Aspect of music
An aspect of music (rudiment) is any characteristic, dimension, or element taken as a part or component of music. A parameter is an element which may be manipulated (composed), separately from the other elements.
The first person to apply the term parameter to music may have been Joseph Schillinger, though its relative popularity may be due to Werner Meyer-Eppler (Grant 2005, 62n85). Gradation is gradual change within one parameter, or an overlapping of two blocks of sound. There is disagreement over the number and existence of specific aspects, as well as whether any aspects are common to all music.
The traditional musicological or European-influenced aspects of music often listed are those elements given primacy in European-influenced classical music, so 7 basic elements of music: melody, harmony, rhythm, tone, form, tempo and dynamics. White gives rhythm, melody, harmony, and sound, with sound including timbre, dynamics, and texture (White 1976, 14).
- Melody is a succession of notes heard as some sort of unit. It is a single line of tones that moves up, down, or stays the same using steps, skips and repeated tones.
- Harmony is the relationship between two or more simultaneous pitches or pitch simultaneities, chord progression affects the key.
- Rhythm is the variation of the accentuation of sounds over time.
- Tone color is timbre, see list below.
- Form is the structure of a particular piece, how its parts are put together to make the whole.
- Tempo is the speed of communicating an emotion in a particular piece, how fast or slow it's played.
- Dynamics is the volume of all parts as a whole and every layer in the structure.
- Pitch is the perception of the frequency of the sound experienced, and is perceived as how "low" or "high" a sound is, and may be further described as definite pitch or indefinite pitch. It includes: melody, harmony, tonality, tessitura, and tuning or temperament.
- Timbre is the quality of a sound, determined by the fundamental and its spectra: overtones or harmonics and envelope, and varies between voices and types and kinds of musical instruments, which are tools used to produce sound. It includes: tone color and articulation.
- Intensity, or dynamics, is how loud or quiet a sound is and includes how stressed a sound is or articulation.
- Duration is the temporal aspect of music; time. It includes: pulse, beat, rhythm, rhythmic density, meter, tempo.
These aspects combine to create secondary aspects including form or structure, texture, and style. Other commonly included aspects include the spatial location or the movement in space of sounds, gesture, and dance. Silence is also often considered an aspect of music, if it is considered to exist.
- Structure includes: motive, subphrase, phrase, phrase group, period, section, exposition, repetition, variation, development, and other formal units, textural continuity.
- Texture is the interaction of temporal and pitch elements. It includes: homophony, polyphony, heterophony, and simultaneity.
- Style is defined by how the above elements are used. It is what distinguishes an individual composer or group, period, genre, region, or manner of performance.
- Aesthetics is how the music affects you emotionally. For example: an upbeat tune may make you joyful, while a slow violin song may make you feel lonely, cold, and depressed etc.
Often a definition of music lists the aspects or elements that make up music under that definition. However, in addition to a lack of consensus, Jean Molino (1975: 43) also points out that "any element belonging to the total musical fact can be isolated, or taken as a strategic variable of musical production." Nattiez gives as examples Mauricio Kagel's Con Voce [with voice], where a masked trio silently mimes playing instruments. In this example sound, a common element, is excluded, while gesture, a less common element, is given primacy. In classical music of the common practice period, for instance, melody and harmony are often considered to be given more importance at the expense of rhythm and timbre. John Cage considers duration the primary aspect of music as, being the temporal aspect of music, it is the only aspect common to both "sound" and "silence".
It is often debated whether there are aspects of music which are universal. The debate often hinges on definitions, for instance the fairly common assertion that "tonality" is a universal of all music may necessarily require an expansive definition of tonality. A pulse is sometimes taken as a universal, yet there exist solo vocal and instrumental genres with free and improvisational rhythms no regular pulse (Johnson 2002,[page needed]), one example being the alap section of an Indian classical music performance. "We must ask whether a cross-cultural musical universal is to be found in the music itself (either its structure or function) or the way in which music is made. By 'music-making,' I intend not only real performance but also how music is heard, understood, even learned" (Dane Harwood 1976, 522).
According to Merriam (1964, 32-33) there are three aspects always present in musical activity: concept, behaviour, and sound. Virgil Thomson (1957, vii) lists the "raw materials" of music in order of their discovery: rhythm, melody, and harmony; with the construction of these materials using two major techniques: counterpoint (the simultaneity and organization of different melodies) and orchestration. Rhythm does not require melody or harmony, but it does require melody if the instrument produces a continuous sound, harmony arises from reverberation causing the overlap of different pitches, and counterpoint arises from multiple melodies.
