From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Kaziranga Rhinoceros unicornis.jpg
Ahom Raja's Palace, Garhgaon, Sivasagar, Assam 08.jpg
Kamakhya Guwahati.JPG
Rang Ghar Assam.jpg
Bridge over brahmaputra river.jpg
Academic complex iitg.jpeg
Anthem: "O Mur Apunar Desh"[1]
(O my Dearest Country)
Coordinates (Dispur, Guwahati): 26°08′N 91°46′E / 26.14°N 91.77°E / 26.14; 91.77Coordinates: 26°08′N 91°46′E / 26.14°N 91.77°E / 26.14; 91.77
Country India
Statehood26 January 1950[1]
Largest cityGuwahati
 • BodyGovernment of Assam
 • GovernorJagdish Mukhi[2]
 • Chief MinisterSarbananda Sonowal (BJP)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (126 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituencyRajya Sabha (7 seats)
Lok Sabha (14 seats)
 • High CourtGauhati High Court
 • Total78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi)
Area rank16th
45-1,960 m (148-6,430 ft)
 • Total31,169,272
 • Rank15th
 • Density397/km2 (1,030/sq mi)
GDP (2019-20)
 • Total3.24 lakh crore (US$45 billion)
 • Per capita82,078 (US$1,200)
 • OfficialAssamese[4]
 • Additional officialBengali in Barak Valley[5]
Bodo in BTAD[6]
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS
HDI (2018)Increase 0.614[7]
medium · 30th
Literacy (2011)72.19%[8]
Sex ratio (2011)958 /1000 [8]
Symbols of Assam State
Seal of Assam.svg
Seal of Assam
Bihu dance of Assam.jpg
Bihu dance
One horned rhinoceros
White-winged Wood Duck (Cairina scutulata) RWD5.jpg
White-winged wood duck
A and B Larsen orchids - Rhynchostylis retusa 1015-24.jpg
Rhynchostylis retusa
Sapling of Hollong tree (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus), the state tree of Assam.jpg
Dipterocarpus macrocarpus
Assam med mælk (4470235476).jpg
Assam tea
A view of sunset from Biswanath Ghat.jpg
Assamese Bihu.jpg
Suriya-Panjabi and Gamosa (for men), Mekhela chador (for women)
First recognised as an administrative division on 1 April 1911, and led to the establishment of Assam Province by partitioning Province of East Bengal and Assam.
^[*] Assam was one of the original provincial divisions of British India.
^[*] Assam has had a legislature since 1937.[9]

Assam (/æsˈsæm, əˈsæm/,[10][11] Assamese: [ɔxɔm] (About this soundlisten)) is a state in northeastern India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi). The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. It is also one of the world's most populous subdivisions. Assamese is the official and most common language, followed by Bengali, the second most common.

Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state was the first site for oil drilling in Asia.[12] Assam is home to the one-horned Indian rhinoceros, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famed for its feral horses. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.


In the classical period and up to the 12th century the region east of the Karatoya river, largely congruent to present-day Assam, was called Kamarupa, and alternatively, Pragjyotisha.[13] Though the western portion of Assam as a region continued to be called Kamrup, the Ahom kingdom that emerged in the east, and which came to dominate the entire Brahmaputra valley, was called Assam (e.g. Mughals used Asham); and the British province too was called Assam. Though the precise etymology of Assam is not clear, the name Assam is associated with the Ahom people, originally called Shyam (Shan).[14]



Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlement from the beginning of the Stone Age. The hills at the height of 1,500–2,000 feet (460 to 615 m) were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed dolerite basalt, useful for tool-making.[15] Ambari site in Gwahati has revealed Shunga-Kushana era artefacts including flight of stairs and a water tank which may date from 1st century BC and may be 2,000 years old. Experts speculate that another significant find at Ambari is Roman era Roman roulette pottery from the 2nd century BC.[16][17][18]


According to a late text, Kalika Purana (c. 9th–10th century CE), the earliest ruler of Assam was Mahiranga Danav of the Kachari Danava dynasty, which was removed by Naraka and who established the Naraka dynasty. The last of these rulers, also Naraka, was slain by Krishna. Naraka's son Bhagadatta became the king, who (it is mentioned in the Mahabharata) fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurukshetra with an army of kiratas, chinas and dwellers of the eastern coast. At the same time towards the east in central Assam, Asura Kingdom was ruled by another Kachari line of kings.[19]

Ancient era[edit]

Kamarupa kingdom at its height

Samudragupta's 4th century Allahabad pillar inscription mentions Kamarupa[20] and Davaka (Central Assam)[21] as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire.

Davaka was later absorbed by Kamarupa, which grew into a large kingdom that spanned from Karatoya river to near present Sadiya and covered the entire Brahmaputra valley, North Bengal, parts of Bangladesh and, at times Purnea and parts of West Bengal.[22]

The kingdom was ruled by three dynasties who traced their lineage from a mleccha or Kirata Naraka;[23] the Varmanas (c. 350–650 CE), the Mlechchha dynasty (c.655–900 CE) and the Kamarupa-Palas (c. 900–1100 CE), from their capitals in present-day Guwahati (Pragjyotishpura), Tezpur (Haruppeswara) and North Gauhati (Durjaya) respectively. All three dynasties claimed descent from Narakasura.

In the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskaravarman (c. 600–650 AD), the Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited the region and recorded his travels. Later, after weakening and disintegration (after the Kamarupa-Palas), the Kamarupa tradition was extended to c. 1255 AD by the Lunar I (c. 1120–1185 AD) and Lunar II (c. 1155–1255 AD) dynasties.[15]

Medieval era[edit]

The Chutiya (1187–1673 AD), a Bodo-Kachari group by origin, held the regions on both the banks of Brahmaputra with its domain in the area eastwards from Vishwanath (north bank) and Buridihing (south bank), in Upper Assam and in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. It was partially annexed in the early 1500s by the Ahoms, finally getting absorbed in 1673 AD. The rivalry between the Chutiyas and Ahoms for the supremacy of eastern Assam led to a series of battles between them from the early 16th century until the start of the 17th century, which saw great loss of men and money.

The Dimasa, another Bodo-Kachari dynasty, (13th century-1854 AD) ruled from Dikhow River to central and southern Assam and had their capital at Dimapur. With the expansion of Ahom kingdom, by the early 17th century, the Chutiya areas were annexed and since c. 1536 AD the Kacharis remained only in Cachar and North Cachar, and more as an Ahom ally than a competing force.

The Ahoms, a Tai group, ruled Upper Assam[24] The Shans built their kingdom and consolidated their power in Eastern Assam with the modern town of Sibsagar as their capital. Until the early 1500s, the Ahoms ruled a small kingdom in Sibsagar district and suddenly expanded during King Suhungmung's rule taking advantage of weakening rule of Chutia and Dimasa kingdoms. By 1681, the whole track down to the border of the modern district of Goalpara came permanently under their sway. Ahoms ruled for nearly 600 years (1228–1826 AD) with major expansions in the early 16th century at the cost of Chutia and Dimasa Kachari kingdoms. Since c. the 13th century AD, the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended to the Karatoya River in the 17th or 18th century. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungphaa or Sworgodeu Rudra Sinha (c. 1696–1714 AD).

The Koch, another Bodo-Kachari dynasty, established sovereignty in c. 1510 AD. The Koch kingdom in Western Assam and present-day North Bengal was at its zenith in the early reign of Nara Narayan (c. 1540–1587 AD). It split into two in c. 1581 CE, the western part as a Moghul vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Later, in 1682, Koch Hajo was entirely annexed by the Ahoms.

Despite numerous invasions, mostly by the Muslim rulers, no western power ruled Assam until the arrival of the British. Though the Mughals made seventeen attempts to invade, they were never successful. The most successful invader Mir Jumla, a governor of Aurangzeb, briefly occupied Garhgaon (c. 1662–63 AD), the then capital, but found it difficult to prevent guerrilla attacks on his forces, forcing them to leave. The decisive victory of the Assamese led by general Lachit Borphukan on the Mughals, then under command of Raja Ram Singha, in the Battle of Saraighat in 1671 almost ended Mughal ambitions in this region. The Mughals were comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Itakhuli and expelled from Lower Assam during the reign of Gadadhar Singha in 1682 AD.[25]

Colonial era[edit]

Map of Eastern Bengal and Assam during 1907–1909
A map of the British Indian Empire in 1909 during the partition of Bengal (1905–1911), showing British India in two shades of pink (coral and pale) and the princely states in yellow. The Assam Province (initially as the Province of Eastern Bengal and Assam) can be seen towards the north-eastern side of India.

