originally only used by Rajputs, a Hindu kshatriya or military caste in India since the seventh century. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in 1699, the Sikhs adopted the name "Singh" at the direction of Guru Gobind Singh. As this name was associated with higher classes and royalty, this action was to combat the prevalent caste system and discrimination by last name. Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by up to 10 million Sikhs worldwide. The Sinhalese people are the majority ethnic group of Sri Lanka. The name 'Sinhala' translates to "lion's blood" or "lion people" and refers to the myths regarding the descent of the legendary founder of the Sinhalese people 2500 years ago, Prince Vijaya, who is said to have migrated from Singhapur (Simhapura or Singur). The words "singha" or "singham" meaning "courageous lion" are used as an ending of many surnames, such as "Weerasingha" used by the Sinhala people, and "Veerasingham" used by the Tamil people. The name Sinhala comes from the belief that Vijaya's paternal grandfather was a lion. An alternative theory places Singhapur in modern Sihor, which happens to be close to the Gir Sanctuary.
- The lion makes repeated appearances in the Bible, most notably as having fought Samson in the Book of Judges.
- Having occurred in the Arab world, particularly the Arabian Peninsula, the Asiatic lion has significance in Arab and Islamic culture. For example, Surat al-Muddaththir of the Quran criticizes people who were averse to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's teachings, such as that the rich have an obligation to donate wealth to the poor, comparing their attitude to itself, with the response of prey to a qaswarah (Arabic: قَـسْـوَرَة, meaning "lion", "beast of prey", or "hunter"). Other Arabic words for 'lion' include 'asad' (Arabic: أَسَـد) and 'saba‘' (Arabic: سَـبَـع), and they can be used as names of places, or titles of people. An Arabic toponym for the Levantine City of Beersheba (Arabic: بِـئـر الـسَّـبـع) can mean "Spring of the Lion." Figures with a reputation for bravery, like Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, who were loyal kinsmen of Muhammad, were given titles like "Asad Allah" (Arabic: أَسَـد الله, "Lion of God").
- The lion is the basis of the lion dances that form part of the traditional Chinese New Year celebrations, and of similar customs in other Asian countries. Chinese guardian lions and their Eastern, Southeastern and Southern Asian counterparts depicted in Chinese art were modeled on the basis of lions found in Indian temples. Buddhist monks, or possibly traders, possibly brought descriptions of sculpted lions guarding the entry to temples to China. Chinese sculptors then used the description to model "Fo-Lions" (Fo (Chinese: 佛) is a character for the Buddha) temple statues after native dogs (possibly the Tibetan Mastiff) by adding a shaggy mane. Depictions of these "Fo-lions" have been found in Chinese religious art as early as 208 BC. The Tibetan Snow Lion (Tibetan: གངས་སེང་གེ་; Wylie: gangs seng ge) is a mythical animal of Tibet. It symbolizes fearlessness, unconditional cheerfulness, the eastern quadrant and the element of Earth. It is said to range over mountains, and is commonly pictured as being white with a turquoise mane. Two Snow Lions appear on the flag of Tibet. Many East Asian borrowed from the Sanskrit word for lion.
- In the Burmese and Sinhalese animal and planetary zodiac, the lion is the third animal zodiac of the Burmese and the sixth animal zodiac of the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka.
- Cambodia has a native martial art called L-bukkatao (Khmer: ល្បុក្កតោ, Pounding a lion).
- The island nation of Singapore (Singapura) derives its name from the Malay words singa (lion) and pura (city), which in turn is from the Sanskrit siṃha (सिंह) and pura (पुर) . According to the Malay Annals, this name was given by a 13th-century Sumatran Malay prince named Sang Nila Utama, who, on alighting the island after a thunderstorm, spotted an auspicious beast on shore that his chief minister identified as an Asiatic lion. Recent studies of Singapore indicate lions have never lived there, unlike the tiger. Therefore, the animal seen by Sang Nila Utama would more likely have been a tiger, though it would be odd for them not to recognize one.
- Depictions of the Mesopotamian lion show that it was an important symbol of Ancient Iraq. It is depicted in Ninevan reliefs. Depictions on the Ishtar Gate of Babylon also has a well-known statue of the lion, and in Nimrud. The lion has an important association with the figure Gilgamesh, as demonstrated in his epic. Construction for Iraqi capital city of Baghdad began in July, 764 CE, so that it occurred under the lion's astrological sign, Leo.