Kenneth Gourlay recounts that, "Writing of her own Igbo music, the Nigerian musicologist Chinyere Nwachukwu maintains that the 'concept of music nkwa combines singing, playing musical instruments, and dancing into one act' (Gorlay 1981, 59). Whatever concept of 'music' is held by members of western society, it is highly improbable that, apart from forward-looking scholars and composers, it will contain all three elements. Nkwa in fact is not 'music' but a wider affective channel that is closer to the karimojong mode of expression than to western practice. The point of interest here is that Nwachukwu feels constrained to use the erroneous term 'music': not because she is producing a 'musical dissertation,' but because the 'one act' which the Igbos perform has no equivalent in the English language. By forcing the Igbo concept into the Procrustean bed of western conceptualization, she is in effect surrendering to the dominance of western ideas—or at least to the dominance of the English language! How different things would have been if the Igbo tongue had attained the same 'universality' as English!" (Gourlay 1984, 35) He then concludes that there exists "nonuniversality of music and the universality of nonmusic."
The six symmetries of music are six transformations that can be applied to music while leaving a fundamental essence of the music unchanged.
- Pitch translation invariance: When the key is changed the tune remains the same.
- Time scaling invariance: When the tempo is changed the rhythm remains the same.
- Octave translation invariance: Similar to pitch translation invariance however it can be applied to more things, whole chords can be moved up or down an octave without affecting the musical "quality", for example.
- Time translation invariance: Not specific to just music this refers to the fact that a piece of music is the same today as it was yesterday.
- Amplitude scaling invariance: Music remains the same no matter what volume it is played. This isn't quite true as loudness or quietness may affect the emotional impact of a piece. However most music is unaffected by volume changes.
- Pitch reflection invariance:
This applies specifically to the consonance relation between notes. For example, the degree of consonance between A and C is the same as the degree of consonance between C and A. This symmetry does not imply that music can be played "upside down", no doubt because there are aspects of melody perception that are more than just a function of consonance relationships between notes. However, there is an apparent "upside-downness" in the preferred choices of home chord in the diatonic scale (consisting of the notes A, B, C, D, E, F and G). The two preferred choices are A minor and C major, which are indeed mirror images of each other within the scale, reflected about the note D. (Dorrell n.d.)
Other common aspects and terms
Other terms used to discuss particular pieces include note, which is an abstraction which refers to either a specific pitch and/or rhythm or the written symbol; chord, which is a simultaneity of notes heard as some sort of unit; and chord progression which is a succession of chords (simultaneity succession).
For a more comprehensive list of terms see: List of musical topics
- Dorrell, Philip. The 6 Symmetries of Music at the Wayback Machine (archived July 7, 2011)
- Gourlay, Kenneth (1984).[full citation needed]. Cited in Nattiez (1990).
- Grant, M[orag]. J[osephine]. (2005). Serial Music, Serial Aesthetics: Compositional Theory in Post-War Europe. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-61992-9.
- Harwood, Dane (1976). "Universals in Music: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology". Ethnomusicology 20, no. 3:521-33. Cited in Nattiez (1990).
- Johnson, Julian (2002). Who Needs Classical Music?: Cultural Choice and Musical Value. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514681-6.
- Molino, J. (1975). "Fait musical et sémiologue de la musique". Musique en Jeu, no. 17:37-62. Cited in Nattiez (1990).
- Nattiez, Jean-Jacques (1990). Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music, translated by Carolyn Abbate from Musicologie générale et sémiologue (1987).[full citation needed] ISBN 0-691-02714-5.
- Owen, Harold (2000). Music Theory Resource Book. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511539-2.
- Thomson, Virgil (1957). "Introduction" to Robert Erickson. The Structure of Music: A Listener's Guide: A Study of Music in Terms of Melody and Counterpoint. New York: Noonday Press.
- White, John D. (1976). The Analysis of Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-033233-2.
- Agricola, Martin (1991). The Rudiments of Music, new edition, translated from the Latin edition of 1539 by John Trowell. Aberystwyth: Boethius Press. ISBN 0-86314-034-3
- Macpherson, Stewart, and Anthony Payne (1970). The Rudiments of Music, revised edition, with a new chapter by Anthony Payne. London: Stainer & Bell; New York: Galliard. ISBN 978-0-85249-010-5.
- Ottman, Robert W., and Frank D. Mainous (2000). Rudiments of Music, second edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-783671-0.