The discovery of Camellia sinensis in 1834 in Assam was followed by testing in 1836–37 in London. The British allowed companies to rent land from 1839 onwards. Thereafter tea plantations proliferated in Eastern Assam,[26] where the soil and the climate were most suitable. Problems with the imported Han Chinese labourers from China and hostility from native Assamese resulted in the migration of forced labourers from central and eastern parts of India. After initial trial and error with planting the Chinese and the Assamese-Chinese hybrid varieties, the planters later accepted the local Camellia assamica as the most suitable variety for Assam. By the 1850s, the industry started seeing some profits. The industry saw initial growth, when in 1861, investors were allowed to own land in Assam and it saw substantial progress with the invention of new technologies and machinery for preparing processed tea during the 1870s.

Despite the commercial success, tea labourers continued to be exploited, working and living under poor conditions. Fearful of greater government interference, the tea growers formed the Indian Tea Association in 1888 to lobby to retain the status quo. The organisation was successful in this, but even after India's independence, conditions of the labourers have improved very little.[27]

In the later part of the 18th century, religious tensions and atrocities by the nobles led to the Moamoria rebellion (1769–1805), resulting in tremendous casualties of lives and property. The rebellion was suppressed but the kingdom was severely weakened by the civil war. Political rivalry between Prime Minister Purnananda Burhagohain and Badan Chandra Borphukan, the Ahom Viceroy of Western Assam, led to an invitation to the Burmese by the latter,[28][29][30][31] in turn leading to three successive Burmese invasions of Assam. The reigning monarch Chandrakanta Singha tried to check the Burmese invaders but he was defeated after fierce resistance. And Ahom occupied Assam was captured by the Burmese[32][33][34]

A reign of terror was unleashed by the Burmese on the Assamese people,[35][36][37][38] who fled to neighbouring kingdoms and British-ruled Bengal.[39][40] The Burmese reached the East India Company's borders, and the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued in 1824. The war ended under the Treaty of Yandabo[41] in 1826, with the Company taking control of Western Assam and installing Purandar Singha as king of Upper Assam in 1833. The arrangement lasted till 1838 and thereafter the British gradually annexed the entire region. Thereafter the court language and medium of instruction in educational institutions of Assam was made Bengali, instead of Assamese. Starting from 1836 until 1873, this imposition of a foreign tongue created greater unemployment among the People of Assam and Assamese literature naturally suffered in its growth.[42][43]

Showing a historical incident at Kanaklata Udyan, Tezpur

Initially, Assam was made a part of the Bengal Presidency, then in 1906 it was made a part of Eastern Bengal and Assam province, and in 1912 it was reconstituted into a chief commissioners' province. In 1913, a legislative council and, in 1937, the Assam Legislative Assembly, were formed in Shillong, the erstwhile capital of the region. The British tea planters imported labour from central India adding to the demographic canvas.

The Assam territory was first separated from Bengal in 1874 as the 'North-East Frontier' non-regulation province, also known as the Assam Chief-Commissionership. It was incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 after the partition of Bengal (1905–1911) and re-established in 1912 as Assam Province .[44]

After a few initially unsuccessful attempts to gain independence for Assam during the 1850s, anti-colonial Assamese joined and actively supported the Indian National Congress against the British from the early 20th century, with Gopinath Bordoloi emerging as the preeminent nationalist leader in the Assam Congress.[citation needed] Bordoloi's major political rival in this time was Sir Saidullah, who was representing the Muslim League, and had the backing of the influential Muslim cleric Maulana Bhasani.[45]

The Assam Postage Circle was established by 1873 under the headship of the Deputy Post Master General.[46]

At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. Assam Province was one among the major eight provinces of British India. The table below shows the major original provinces during British India covering the Assam Province under the Administrative Office of the Chief Commissioner.

The following table lists their areas and populations. It does not include those of the dependent Native States:[47]

With the partition of India in 1947, Assam became a constituent state of India. The Sylhet District of Assam (excluding the Karimganj subdivision) was given up to East Pakistan, which later became Bangladesh.

Modern history[edit]

Assam till the 1950s; The new states of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram formed in the 1960-70s. From Shillong, the capital of Assam was shifted to Dispur, now a part of Guwahati. After the Indo-China war in 1962, Arunachal Pradesh was also separated out.

The government of India, which has the unilateral powers to change the borders of a state, divided Assam into several states beginning in 1970 within the borders of what was then Assam. In 1963, the Naga Hills district became the 16th state of India under the name of Nagaland. Part of Tuensang was added to Nagaland. In 1970, in response to the demands of the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo people of the Meghalaya Plateau, the districts containing the Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills, and Garo Hills were formed into an autonomous state within Assam; in 1972 this became a separate state under the name of Meghalaya. In 1972, Arunachal Pradesh (the North East Frontier Agency) and Mizoram (from the Mizo Hills in the south) were separated from Assam as union territories; both became states in 1986.[48]

Since the restructuring of Assam after independence, communal tensions and violence remain. Separatist groups began forming along ethnic lines, and demands for autonomy and sovereignty grew, resulting in the fragmentation of Assam. In 1961, the government of Assam passed legislation making use of the Assamese language compulsory. It was withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. In the 1980s the Brahmaputra valley saw a six-year Assam Agitation[49] triggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in registered voters on electoral rolls. It tried to force the government to identify and deport foreigners illegally migrating from neighbouring Bangladesh and to provide constitutional, legislative, administrative and cultural safeguards for the indigenous Assamese majority, which they felt was under threat due to the increase of migration from Bangladesh. The agitation ended after an accord (Assam Accord 1985) between its leaders and the Union Government, which remained unimplemented, causing simmering discontent.[50]

The post 1970s experienced the growth of armed separatist groups such as the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA)[49] and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). In November 1990, the Government of India deployed the Indian army, after which low-intensity military conflicts and political homicides have been continuing for more than a decade. In recent times, ethnically based militant groups have grown. Panchayati Raj Institutions have been applied[clarification needed] in Assam, after agitation of the communities due to the sluggish rate of development and general apathy of successive state governments towards Indigenous Assamese communities.[citation needed]


Environs: Assam, dissected hills of the South Indian Plateau system and the Himalayas all around its north, north-east and east.

A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month. Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam, is an antecedent river older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 10 mi/16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain (Brahmaputra Valley: 50–60 mi/80–100 km wide, 600 mi/1000 km long).[51] The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system.[51] In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district with a 25–30 miles (40–50 km) wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma River.

Urban centres include Guwahati, one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world.[52] Guwahati is also referred to as the "Gateway to the North-East India". Silchar, (in the Barak valley) is the second most populous city in Assam and an important centre of business. Other large cities include Dibrugarh, an oil and natural gas industry centre,[53]


With the tropical monsoon climate, Assam is temperate (summer max. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. at 43–46 °F or 6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity.[51][54] The climate is characterised by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (March–April) and autumn (September–October) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature. Assam's agriculture usually depends on the south-west monsoon rains.


Every year, flooding from the Brahmaputra and other rivers such as Barak River etc. deluges places in Assam. The water levels of the rivers rise because of rainfall resulting in the rivers overflowing their banks and engulfing nearby areas. Apart from houses and livestock being washed away by flood water, bridges, railway tracks, and roads are also damaged by the calamity, which causes communication breakdown in many places. Fatalities are also caused by the natural disaster in many places of the State.[55][56]


Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests,[57] deciduous forests, riverine grasslands,[58] bamboo[59] orchards and numerous wetland[60] ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests.

Assam has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites[61]-the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan. The Kaziranga is a refuge for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros. The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered and threatened species including the white-winged wood duck or deohanh, Bengal florican, black-breasted parrotbill, red-headed vulture, white-rumped vulture, greater adjutant, Jerdon's babbler, rufous-necked hornbill, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, pygmy hog, gaur, wild water buffalo, Indian hog deer, hoolock gibbon, golden langur, capped langur, barasingha, Ganges river dolphin, Barca snakehead, Ganges shark, Burmese python, brahminy river turtle, black pond turtle, Asian forest tortoise, and Assam roofed turtle. Threatened species that are extinct in Assam include the gharial, a critically endangered fish-eating crocodilian, and the pink-headed duck (which may be extinct worldwide). For the state bird, the white-winged wood duck, Assam is a globally important area.[clarification needed][62] In addition to the above, there are three other National Parks in Assam namely Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Nameri National Park and the Orang National Park.

Assam has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the pygmy hog, tiger and numerous species of birds, and it provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. Kaziranga and Manas are both World Heritage Sites. The state contains Sal tree forests and forest products, much depleted from earlier times. A land of high rainfall, Assam displays greenery. The Brahmaputra River tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with hydro-geomorphic environment.[citation needed]

The state has the largest population of the wild water buffalo in the world.[63] The state has the highest diversity of birds in India with around 820 species.[64] With subspecies the number is as high as 946.[65] The mammal diversity in the state is around 190 species.[66]

Blooming of Kopou Orchid marks the beginning of the festive season of Bihu in Assam.


Assam is remarkably rich in Orchid species and the Foxtail orchid is the state flower of Assam.[67] The recently established Kaziranga National Orchid and Biodiversity Park boasts more than 500 of the estimated 1,314 orchid species found in India.