- The symbol of the lion is closely tied to the Persian people. Achaemenid kings were known to carry the symbol of the lion on their thrones and garments. The name 'Shir' (also pronounced 'Sher') (Persian: شیر) is a part of the names of many places in Iran and Central Asia, like those of city of Shiraz and the Sherabad River, and had been adopted into other languages, like Hindi. The Shir-va-Khorshid (Persian: شیر و خورشید, "Lion and Sun") is one of the most prominent symbols of Iran, dating back to the Safavid dynasty, and having been used on the flag of Iran, until 1979. Nevertheless, in Persian literature, as with Indian literature, the lion is rivaled by the tiger. This is demonstrated in the book Anvar-i-Suhayli (Persian: اَنوارِ سُهيلى, "Lights of the Canopus").
- The lion was an objective of hunting in the Caucasus, by both locals and foreigners. The locals were called 'Shirvanshakhs'.
- The Nemean lion of pre-literate Greek myth is associated with the Labours of Herakles. Scythian art from Ukraine dated to the 4th century BC depicts Scythians hunting very realistically portrayed lions.
- In situ conservation
- Ex situ conservation
- Barbary lion
- Cape lion
- Central African lion
- Ethiopian lion
- Kalahari lion
- Masai lion
- Nubian lion
- Somali lion
- Southwest African lion
- Transvaal lion
- Tsavo lion
- Uganda lion
- West African lion
- American cave lion
- European lion
- Early Middle Pleistocene European cave lion
- Upper Pleistocene European cave lion
- Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D. P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. (2008). "Panthera leo ssp. persica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
- Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 546. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (1992) . "Lion". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume II, Part 2]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 83–95. ISBN 90-04-08876-8.
- Humphreys, P., Kahrom, E. (1999). Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran. Images Publishing, Avon.
- Meyer, J. N. (1826). Dissertatio inauguralis anatomico-medica de genere felium. Doctoral thesis, University of Vienna.
- Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Panthera leo". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. pp. 212–222.
- Nowell, K., Jackson, P. (1996). "Asiatic lion". Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. pp. 17–21. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0.
- Singh, H. S.; Gibson, L. (2011). "A conservation success story in the otherwise dire megafauna extinction crisis: The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) of Gir forest" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 144 (5): 1753–1757. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.009.
- Anonymous (2015). "Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years". DeshGujarat. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Anonymous (2015). "Asiatic lion population in Gujarat rises to 523". Deccan Herald.
- Himanshu Kaushik (4 August 2017). "Lion population roars to 650 in Gujarat forests". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- Avinash Nandakumar (3 August 2017). "Gir forest Asiatic lion brimming population needs translocation to Madhya Pradesh". India Live Today. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- Jhala, Y. V., Qureshi, Q., Sinha, P. R. (Eds.) (2011). Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India, 2010. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. TR 2011/003 pp-302
- Pandit, M. W.; Shivaji, S.; Singh, L. (2007). You Deserve, We Conserve: A Biotechnological Approach to Wildlife Conservation. New Delhi: I. K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9788189866242.
- Bennett, E. T. (1829). The Tower Menagerie, Comprising the Natural History of the Animals Contained in That Establishment; With Anecdotes of Their Characters and History. Printed for Robert Jennings, London.
- Smee, W. (1833). Felis leo, Linn., Var. goojratensis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Part I (December 1833): 140.
- Jardine, W. (1834). The Lion. In: Natural History of the Felinae. Series: Naturalist's library. H. G. Bohn, London.
- Blainville, H. M. D. (1843). Felis. Plate VI. in: Ostéographie, ou Description iconographique comparée du squelette et du système dentaire des mammifères récents et fossiles pour servir de base à la zoologie et à la géologie. J.B. Ballière et fils, Paris.
- IUCN Cat Specialist Group. "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11: 76.
- Barnett, R.; Mendoza, M. L. Z.; Soares, A. E. R.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Zazula, G.; Yamaguchi, N.; Shapiro, B.; Kirillova, I. V.; Larson, G.; Gilbert, M. T. P. "Mitogenomics of the Extinct Cave Lion, Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810), resolve its position within the Panthera cats". OpenQuaternary.com. doi:10.5334/oq.24/ (inactive 2017-07-08). Retrieved 2016-11-03.
- Kurtén, B. (1968). Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. Transaction Publishers, 2007. p. 317. ISBN 0202309533.