Assam has petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar.[68] A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts.[68] Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS estimate shows 399 million barrels (63,400,000 m3) of oil, 1,178 billion cubic feet (3.34×1010 m3) of gas and 67 million barrels (10,700,000 m3) of natural gas liquids in the Assam Geologic Province.[69][citation needed]

The region is prone to natural disasters like annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes were recorded in 1869, 1897, and 1950.



District-wise Demographic Characteristics in 2001
People gathered at Kamakhya Temple for the Ambubachi Mela

The total population of Assam was 26.66 million with 4.91 million households in 2001.[71] Higher population concentration was recorded in the districts of Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darrang, and Cachar. Assam's population was estimated at 28.67 million in 2006 and at 30.57 million in 2011 and is expected to reach 34.18  million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026.[72]

As per the 2011 census, the total population of Assam was 31,169,272. The total population of the state has increased from 26,638,407 to 31,169,272 in the last ten years with a growth rate of 16.93%.[73]

Of the 33 districts, eight districts registered a rise in the decadal population growth rate. Religious minority-dominated districts like Dhubri, Goalpara, Barpeta, Morigaon, Nagaon, and Hailakandi, recorded growth rates ranging from 20 per cent to 24 per cent during the last decade. Eastern Assamese districts, including Sivasagar and Jorhat, registered around 9 per cent population growth. These districts do not have any international border.[74]

In 2011, the literacy rate in the state was 73.18%. The male literacy rate was 78.81% and the female literacy rate was 67.27%.[73] In 2001, the census had recorded literacy in Assam at 63.3% with male literacy at 71.3% and female at 54.6%. The urbanisation rate was recorded at 12.9%.[75]

The growth of population in Assam has increased since the middle decades of the 20th century. The population grew from 3.29 million in 1901 to 6.70 million in 1941. It increased to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991.[71] The growth in the Western districts and Southern districts was high primarily due to the influx of people from East Pakistan, now Bangladesh.[50]

The mistrust and clashes between Indigenous Assamese people and Bengali Muslims started as early as 1952,[76][77] but is rooted in anti Bengali sentiments of the 1940s.[78] At least 77 people died[79] and 400,000 people were displaced in the 2012 Assam violence between indigenous Bodos and Bengali Muslims.[80]

The People of India project has studied 115 of the ethnic groups in Assam. 79 (69%) identify themselves regionally, 22 (19%) locally, and 3 trans-nationally. The earliest settlers were Austric, Dravidian followed by Tibeto-Burman, Indo-Aryan, and Tai–Kadai people.[81] Forty-five languages are spoken by different communities, including three major language families: Austroasiatic (5), Sino-Tibetan (24) and Indo-European (12). Three of the spoken languages do not fall in these families. There is a high degree of bilingualism.[citation needed]


<div style="border:solid transparent;position:absolute;width:100px;line-height:0;

Religion in Assam (2011)[82]

  Hinduism (61.47%)
  Islam (34.22%)
  Christianity (3.74%)
  Buddhism (0.18%)
  Jainism (0.08%)
  Sikhism (0.07%)
  Animism (0.09%)
  Other or not religious (0.16%)

According to the 2011 census, 61.47% were Hindus, 34.22% were Muslims.[82][83] Christian minorities (3.7%) are found among the Scheduled Tribe and Castes population.[84] The Scheduled Tribe population in Assam is around 13%, of which Bodos account for 40%.[85] Other religions followed include Jainism (0.1%), Buddhism (0.2%), Sikhism (0.1%) and Animism (amongst Khamti, Phake, Aiton etc. communities). Many Hindus in Assam are followers of the Ekasarana Dharma sect of Hinduism, which gave rise to Namghar, designed to be simpler places of worship than traditional Hindu temples.[citation needed]

Out of 32 districts of Assam, 9 are Muslim majority according to the 2011 census of India. The districts are Dhubri, Goalpara, Barpeta, Morigaon, Nagaon, Karimganj, Hailakandi, Darrang and Bongaigaon.[86][87][88]


7th–8th century specimen of Assamese (Kamarupi) literature

Languages of Assam (2011)[89]

  Assamese (46.81%)
  Bengali (28.15%)
  Bodo (4.51%)
  Hindi (3.21%)
  Sadri (2.29%)
  Mishing (1.98%)
  Nepali (1.91%)
  Karbi (1.64%)
  Others (9.5%)

Assamese is the official language of the state. Additional official languages include Bengali and Bodo languages. Bodo in Bodoland Territorial Council and Bengali in the three districts of Barak Valley where Sylheti is most commonly spoken.[90]

According to the language census of 2011 in Assam, out of a total population of around 31 million, Assamese is spoken by around half that number: 15 million. Although the number of speakers is growing, the percentage of Assam's population who have it as a mother tongue has fallen slightly. The various Bengali dialects and closely related languages are spoken by around 9 million people in Assam, and the portion of the population that speaks these languages has grown slightly. Hindi is the third most-spoken language.

Traditionally, Assamese was the language of the common folk in the ancient Kamarupa kingdom and in the medieval kingdoms of Dimasa Kachari, Chutiya Kachari, Borahi Kachari, Ahom and Kamata kingdoms. Traces of the language are found in many poems by Luipa, Sarahapa, and others, in Charyapada (c. 7th–8th century AD). Modern dialects such as Kamrupi and Goalpariya are remnants of this language. Moreover, Assamese in its traditional form was used by the ethno-cultural groups in the region as lingua-franca, which spread during the stronger kingdoms and was required for economic integration. Localised forms of the language still exist in Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh.

Linguistically modern Assamese traces its roots to the version developed by the American Missionaries based on the local form used near Sivasagar (Xiwôxagôr) district. Assamese (Ôxômiya) is a rich language due to its hybrid nature and unique characteristics of pronunciation and softness. The presence of Voiceless velar fricative in Assamese makes it a unique among other similar Indo-Aryan languages.[91][92]

Bodo is an ancient language of Assam. Spatial distribution patterns of the ethno-cultural groups, cultural traits and the phenomenon of naming all the major rivers in the North East Region with Bodo-Kachari words (e.g. Dihing, Dibru, Dihong, D/Tista, and Dikrai) reveal that it was the most important language in ancient times. Bodo is now spoken largely in the Western Assam (BTAD). After years of neglect, now Bodo language is getting attention and its literature is developing. Other native languages of Tibeto-Burman origin and related to Bodo-Kachari are Deori, Mising, Karbi, Rabha, and Tiwa.[citation needed]

There are approximately 564,000 Nepali speakers spread all over the state forming about 2.12% of Assam's total population according to 2001 census.

There are speakers of Tai languages in Assam. A total of six Tai languages were spoken in Assam. Two are now extinct.[93]

Government and politics[edit]

Assam has Governor Jagdish Mukhi as the head of the state,[2] the unicameral Assam Legislative Assembly of 126 members, and a government led by the Chief Minister of Assam. The state is divided into five regional divisions.

On 19 May 2016, BJP under the leadership of Sarbananda Sonowal won the Assembly elections, thus forming the first BJP-led government in Assam.[94]

Administrative districts[edit]

The 33 administrative districts of Assam are delineated based on geographic features such as rivers, hills, and forests.

On 15 August 2015, five new districts were formed:[95][96]

On 27 June 2016, an island in the Brahmaputra River was removed from the Jorhat district and declared the Majuli district, India's first district that is a river island.[97]


The administrative districts are further subdivided into 54 "Subdivisions" or Mahakuma.[96] Every district is administered from a district headquarters with the office of the Deputy Commissioner, District Magistrate, Office of the District Panchayat and usually with a district court.

The local governance system is organised under the jila-parishad (District Panchayat) for a district, panchayat for group of or individual rural areas and under the urban local bodies for the towns and cities. There are now 2489 village panchayats covering 26247 villages in Assam.[98] The 'town-committee' or nagar-somiti for small towns, 'municipal board' or pouro-sobha for medium towns and municipal corporation or pouro-nigom for the cities consist of the urban local bodies.

For revenue purposes, the districts are divided into revenue circles and mouzas; for the development projects, the districts are divided into 219 'development-blocks' and for law and order these are divided into 206 police stations or thana.

Guwahati is the largest metropolitan area and urban conglomeration administered under the highest form of urban local bodyGuwahati Municipal Corporation in Assam. The Corporation administers an area of 216.79 km2 (83.70 sq mi).[99] All other urban centres are managed under Municipal Boards.

A list of 9 oldest, classified and prominent, and constantly inhabited, recognised urban centres based on the earliest years of formation of the civic bodies, before the Indian independence of 1947 is tabulated below:

Oldest recognised urban centres of Assam[100]
Urban Centres Civic Body Year Airport Railway Station Railway Junction Road Networks Category Notes
Guwahati Guwahati Town Committee 1853 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – III
Guwahati, the first township of Assam.[101]
Guwahati Municipal Board 1873 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II
Guwahati Municipal Corporation 1974 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – I
Establishment of Guwahati Municipal Corporation.[102]
Dibrugarh Dibrugarh Municipal Board 1873 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II
Dibrugarh, the second township of Assam.[103]
Goalpara Goalpara Municipal Board 1875 No 1 Yes No 2 Yes Tier – II
Formation of Goalpara Municipality, 1875.[104]
Dhubri Dhubri Municipal Board 1883 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II
Formation of Dhubri Municipality, 1883.[105]
Nagaon Nagaon Municipal Board 1893 No 3 Yes Yes Yes Tier – II
Formation of Nagaon Municipality, 1893.[106]
Tezpur Tezpur Municipal Board 1894 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II
Formation of Tezpur Municipality, 1894.[107]
Jorhat Jorhat Municipal Board 1909 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II
Formation of Jorhat Municipality, 1909.[108]
Golaghat Golaghat Municipal Board 1920 No 4 Yes Yes Yes Tier – II
Formation of Golaghat Municipality, 1920.[109]
Silchar Silchar Municipal Board 1922 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II
Formation of Silchar Municipality, 1922.[110]
Tier – I: a big city with an urban conglomeration (in the true sense) administered by a Municipal corporation. Tier – II: a medium–sized city for an urban agglomeration administered by a Municipal Board.
Tier – III: a small town, larger than a township with a sizeable human settlement
Upgraded to the next highest form of civic body.
   Jointly shared with the other urban centre. ^1 and ^2 Shared with Guwahati. ^3 Shared with Tezpur. ^4 Shared with Jorhat.

The state has three autonomous councils. Bodoland Autonomous Territorial Council, Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council and Dima Hasao Autonomous Council. The state has further more six statutory autonomous council – Tiwashong Autonomous Council, Jagiroad for ethnic Tiwa Kachari also known as Lalung, Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council, Dudhnoi for ethnic Rabha Kachari, Mishing Autonomous Council, Dhemaji for Mishings a Tani Tribe, Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council, Dibrugarh, Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council, Titabar and Deori Autonomous Council, Lakhimpur for ethnic Deori Kachari.


Illegal entry[edit]

The continual illegal entry of people into Assam, mostly from Bangladesh, has caused economic upheaval and social and political unrest.[111][112] During the Assam Movement (1979–1985), the All Assam Students Union (AASU) and others demanded that government stop the influx of immigrants and deport those who had already settled.[113] During this period, 855 people (the AASU says 860) died in various conflicts with migrants and police.[114][115] In 1985, the Indian Government and leaders of the agitation signed the Assam accord to settle the conflict.[113]

The 1991 census made the changing demographics of border districts more visible.[116][113] Government is updating the National Register of Citizens and deporting non-citizens,[117] but not as fast as they enter. The situation is called a risk to Assam's as well as India's security.[118] In August 2019, India left 2 million residents off the Register of Citizens.[119]


In the rainy season every year, the Brahmaputra and other rivers overflow their banks and flood adjacent land. Flood waters wash away property including houses and livestock. Damage to crops and fields harms the agricultural sector. Bridges, railway tracks, and roads are also damaged, harming transportation and communication, and in some years requiring food to be air-dropped to isolated towns. Some deaths are attributed to the floods.[120][121]


Unemployment is a chronic problem in Assam. It is variously blamed on poor infrastructure, limited connectivity, and government policy;[122] on a "poor work culture";[123] on failure to advertise vacancies;[124] and on government hiring candidates from outside Assam.[125]

In 2020 a series of violent lynchings occurred in the region.


Assam schools are run by the Indian government, government of Assam or by private organisations. Medium of instruction is mainly in Assamese, English or Bengali. Most of the schools follow the state's examination board which is called the Secondary Education Board of Assam. Almost all private schools follow the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and Indian School Certificate (ISC) syllabuses.[citation needed]

Assamese language is the main medium in educational institutions but Bengali language is also taught as a major Indian language. In Guwahati and Digboi, many Jr. basic schools and Jr. high schools are Nepali linguistic and all the teachers are Nepali. Nepali is included by Assam State Secondary Board, Assam Higher Secondary Education Council and Gauhati University in their HSLC, higher secondary and graduation level respectively. In some junior basic and higher secondary schools and colleges, Nepali teachers and lecturers are appointed.[citation needed]

The capital, Dispur, contains institutions of higher education for students of the north-eastern region. Cotton College, Guwahati, dates back to the 19th century. Assam has several institutions for tertiary education and research.[citation needed]

Universities, colleges and institutions include:


Medical colleges[edit]

Engineering and technological colleges[edit]

Research institutes present in the state include National Research Centre on Pig, (ICAR) in Guwahati,[138]


Per capita income of Assam since 1950

Assam's economy is based on agriculture and oil. Assam produces more than half of India's tea.[139] The Assam-Arakan basin holds about a quarter of the country's oil reserves, and produces about 12% of its total petroleum.[140] According to the recent estimates,[141] Assam's per capita GDP is 6,157 at constant prices (1993–94) and 10,198 at current prices; almost 40% lower than that in India.[142] According to the recent estimates,[141] per capita income in Assam has reached 6756 (1993–94 constant prices) in 2004–05, which is still much lower than India's.

A paddy field in Assam
A tea garden in Assam: tea is grown at elevations near sea level, giving it a malty sweetness and an earthy flavor, as opposed to the more floral aroma of highland (e.g. Darjeeling, Taiwanese) teas

Tea plantations[edit]

Process of making tea in Assam
This 1850 engraving shows the different stages in the process of making tea in Assam


The economy of Assam today represents a unique juxtaposition of backwardness amidst plenty.[143] Despite its rich natural resources, and supplying of up to 25% of India's petroleum needs, Assam's growth rate has not kept pace with that of India; the difference has increased rapidly since the 1970s.[144] The Indian economy grew at 6% per annum over the period of 1981 to 2000; the growth rate of Assam was only 3.3%.[145] In the Sixth Plan period, Assam experienced a negative growth rate of 3.78% when India's was positive at 6%.[144] In the post-liberalised era (after 1991), the difference widened further.

According to recent analysis, Assam's economy is showing signs of improvement. In 2001–02, the economy grew (at 1993–94 constant prices) at 4.5%, falling to 3.4% in the next financial year.[146] During 2003–04 and 2004–05, the economy grew (at 1993–94 constant prices) at 5.5% and 5.3% respectively.[146] The advanced estimates placed the growth rate for 2005–06 at above 6%.[141] Assam's GDP in 2004 is estimated at $13 billion in current prices. Sectoral analysis again exhibits a dismal picture. The average annual growth rate of agriculture, which was 2.6% per annum over the 1980s, has fallen to 1.6% in the 1990s.[147] The manufacturing sector showed some improvement in the 1990s with a growth rate of 3.4% per annum than 2.4% in the 1980s.[147] For the past five decades, the tertiary sector has registered the highest growth rates of the other sectors, which even has slowed down in the 1990s than in the 1980s.[147]


Unemployment is one of the major problems in Assam. This problem can be attributed to overpopulation and a faulty education system. Every year, large numbers of students obtain higher academic degrees but because of non-availability of proportional vacancies, most of these students remain unemployed.[148][149] A number of employers hire over-qualified or efficient, but under-certified, candidates, or candidates with narrowly defined qualifications. The problem is exacerbated by the growth in the number of technical institutes in Assam which increases the unemployed community of the State. Many job-seekers are eligible for jobs in sectors like railways and Oil India but do not get these jobs because of the appointment of candidates from outside of Assam to these posts. The reluctance on the part of the departments concerned to advertise vacancies in vernacular language has also made matters worse for local unemployed youths particularly for the job-seekers of Grade C and D vacancies.[150][151]

Reduction of the unemployed has been threatened by illegal immigration from Bangladesh. This has increased the workforce without a commensurate increase in jobs. Immigrants compete with local workers for jobs at lower wages, particularly in construction, domestics, Rickshaw-pullers, and vegetable sellers.[152][153] The government has been identifying (via NRC) and deporting illegal immigrants. Continued immigration is exceeding deportation.[154][155]


Assamese women busy planting paddy seedlings in their agricultural field in Pahukata village in the Nagaon district of Assam

In Assam among all the productive sectors, agriculture makes the highest contribution to its domestic sectors, accounting for more than a third of Assam's income and employs 69% of workforce.[156] Assam's biggest contribution to the world is Assam tea. It has its own variety, Camellia sinensis var. assamica. The state produces rice, rapeseed, mustard seed, jute, potato, sweet potato, banana, papaya, areca nut, sugarcane and turmeric.[citation needed]

Assam's agriculture is yet to experience modernisation in a real sense. With implications for food security, per capita food grain production has declined in the past five decades.[157] Productivity has increased marginally, but is still low compared to highly productive regions. For instance, the yield of rice (a staple food of Assam) was just 1531 kg per hectare against India's 1927 kg per hectare in 2000–01[157] (which itself is much lower than Egypt's 9283, US's 7279, South Korea's 6838, Japan's 6635 and China's 6131 kg per hectare in 2001[158]). On the other hand, after having strong domestic demand, and with 1.5 million hectares of inland water bodies, numerous rivers and 165 varieties of fishes,[159] fishing is still in its traditional form and production is not self-sufficient.[160]