- O’Brien, S. J., Martenson, J. S., Packer, C., Herbst, L., de Vos, V., Joslin, P., Ott-Joslin, J., Wildt, D. E. and Bush, M. (1987). "Biochemical genetic variation in geographic isolates of African and Asiatic lions" (PDF). National Geographic Research. 3 (1): 114–124. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-02.
- Burger, J., Rosendahl, F., Loreille, O., Hemmer, H., Eriksson, T., Götherström, A., Hiller, J., Collins, M. J., Wess, T., Alt, K. W. (2004). "Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 841–849. PMID 15012963. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.07.020.
- Haas, S.K.; Hayssen, V.; Krausman, P.R. (2005). "Panthera leo" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 762: 1–11. doi:10.1644/1545-1410(2005)762[0001:PL]2.0.CO;2.
- Barnett, R.; et al. (2009). "Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 18 (8): 1668–1677. PMID 19302360. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04134.x. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- Dutta, A. K. (1976). "Occurrence of fossil lion and spotted hyena from Pleistocene deposits of Susunia, Bankura District, West Bengal". Journal of the Geological Society of India. 17 (3): 386–391.
- Manamendra-Arachchi, K.; Pethiyagoda, R.; Dissanayake, R.; Meegaskumbura, M. (2005). "A second extinct big cat from the late Quaternary of Sri Lanka" (PDF). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (Supplement 12): 423–434. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-07.
- Barnett, R.; Yamaguchi, N.; Barnes, I.; Cooper, A. (2006). "The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo)". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 273 (1598): 2119–2125. PMC . PMID 16901830. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3555.
- Antunes, A., Troyer, J. L., Roelke, M. E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Packer, C., Winterbach, C., Winterbach, H., Johnson, W. E. (2008). "The evolutionary dynamics of the Lion Panthera leo revealed by host and viral population genomics". PLoS Genetics. 4 (11): e1000251. PMC . PMID 18989457. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000251.
- Bertola, L., de Iongh, H., Vrieling, K. (2011). Researchers confirm West and Central African lion is different from other lions. University of Leiden. Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML). Faculty of Science. Last Modified: 01-04-2011.
- Bertola, L. D.; Van Hooft, W. F.; Vrieling, K.; Uit De Weerd, D. R.; York, D. S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H. H. T.; Funston, P. J.; Udo De Haes, H. A.; Leirs, H.; Van Haeringen, W. A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P. N.; De Iongh, H. H. (2011). "Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 38 (7): 1356–1367. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02500.x.
- O’Brien, S. J., Joslin, P., Smith, G. L. III, Wolfe, R., Schaffer, N., Heath, E., Ott-Joslin, J., Rawal, P. P., Bhattacharjee, K. K., and Martenson, J. S. (1987). "Evidence for African origins of founders of the Asiatic lion Species Survival Plan" (PDF). Zoo Biology. 6 (2): 99–116. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430060202.
- Chellam, R. and A. J. T. Johnsingh (1993). "Management of Asiatic lions in the Gir Forest, India". In Dunstone, N.; Gorman, M. L. Mammals as predators: the proceedings of a symposium held by the Zoological Society of London and the Mammal Society, London. Volume 65 of Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. London: Zoological Society of London. pp. 409–423.
- Sterndale, R. A. (1884). "No. 200 Felis leo". Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co. pp. 159–161.
- Smuts, G.L.; Robinson, G.A.; Whyte, I.J. (1980). "Comparative growth of wild male and female lions (Panthera leo)". Journal of Zoology. 190 (3): 365–373. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1980.tb01433.x.
- Barnett, R.; Yamaguchi, N.; Barnes, I.; Cooper, A. (2006). "Lost populations and preserving genetic diversity in the lion Panthera leo: Implications for its ex situ conservation". Conservation Genetics. 7 (4): 507–514. doi:10.1007/s10592-005-9062-0.
- Ashrafian, H. (2011). "An extinct Mesopotamian lion subspecies". Veterinary Heritage. 34 (2): 47–49.
- Sinha, S. P. (1987). Ecology of wildlife with special reference to the lion (Panthera leo persica) in Gir Wildlife Sanctuary, Saurashtra, Gujurat. Ph.D. thesis, Saurashtra University, Rajkot ISBN 3844305459.
- Kinnear, N. B. (1920). "The past and present distribution of the lion in south eastern Asia". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 27: 34–39.
- Varma, K. (2009). "The Asiatic Lion and the Maldharis of Gir Forest: An Assessment of Indian Eco-Development" (PDF). The Journal of Environment Development. 18 (2): 154–176. doi:10.1177/1070496508329352.