Floods in Assam greatly affect the farmers and the families dependent on agriculture because of large-scale damage of agricultural fields and crops by flood water.[55][56] Every year, flooding from the Brahmaputra and other rivers deluges places in Assam. The water levels of the rivers rise because of rainfall resulting in the rivers overflowing their banks and engulfing nearby areas. Apart from houses and livestock being washed away by flood water, bridges, railway tracks and roads are also damaged by the calamity, which causes communication breakdown in many places. Fatalities are also caused by the natural disaster in many places of the state.[161][162]


Handlooming and handicraft continue.[citation needed]

Assam's proximity to some neighbouring countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, benefits its trade. The major Border checkpoints through which border trade flows to Bangladesh from Assam are : Sutarkandi (Karimganj), Dhubri, Mankachar (Dhubri) and Golokanj. To facilitate border trade with Bangladesh, Border Trade Centres have been developed at Sutarkandi and Mankachar. It has been proposed in the 11th five-year plan[clarification needed] to set up two more Border Trade Center, one at Ledo connecting China and other at Darrang connecting Bhutan. There are several Land Custom Stations (LCS) in the state bordering Bangladesh and Bhutan to facilitate border trade.[163]

The government of India has identified some thrust areas for industrial development of Assam:[164]

  • Petroleum and natural gas-based industries
  • Industries based on locally available minerals
  • Processing of plantation crops
  • Food processing industries
  • Agri-Horticulture products
  • Herbal products
  • Biotech products
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Chemical and plastic-based industries
  • Export oriented industries
  • Electronic and IT base industries including services sector
  • Paper making industries
  • Textiles and sericulture
  • Engineering industries
  • Cane and bamboo-based industries
  • Other handicrafts industry

Although, the region in the eastern periphery of India is landlocked and is linked to the mainland by the narrow Siliguri Corridor (or the Chicken's Neck) improved transport infrastructure in all the three modes – rail, road and air – and developing urban infrastructure in the cities and towns of Assam are giving a boost to the entire industrial scene. The Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport at Guwahati, with international flights to Bangkok and Singapore offered by Druk Air of Bhutan, was the 12th busiest airport of India in 2012.[165] The cities of Guwahati[166][167] in the west and Dibrugarh[168][169] in the east with good rail,[170][171] road and air connectivity are the two important nerve centres of Assam, to be selected by Asian Development Bank for providing $200 million for improvement of urban infrastructure.[172][173]

Assam is a producer of crude oil and it accounts for about 15% of India's crude output,[174] exploited by the Assam Oil Company Ltd.,[175] and natural gas in India and is the second place in the world (after Titusville in the United States) where petroleum was discovered. Asia's first successful mechanically drilled oil well was drilled in Makum way back in 1867. Most of the oilfields are located in the Eastern Assam region. Assam has four oil refineries in Digboi (Asia's first and world's second refinery), Guwahati, Bongaigaon and Numaligarh and with a total capacity of 7 million metric tonnes (7.7 million short tons) per annum. Asia's first refinery was set up at Digboi and discoverer of Digboi oilfield was the Assam Railways & Trading Company Limited (AR&T Co. Ltd.), a registered company of London in 1881.[176] One of the biggest public sector oil company of the country Oil India Ltd. has its plant and headquarters at Duliajan.

There are several other industries, including a chemical fertiliser plant at Namrup, petrochemical industries in Namrup and Bongaigaon, paper mills at Jagiroad, Hindustan Paper Corporation Ltd. Township Area Panchgram and Jogighopa, sugar mills in Barua Bamun Gaon, Chargola, Kampur, cement plants in Bokajan and Badarpur, and a cosmetics plant of Hindustan Unilever (HUL) at Doom Dooma. Moreover, there are other industries such as jute mill, textile and yarn mills, Assam silk, and silk mills. Many of these industries are facing losses and closure due to lack of infrastructure and improper management practices.[177]


Wildlife, cultural, and historical destinations have attracted visitors.


A group of 'Husori' for the occasion of Assamese Bohag Bihu in their traditional attire.

Assamese Culture is traditionally a hybrid one developed due to assimilation of ethno-cultural groups of Austric, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Tai origin in the past. Therefore, both local elements or the local elements in Sanskritised forms are distinctly found.[178] The major milestones in the evolution of Assamese culture are:

Dakhinpat Satra of Majuli
Presenting Gayan Bayan in Majuli, the Neo-Vaishnavite cultural heritage of Assam
  • Assimilation in the Kamarupa Kingdom for almost 700 years (under the Varmans for 300 years, Salastambhas and Palas for each 200 years).[15]
  • Establishment of the Chutiya dynasty in the 12th century in eastern Assam and assimilation for next 400 years.[15]
  • Establishment of the Ahom dynasty in the 13th century AD and assimilation for next 600 years.[15]
  • Assimilation in the Koch Kingdom (15th–16th century AD) of western Assam and Kachari Kingdom (12th–18th century AD) of central and southern Assam.[15]
  • Vaishnava Movement led by Srimanta Shankardeva (Xongkordeu) and its contribution and cultural changes. The Vaishanava Movement, the 15th century religio-cultural movement under the leadership of Srimanta Sankardeva (Sonkordeu) and his disciples have provided another dimension to Assamese culture. A renewed Hinduisation in local forms took place, which was initially greatly supported by the Koch and later by the Ahom Kingdoms. The resultant social institutions such as namghar and sattra (the Vaishnav Monasteries) have become part of the Assamese way of life. The movement contributed greatly towards language, literature, and performing and fine arts.[citation needed]

The modern culture has been influenced by events in the British and the post-British era. The language was standardised by American Baptist Missionaries such as Nathan Brown, Dr. Miles Bronson and local pundits such as Hemchandra Barua with the form available in the Sibsagar (Sivasagar) District (the ex-nerve centre of the Ahom Kingdom).[citation needed]

Increasing efforts of standardisation in the 20th century alienated the localised forms present in different areas and with the less-assimilated ethno-cultural groups (many source-cultures). However, Assamese culture in its hybrid form and nature is one of the richest, still developing and in true sense is a 'cultural system' with sub-systems. Many source-cultures of the Assamese cultural-system are still surviving either as sub-systems or as sister entities, e.g. the; Bodo or Karbi or Mishing. It is important to keep the broader system closer to its roots and at the same time focus on development of the sub-systems.

Some of the common and unique cultural traits in the region are peoples' respect towards areca-nut and betel leaves, symbolic (gamosa, arnai, etc.), traditional silk garments (e.g. mekhela chador, traditional dress of Assamese women) and towards forefathers and elderly. Moreover, great hospitality and bamboo culture are common.


Girl in traditional Mekhela chador dress with aDhol wrapped with Gamosa
A decorative Assamese Jaapi laid over a Gamosa

Symbolism is an ancient cultural practice in Assam and is still a very important part of the Assamese way of life. Various elements are used to represent beliefs, feelings, pride, identity, etc. Tamulpan, Xorai and Gamosa are three important symbolic elements in Assamese culture. Tamulpan (the areca nut and betel leaves) or guapan (gua from kwa) are considered along with the Gamosa (a typical woven cotton or silk cloth with embroidery) as the offers of devotion, respect and friendship. The Tamulpan-tradition is an ancient one and is being followed since time-immemorial with roots in the aboriginal Austric culture. Xorai is a traditionally manufactured bell-metal article of great respect and is used as a container-medium while performing respectful offers. Moreover, symbolically many ethno-cultural groups use specific clothes to portray respect and pride.

There were many other symbolic elements and designs, but are now only found in literature, art, sculpture, architecture, etc. or in use today for only religious purposes. The typical designs of Assamese-lion, dragon, and flying-lion were used for symbolising various purposes and occasions. The archaeological sites such as the Madan Kamdev (c. 9th–10th centuries AD) exhibits mass-scale use of lions, dragon-lions and many other figures of demons to show case power and prosperity. The Vaishnava monasteries and many other architectural sites of the late medieval period display the use of lions and dragons for symbolic effects.

Festivals and traditions[edit]

A beautifully adorned Jaapi
A Bihu dancer blowing a pepa (horn)
Mising girls dancing during Ali Ai Ligang (Spring Festival)

There are diversified important traditional festivals in Assam. Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. It is the Assamese new year celebrated in April of the Gregorian calendar. Christmas is observed with great merriment by Christians of various denominations, including Catholics and Protestants, throughout Assam. Durga Puja, a festival introduced and popularised by Bengalis, is widely celebrated across the state. Muslims celebrate two Eids (Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha) with much eagerness all over Assam.

Bihu is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator's life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as 'uruka'. The first day of 'rongali bihu' is called 'Goru bihu' (the bihu of the cows), when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres.

Bwisagu is one of the popular seasonal festivals of the Bodos. Bwisagu start of the new year or age. Baisagu is a Boro word which originated from the word "Baisa" which means year or age, ang "Agu" that means starting or start.

Beshoma is a festival of Deshi people.[179] It is a celebration of sowing crop. The Beshoma starts on the last day of Chaitra and goes on till the sixth of Baisakh. With varying locations it is also called Bishma or Chait-Boishne.[180]

Bushu Dima or simply Bushu is a major harvest festival of the Dimasa people. This festival is celebrated during the end of January. Officially 27 January has been declared as the day of Bushu Dima festival. The Dimasa people celebrate their festival by playing musical instruments- khram (a type of drum), muri (a kind of huge long flute). The people dances to the different tunes called "murithai" and each dance has got its name, the prominent being the "Baidima" There are three types of Bushu celebrated among the Dimasas Jidap, Surem and Hangsou.

Chavang Kut is a post harvesting festival of the Kuki people. The festival is celebrated on the first day of November every year. Hence, this particular day has been officially declared as a Restricted Holiday by the Assam government. In the past, the celebration was primarily important in the religio-cultural sense. The rhythmic movements of the dances in the festival were inspired by animals, agricultural techniques and showed their relationship with ecology. Today, the celebration witnesses the shifting of stages and is revamped to suit new contexts and interpretations. The traditional dances which form the core of the festival is now performed in out-of-village settings and are staged in a secular public sphere. In Assam, the Kukis mainly reside in the two autonomous districts of Dima Hasao and Karbi Anglong.

Moreover, there are other important traditional festivals being celebrated every year on different occasions at different places. Many of these are celebrated by different ethno-cultural groups (sub and sister cultures). Some of these are:

Other few yearly celebrations are Doul Utsav of Barpeta, Brahmaputra Beach Festival, Guwahati, Kaziranga Elephant Festival, Kaziranga and Dehing Patkai Festival, Lekhapani, Karbi Youth Festival of Diphu and International Jatinga Festival, Jatinga can not be forgotten. Few yearly Mela's like Jonbeel Mela, began in the 15th century by the Ahom Kings, Ambubachi Mela, Guwahati etc.

Lachit Divas' is celebrated to promote the ideals of Lachit Borphukan – the legendary general of Assam's history. Sarbananda Sonowal, the chief minister of Assam took part in the Lachit Divas celebration at the statue of Lachit Borphukan at Brahmaputra riverfront on 24 November 2017. He said, the first countrywide celebration of 'Lachit Divas' would take place in New Delhi followed by state capitals such as Hyderabad, Bangalore and Kolkata in a phased manner.

Music, dance, and drama[edit]

Actors of Abinaswar Gosthi performs the play"Surjya Mandirot Surjyasta" directed by Dipok Borah

Performing arts include: Ankia Naat (Onkeeya Naat), a traditional Vaishnav dance-drama (Bhaona) popular since the 15th century AD.[citation needed] It makes use of large masks of gods, goddesses, demons and animals and in between the plays a Sutradhar (Xutrodhar) continues to narrate the story.[citation needed]

Besides Bihu dance and Huchory performed during the Bohag Bihu, dance forms of tribal minorities such as; Kushan nritra of Rajbongshi's, Bagurumba and Bordoicikhla dance of Bodos, Mishing Bihu, Banjar Kekan performed during Chomangkan by Karbis, Jhumair of Tea-garden community are some of the major folk dances.[181] Sattriya (Sotriya) dance related to Vaishnav tradition is a classical form of dance. Moreover, there are several other age-old dance-forms such as Barpeta's Bhortal Nritya, Deodhani Nritya, Ojapali, Beula Dance, Ka Shad Inglong Kardom, Nimso Kerung, etc. The tradition of modern moving theatres is typical of Assam with immense popularity of many Mobile theatre groups such as Kohinoor, Sankardev, Abahan, Bhagyadevi, Hengul, Brindabon, Itihas etc.[citation needed]

The indigenous folk music has influenced the growth of a modern idiom, that finds expression in the music of artists like Jyoti Prasad Agarwala, Bishnuprasad Rabha, Parvati Prasad Baruwa, Bhupen Hazarika, Pratima Barua Pandey, Anima Choudhury, Luit Konwar Rudra Baruah, Jayanta Hazarika, Khagen Mahanta, Dipali Barthakur, Ganashilpi Dilip Sarma, Sudakshina Sarma among many others. Among the new generation, Zubeen Garg, Jitul Sonowal, Angaraag Mahanta and Joi Barua.[citation needed] There is an award given in the honour of Bishnu Prasad Rabha for achievements in the cultural/music world of Assam by the state government.[citation needed]


Assamese Thali
An ethnic preparation of Ghost chili chicken curry of Assam

Typically, an Assamese meal consists of many things such as bhat (rice) with dayl/ daly (lentils), masor jool (fish stew), mangxô (meat stew) and stir fried greens or herbs and vegetables.[citation needed]

The two main characteristics of a traditional meal in Assam are khar (an Alkali, named after its main ingredient) and tenga (Preparations bearing a characteristically rich and tangy flavour). Khorika is the smoked or fire grilled meat eaten with meals. Commonly consumed varieties of meat include Mutton, fowl, duck/goose, fish, pigeon, pork and beef (among Muslim and Christian indigenous Assamese ethnic groups). Grasshoppers, locusts, silkworms, snails, eels, wild fowl, squab and other birds, venison are also eaten, albeit in moderation.[citation needed]

Khorisa (fermented bamboo shoots) are used at times to flavour curries while they can also be preserved and made into pickles. Koldil (banana flower) and squash are also used in popular culinary preparations.[182]

A variety of different rice cultivars are grown and consumed in different ways, viz., roasted, ground, boiled or just soaked.[citation needed]

Fish curries made of free range wild fish as well as Bôralí, rôu, illish, or sitôl are the most popular.[citation needed]

Another favourite combination is luchi (fried flatbread), a curry which can be vegetarian or non-vegetarian.[citation needed]

Many indigenous Assamese communities households still continue to brew their traditional alcoholic beverages; examples include: Laupani, Xaaj, Paniyo, Jou, Joumai, Hor, Apang, etc. Such beverages are served during traditional festivities. Declining them is considered socially offensive.[citation needed]

The food is often served in bell metal dishes and platters like Kanhi, Maihang and so on.[citation needed]

Lakshminath Bezbaroa, one of the foremost figures of Assamese literature.


Assamese literature dates back to the composition of Charyapada, and later on works like Saptakanda Ramayana by Madhava Kandali, which is the first translation of the Ramayana into an Indo-Aryan language, contributed to Assamese literature.[184][185][186] Sankardeva's Borgeet, Ankia Naat, Bhaona and Satra tradition backed the 15th-16th century Assamese literature.[187][188][189][190] Written during the Reign of Ahoms, the Buranjis are notable literary works which are prominently historical manuscripts.[191] Most literary works are written in Assamese although other local language such as Bodo and Dimasa are also represented.[citation needed] In the 19th and 20th century, Assamese and other literature was modernised by authors including Lakshminath Bezbaroa, Birinchi Kumar Barua, Hem Barua, Dr. Mamoni Raisom Goswami, Bhabendra Nath Saikia, Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya, Hiren Bhattacharyya, Homen Borgohain, Bhabananda Deka, Rebati Mohan Dutta Choudhury, Mahim Bora, Lil Bahadur Chettri, Syed Abdul Malik, Surendranath Medhi, Hiren Gohain etc.

Fine arts[edit]

The archaic Mauryan Stupas discovered in and around Goalpara district are the earliest examples (c. 300 BC to c. 100 AD) of ancient art and architectural works. The remains discovered in Daparvatiya (Doporboteeya) archaeological site with a beautiful doorframe in Tezpur are identified as the best examples of artwork in ancient Assam with influence of Sarnath School of Art of the late Gupta period.[citation needed]

Painting is an ancient tradition of Assam. Xuanzang (7th century AD) mentions that among the Kamarupa king Bhaskaravarma's gifts to Harshavardhana there were paintings and painted objects, some of which were on Assamese silk. Many of the manuscripts such as Hastividyarnava (A Treatise on Elephants), the Chitra Bhagawata and in the Gita Govinda from the Middle Ages bear excellent examples of traditional paintings.[citation needed]

Traditional crafts[edit]

Assam has a rich tradition of crafts, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, and musical instruments making have remained as major traditions.[192]

Cane and bamboo craft provide the most commonly used utilities in daily life, ranging from household utilities, weaving accessories, fishing accessories, furniture, musical instruments, construction materials, etc. Utilities and symbolic articles such as Sorai and Bota made from bell metal and brass are found in every Assamese household.[193][194] Hajo and Sarthebari (Sorthebaary) are the most important centres of traditional bell-metal and brass crafts. Assam is the home of several types of silks, the most prestigious are: Muga – the natural golden silk, Pat – a creamy-bright-silver coloured silk and Eri – a variety used for manufacturing warm clothes for winter. Apart from Sualkuchi (Xualkuchi), the centre for the traditional silk industry, in almost every parts of the Brahmaputra Valley, rural households produce silk and silk garments with excellent embroidery designs. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful colour combinations.