- Üstay, A. H. (1990). Hunting in Turkey. Istanbul: BBA.
- Hatt, R. T. (1959). The mammals of Iraq. Ann Arbor: Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan.
- Khosravifard, S. and Niamir, A. (2016). The lair of the lion in Iran. Cat News Special Issue 10: 14–17.
- Firouz, E. (2005). The complete fauna of Iran. I. B. Tauris. pp. 5–67. ISBN 978-1-85043-946-2.
- Guggisberg, C. A. W. (1961). Simba: The Life of the Lion. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.
- Mitra, S. (2005). Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion. New Delhi: Indus. ISBN 8173871833. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- Blanford, W. T. (1889). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. Taylor and Francis, London.
- Negi, Sharad Singh (2002), Handbook of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves in India (3rd Edition), Indus Publishing, p. 151, ISBN 978-81-7387-128-3
- Sharma, B.K., Kulshreshtha, S., Sharma, S., Singh, S., Jain, A., Kulshreshtha, M. (2013). "In situ and ex situ conservation: Protected Area Network and zoos in Rajasthan". In Sharma, B. K.; Kulshreshtha, S.; Rahmani, A. R. Faunal Heritage of Rajasthan, India: Conservation and Management of Vertebrates. Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London: Springer Science & Business Media.
- Johnsingh, A.J.T. and R. Chellam (1991). Asiatic lions. pp. 92–93 in: Seidensticker, J., Lumpkin, S. and F. Knight. (eds.) Great Cats. London: Merehurst.
- Hayward, M. W. & G. I. H. Kerley (2005). "Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo)" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 267 (3): 309–322. doi:10.1017/S0952836905007508.
- Pathak, B. J. (1990). "Rusty-spotted Cat Felis rubiginosa Geoffroy: a new record for Gir Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (87): 8.
- Alam, M.S., Khan, J.A., Njoroge, C.H., Kumar, S. and Meena, R.L. (2015). "Food preferences of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in the Gir National Park and Sanctuary, Gujarat, India". Journal of Threatened Taxa (7 (2)): 6927–6933.
- Tudge, C. (2011). Engineer In The Garden. Random House. p. 42. ISBN 9781446466988.
- Packer, C. (2015). "All about Lions. Frequently asked questions". University of Minnesota, College of Biological Sciences. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- Kock, D. (1990). "Historical record of a tiger, Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758), in Iraq". Zoology in the Middle East. 4: 11–15. doi:10.1080/09397140.1990.10637583.
- Mazák, V. (1981). "Panthera tigris" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 152 (152): 1–8. JSTOR 3504004. doi:10.2307/3504004.
- Jhala, Y. V.; Gopal, R.; Qureshi, Q., eds. (2008). Status of the Tigers, Co-predators, and Prey in India (PDF). TR 08/001. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi; Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2013.
- "Kathiarbar-Gir Dry Deciduous Forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
- Meena, V. (2016). Wildlife and human impacts in the Gir landscape. In: Agrawal, P.K., Verghese, A., Radhakrishna, S. and Subaharan, K. (eds)., Human Animal Conflict in Agro-Pastoral Context: Issues & Policies. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
- Johnsingh, A.J.T. (2006). "Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary ready to play second home to Asiatic lions?". Field Days: A Naturalist's Journey Through South and Southeast Asia. Hyderabad: Universities Press. pp. 126–138. ISBN 8173715521.
- Anonymous (2012). "Man-eater lion kills 50-year-old in Amreli, preys on him". dna. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
- Walker, S. (1994). Executive summary of the Asiatic lion PHVA. First draft report. Zoo’s Print: 2–22.
- Hugo, K. (2016). "Asia's Lions Live In One Last Place on Earth—And They're Thriving". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
- Anand, U. (2013). Supreme Court gives Madhya Pradesh lions' share from Gujarat's Gir. The Indian Express Ltd., 17 April 2013.
- Dey, A. (2009-07-16). "Rajasthan to be home for cheetahs". Times of India. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- Khosravifard, S. (22 May 2010). "Russia, Iran exchange tigers for leopards but some experts express doubts". Payvand News. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- Avise, J. C.; Hamrick, J. L. (1996). Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 67. ISBN 9780412055812.
- Shankaranarayanan, P., Banerjee, M., Kacker, R. K., Aggarwal, R. K. and Singh, L. (1997). Genetic variation in Asiatic lions and Indian tigers Archived July 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Electrophoresis 18 (9): 1693–1700. doi:10.1002/elps.1150180938
- "Hybrid lions at Chhatbir Zoo in danger". The Times of India. 18 September 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Zingg, R. (2007). Asiatic Lion Studbooks: a short history. Zoos' Print Journal XXII (6): 4.
- "The Asiatic lion captive breeding programme". Archived from the original on 2009-02-06.
- Apte, V. S. (1957–1959). सिंहः siṃhḥ. In: Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte's The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary. Prasad Prakashan, Poona.
- Prof. Muneo Tokunaga John D. Smith K M Ganguli. "Tiger in Hindu epic Mahabharatha". The Mahabharata in Sanskrit. Sacred Texts. pp. SECTION LXVIII. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- "Simhamukha". Himalayanart.org. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- Turner, R. L. (1962-1966). A comparative dictionary of Indo-Aryan languages. London: Oxford University Press. Includes three supplements, published 1969-1985.
- McCleod, W. H. (1989). The Sikhs: History, Religion, and Society. Columbia University Press, New York
- Singh, K. (1963). A History of the Sikhs. Volume I. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey
- The Wisdom Library: The Mahavamsa. The Great Chronicle of Sri Lanka. Chapter 34 − The Eleven Kings
- Quran 74:41–51
- Pease, A. E. (1913). The Book of the Lion John Murray, London.
- Qumsiyeh, Mazin B. (1996). Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press, pp. 146–148, ISBN 089672364X
- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-12.
- Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabair vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
- Goswamy, B. N. (2002). "Where does the Lion come from in ancient Chinese culture? Celebrating with the Lion Dance". The Tribune Newspaper, Chandigarh, India. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- Upham, E. (1829). The History and Doctrine of Budhism: Popularly Illustrated: with Notices of the Kappooism, Or Demon Worship, and of the Bali, Or Planetary Incantations, of Ceylon. London: R. Ackermann.
- Ray, Nick; Daniel Robinson; Greg Bloom (2010). Cambodia. Lonely Planet. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-74179-457-1.
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000). "Singapore" (Fourth ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009.
- "Early History". Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, Singapore. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-14.
- Yong, D. L.; Lee, P. Y.-H.; Ang, A.; Tan, K. H. (2010). "The status on Singapore island of the Eurasian wild pig Sus scrofa (Mammalia: Suidae)" (PDF). Nature in Singapore. 3: 227–237. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
- C.M. Turnbull (30 October 2009). A History of Modern Singapore, 1819-2005. NUS Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-9971694302.
- Scarre, C. (1999). "The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World". London: Thames and Hudson.
- "Babylon, Iraq". Atlastours.net. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
- Loftus, W. K. (1855). The Journal of Sacred Literature. London: A. Heylin. P. 492.
- Dalley, S., ed. (2000). Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953836-2.
- Wiet, pg. 12
- Shahbazi, Shapur A. (2001). "Flags (of Persia)". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 10. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
- Eastwick, Edward B (transl.) (1854). The Anvari Suhaili; or the Lights of Canopus Being the Persian version of the Fables of Pilpay; or the Book Kalílah and Damnah rendered into Persian by Husain Vá'iz U'L-Káshifí. Hertford: Stephen Austin, Bookseller to the East-India College. Retrieved 2017-05-02.
- Kaushik, H. (2005). "Wire fences death traps for big cats". The Times of India.
- Nair, S. M. (English edition); Translated by O. Henry Francis (1999). Endangered Animals of India and their conservation. National Book Trust.
- Walker, S. (1994). Executive summary of the Asiatic lion PHVA. First draft report. Zoo’s Print Jan/Feb: 2–22 (Coimbatore, India).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Panthera leo persica.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Panthera leo persica|
- IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group: Asiatic lion
- Asiatic Lion Information Centre at the Wayback Machine (archived August 25, 2010) (Includes an informative "News" section)
- Asiatic Lion Protection Society (ALPS), Gujarat, India
- ARKive.org: Lion (Panthera leo)
- Animal Diversity Web: Panthera leo
- Asiatic lions in online video (3 videos)
- Asiatic Lions Images
- on YouTube by Rajesh Badal (2011)
- DB Video Special Report on Asiatic lion in Gujarati: What Is the connection Between Gir lions and Africans lions
- Skin of a Persian lioness, belonging to an endangered subspecies of lions, brought to Dublin by King Edward VII in 1902.
- Lion of Basrah