Moreover, Assam possesses unique crafts of toy and mask making mostly concentrated in the Vaishnav Monasteries, pottery and terracotta work in western Assam districts and wood craft, iron craft, jewellery, etc. in many places across the region.


Print media include Assamese dailies Amar Asom, Asomiya Khobor, Asomiya Pratidin, Dainik Agradoot, Dainik Janambhumi, Dainik Asam, Gana Adhikar, Janasadharan and Niyomiya Barta. Asom Bani, Sadin and Bhal Khabar are Assamese weekly newspapers. English dailies of Assam include The Assam Tribune, The Sentinel, The Telegraph, The Times of India,The North East Times, Eastern Chronicle and The Hills Times. Thekar, in the Karbi language has the largest circulation of any daily from Karbi Anglong district. Bodosa has the highest circulation of any Bodo daily from BTC. Dainik Jugasankha is a Bengali daily with editions from Dibrugarh, Guwahati, Silchar and Kolkata. Dainik Samayik Prasanga, Dainik Prantojyoti, Dainik Janakantha and Nababarta Prasanga are other prominent Bengali dailies published in the Barak Valley towns of Karimganj and Silchar. Hindi dailies include Purvanchal Prahari, Pratah Khabar and Dainik Purvoday.

Broadcasting stations of All India Radio have been established in five big cities: Dibrugarh, Guwahati, Kokrajhar, Silchar and Tezpur. Local news and music are the main priority for that station. Assam has three public service broadcasting service stations at Dibrugarh, Guwahati and Silchar. Guwahati is the headquarters of a number of electronic medias like Assam Talks, DY 365, News Live, News 18 Assam/North-East, Prag News and Pratidin Time.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Steinberg, S. (2016). The Statesman's Year-Book 1964–65: The One-Volume ENCYCLOPAEDIA of all nations. Springer. p. 412. ISBN 978-0-230-27093-0.
  2. ^ a b "Jagdish Mukhi: Few facts about Assam's new Governor". The New Indian Express. 30 September 2017. Archived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  3. ^ "MOSPI Gross State Domestic Product". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report (July 2014 to June 2015)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 58–59. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  5. ^ India, Press Trust of (9 September 2014). "Govt withdraws Assamese as official language from Barak valley". Business Standard India. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  6. ^ "Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) Accord". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  7. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)" (PDF). Planning Commission, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  9. ^ "Assam Legislative Assembly - History". Archived from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  10. ^ "Assam". Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  11. ^ "Assam". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  12. ^ "Here is India's oil story". The Financial Express. 3 May 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  13. ^ "Prior to the thirteenth century the present region was called Kāmarūpa or, alternatively, Prāgjyotiṣapur", Lahiri, Nayanjot., Pre-Ahom Assam (Delhi 1991) p. 14
  14. ^ "Ahoms also gave Assam and its language their name (Ahom and the modern ɒχɒm 'Assam' come from an attested earlier form asam, acam, probably from a Burmese corruption of the word Shan/Shyam, cf. Siam: Kakati 1962; 1-4)." (Masica 1993, p. 50)
  15. ^ a b c d e f Barpujari, H. K. (ed.) (1990), The Comprehensive History of Assam, 1st edition, Guwahati, India: Assam Publication BoardCS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  16. ^ "The Assam Tribune Online". Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  17. ^ Deka, Prodyut Kumar (6 July 2017). Ambari. Educreation Publishing. Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  18. ^ "Relics hold clue to missing history – Sunga-Kushana era terracotta artefacts may say if Guwahati existed before 7th century AD". Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  19. ^ India History Association. Session (2001), Proceedings of North East India History Association North East he came under the 'bad' influence of Banasura, ruler of Sonitapura (identified with Tezpur now under Sonitpur district in central Assam), and ended up sidelining Kamakhya in favour of Siva. Thereafter Naraka forsook the guidance
  20. ^ Tej Ram Sharma,1978, "Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions. (1.publ.)", Page 254, Kamarupa consisted of the Western districts of the Brahmaputra valley which being the most powerful state.
  21. ^ Suresh Kant Sharma, Usha Sharma – 2005,"Discovery of North-East India: Geography, History, Culture, ... – Volume 3", Page 248, Davaka (Nowgong) and Kamarupa as separate and submissive friendly kingdoms.
  22. ^ The eastern border of Kamarupa is given by the temple of the goddess Tamreshvari (Pūrvāte Kāmarūpasya devī Dikkaravasini in Kalika Purana) near present-day Sadiya. "...the temple of the goddess Tameshwari (Dikkaravasini) is now located at modern Sadiya about 100 miles to the northeast of Sibsagar" (Sircar 1990, pp. 63–68).
  23. ^ In early epics, Naraka is called a mleccha, a kirata, outside the fold of Varnasaramdharma(Das 2005, p. 225)
  24. ^ Banikanta Kakati, Assamese:Its formation and development
  25. ^ "In the Battle of Itakhuli in September 1682, the Ahom forces chased the defeated Mughals nearly one hundred kilometers back to the Manas river. The Manas then became the Ahom-Mughal boundary until the British occupation." Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 247. ISBN 0521566037. Retrieved 26 January 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  26. ^ Roy, Tirthankar (2012). India in the World Economy: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-107-00910-3.
  27. ^ MacFarlane, Alan; MacFarlane, Iris (2003), Green Gold, The Empire of Tea, Ch. 6–11, Random House, London
  28. ^ Gait E.A. A History of Assam 1926 Calcutta and Shimla Thacker & Co page 225
  29. ^ Bhuyan Dr. S.K. Tunkhungia Buranji or A History of Assam (1681–1826) 1968 page 199
  30. ^ Barbaruah Hiteswar Ahomar-Din or A History of Assam under the Ahoms 1981 page 299
  31. ^ Barua Gunaviram Assam Buranji or A History of Assam 2008 page 108
  32. ^ Gait E.A. A History of Assam 1926 Calcutta and Shimla Thacker & Co page 230
  33. ^ Bhuyan Dr. S.K. Tunkhungia Buranji or A History of Assam (1681–1826) 1968 page 206
  34. ^ Barbaruah Hiteswar Ahomar-Din or A History of Assam under the Ahoms 1981 page 320
  35. ^ Gait E.A. A History of Assam 1926 Calcutta and Shimla Thacker & Co page 231
  36. ^ Bhuyan Dr. S.K. Tunkhungia Buranji or A History of Assam (1681–1826) 1968 page 207
  37. ^ Barbaruah Hiteswar Ahomar-Din or A History of Assam under the Ahoms 1981 page 318
  38. ^ Barua Gunaviram Assam Buranji or A History of Assam 2008 page 116-117
  39. ^ Gait E.A. A History of Assam 1926 Calcutta and Shimla Thacker & Co page 232
  40. ^ Barua Gunaviram Assam Buranji or A History of Assam 2008 page117
  41. ^ Aitchison, C. U. ed (1931), The Treaty of Yandaboo, (A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads: Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries. Vol. XII.), Calcutta:, pp. 230–233, archived from the original on 2 December 2008CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  42. ^ Barpujari, H.K. (1998). North-East India, Problem Prospect and Politics. Guwahati: Spectrum Publishers. p. 41.
  43. ^ Bose, M.L. (1989). Social History of Assam. New Delhi: Ashok Kumar Mittal Concept Publishing Company. p. 91.
  44. ^ William Cooke Taylor, A Popular History of British India. p. 505
  45. ^ Nath, Sunil (2001). "The Secessionist Insurgency and the Freedom of Minds". Institute for Conflict Management. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  46. ^ Indian Philatelists Forum (4 June 2011). "Glimpses of Modern Indian Philately: INDIAN POSTAL CIRCLES". Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  47. ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 46
  48. ^ Bhubaneswar Bhattacharyya (1995). The troubled border: some facts about boundary disputes between Assam-Nagaland, Assam-Arunachal Pradesh, Assam-Meghalaya, and Assam-Mizoram. Lawyer's Book Stall. ISBN 9788173310997.
  49. ^ a b Hazarika, Sanjoy (2003), Strangers of the Mist, Penguin Books Australia Ltd., ISBN 0-14-024052-7
  50. ^ a b Governor of Assam (8 November 1998). "Report on Illegal Migration into Assam". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  51. ^ a b c Singh, R. L. (1993), India, A Regional Geography, Varanasi, India: National Geographical Society of India
  52. ^ "Guwahati's landscape to change with satellite towns, BRT systems". The Assam Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  53. ^ "Dibrugarh – Roing – Mayudia – Anini Tourist Circuit". Arunachal Tourism. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  54. ^ Purdue University. "The Köppen Classification of Climates". Archived from the original on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  55. ^ a b "Assam Flood Toll Rises to 13". NDTV. 23 August 2015. Archived from the original on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  56. ^ a b "Flood situation in Assam worsens". Hindustan Times. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  57. ^ Borthakur, Ahir Bhairab (15 January 2002), "Call of the wild", Down to Earth, archived from the original on 28 September 2007
  58. ^ Birdlife International, UK. "Indo-Gangetic Grasslands" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  59. ^ National Mission on Bamboo Applications 2004
  60. ^ Sharma, Pradip (April–June 2003), "An Overview on Wetlands in Assam" (PDF), ENVIS Assam, Assam Science Technology and Environment Council, 2: 7, archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2006.
  61. ^ World Heritage Centre, UNESCO. "World Heritage List". Archived from the original on 6 June 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  62. ^ Choudhury, A.U.(1996) Survey of the white-winged wood duck and the Bengal florican in Tinsukia district & adjacent areas of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North East India, Guwahati, India. 82pp+
  63. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2010)The vanishing herds : the wild water buffalo. Gibbon Books, Rhino Foundation, CEPF & COA, Taiwan, Guwahati, India
  64. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2000)The birds of Assam. Gibbon Books & WWF-India, Guwahati, India
  65. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1990). Checklist of the birds of Assam. Sofia Press & Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Guwahati, India. 72 pp+
  66. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1997)The check list of the mammals of Assam. Gibbon Books & ASTEC, Guwahati, India
  67. ^ ENVIS Assam (April–June 2003). "Endemic Orchids of Assam" (PDF). ENVIS Assam, Assam Science Technology and Environment Council. 2: 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2006.
  68. ^ a b NEDFi & NIC-Assam. "North East India Databank". Archived from the original on 18 April 2007.
  69. ^ Wandrey 2004, p. 17
  70. ^ "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  71. ^ a b Government of Assam 2002–03. "Statistics of Assam". Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2007.
  72. ^ National Commission on Population, Census of India (2006). "Population Projections for India and States 2001–2026". Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
  73. ^ a b Government of Assam Census 2011. "onlineassam". Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  74. ^ cdpsindia. "centre for development and peace studies". Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  75. ^ Director of Census Operations, Census of India 2001
  76. ^ "Muslim-Bodo mistrust exists for many decades – The Times of India". 24 July 2012. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  77. ^ "Assam govt mulls arming Muslims in Bodo areas – The Times of India". 5 May 2014. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  78. ^ Andre, Aletta; Kumar, Abhimanyu (23 December 2016). "Protest poetry: Assam's Bengali Muslims take a stand". Aljazeera. Aljazeera. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  79. ^ "Assam violence: Four more bodies found, toll rises to 77". IBN. 8 August 2012. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  80. ^ Harris, Gardiner (28 July 2012). "As Tensions in India Turn Deadly, Some Say Officials Ignored Warning Signs". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  81. ^ Taher, Mohammad (1993) The Peopling of Assam and contemporary social structure in Ahmad, Aijazuddin (ed) Social Structure and Regional Development, Rawat Publications, New Delhi
  82. ^ a b "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2012. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
  83. ^ "Census 2011 data rekindles 'demographic invasion' fear in Assam". 26 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  84. ^ "India's religions by numbers". The Hindu. 26 August 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  85. ^ Deka, Kaustubh (12 May 2014). "Bodos and their rights". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  86. ^ "Muslim majority districts in Assam up". Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  87. ^ "Assam Muslim growth is higher in districts away from border". 31 August 2015. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  88. ^ "Census 2011 data rekindles 'demographic invasion' fear in Assam". 26 August 2015. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  89. ^ "C-16 Population by Mother Tongue". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  90. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  91. ^ Das, Ankur; Deka, Tusmita. "The Allophonic Variation of the Assamese voiceless velar fricative /x/". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  92. ^ "Assamese". Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  93. ^ Morey, Stephen. 2005. The Tai languages of Assam: a grammar and texts. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  94. ^ "North by Northeast: What explains BJP's stunning win in Assam?". 22 May 2016. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  95. ^ "Govt announces 5 new districts". Assam Times. 15 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  96. ^ a b Revenue Department, Government of Assam
  97. ^ "Assam: Majuli becomes 1st river island district of India". Hindustan Times. Guwahati. 27 June 2016. Archived from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  98. ^ Directorate of Information and Public Relations, Government of Assam. "Area of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Assam, 2002". Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2006.
  99. ^ "GMC Portal". Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  100. ^ Sharma, Anil Kumar (1 January 2007). Quit India Movement in Assam. Mittal Publications. ISBN 9788183242424. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2016 – via Google Books.
  101. ^ Saikia, Dr Jugal (8 April 2016). Economics of Informal Milk Producing Units in Assam. Notion Press. ISBN 9789352069385. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2016 – via Google Books.
  102. ^ "History – GMC Portal". Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  103. ^ "Municipal Board". Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  104. ^ "Municipal Board-About Us". Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  105. ^ "Dhubri Municipal Board". Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  106. ^ "Nagaon – History". Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  107. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  108. ^ "Jorhat Municipal Board(JBM), Jorhat, Assam". Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  109. ^ "AGP lists civic poll candidates". Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  110. ^ "Silchar Municipal Board (Silchar Municipality) Assam – Silchar Karimganj Hailakandi". Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  111. ^ "Soon blueprint to deport illegal Bangladeshis in Assam". Hindustan Times. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  112. ^ "Illegal Migration into Assam". Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  113. ^ a b c "Illegal Migration into Assam". Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  114. ^ "Martyrs of Assam Agitation | Implementation of Assam Accord | Government of Assam, India". Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  115. ^ "Assam: Prafulla Mahanta not to campaign for AGP to protest alliance with BJP". Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  116. ^ "1. Population Explosion in West Bengal: A Survey". 20 March 2012. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  117. ^ "Leave in 15 days, BJP MPs tell illegal immigrants in Assam". Firstpost. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  118. ^ "Illegal immigration from Bangladesh a national problem". India Today. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  119. ^ "India leaves nearly two million people off citizens' list, fate..." Reuters. 31 August 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  120. ^ "Assam Flood Toll Rises to 13". NDTV. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  121. ^ "Flood situation in Assam worsens". Hindustan Times. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  122. ^ "Poor infrastructure, stringent policies bottleneck for Assam's growth". The Economic Times. 9 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  123. ^ "Panel for study of unemployment problem in Assam". Zee News. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  124. ^ Thakur, Shivasish (17 October 2013). "Govt inaction deprives local aspirants". The Assam Tribune. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  125. ^ "80% of Central jobs occupied by outsiders". The Assam Tribune. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  126. ^ "Don Bosco University – Azara – Guwahati – Welcome to Don Bosco University". Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  127. ^ "Assam Down Town University". Archived from the original on 13 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  128. ^ "Assam Science and Technology University - Home". Archived from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  129. ^ "Assam Women's University". Assam Women's University. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  130. ^ "Bodoland University website". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  131. ^ "Dibrugarh University". Dibrugarh University. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  132. ^ "Gauhati University". Gauhati University. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  133. ^ "Kaziranga University". Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  134. ^ "National Law University and Judicial Academy, Assam". National Law University and Judicial Academy, Assam.
  135. ^ "Tezpur University". Tezpur University. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  136. ^ "National Institute of Technology, Silchar". Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
  137. ^ "Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Management & Technology". Archived from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  138. ^ "National Research Centre on Pig, (ICAR) in Guwahati". Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  139. ^ Indian Tea Association. "Tea Scenario". Archived from the original on 1 March 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  140. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration. "India – Analysis". Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  141. ^ a b c Government of Assam. "Economic Survey of Assam 2005–2006 in NEDFi, Assam Profile, NER Databank". Archived from the original on 31 December 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  142. ^ Government of Assam. "2, Income, Employment and Poverty". Economic Survey of Assam 2001–2002 in Assam Human Development Report, 2003. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  143. ^ National Commission for Women 2004
  144. ^ a b UNDP 2004, pp. 22–23
  145. ^ UNDP 2004, p. 22
  146. ^ a b Government of Assam (2006). "Economic Survey of Assam 2004–2005 in NEDFi, Assam Profile, NER Databank". Archived from the original on 31 December 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  147. ^ a b c UNDP 2004, pp. 24–25
  148. ^ "Poor infrastructure, stringent policies bottleneck for Assam's growth". The Economic Times. 9 July 2015. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  149. ^ "Panel for study of unemployment problem in Assam". Zee News. 26 October 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  150. ^ "The Assam Tribune". The Assam Tribune. 17 October 2013. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  151. ^ "The Assam Tribune". The Assam Tribune. 21 January 2014. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  152. ^ "Centre taking steps to check illegal immigration into Assam". The Economic Times. 5 August 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  153. ^ "Soon blueprint to deport illegal Bangladeshis in Assam". Hindustan Times. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  154. ^ "Illegal immigration from Bangladesh a national problem". India Today. 4 June 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  155. ^ "Leave in 15 days, BJP MPs tell illegal immigrants in Assam". Firstpost. 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  156. ^ Government of Assam. "Economic Survey of Assam 2001–2002 in Assam Human Development Report, 2003". p. 32. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  157. ^ a b UNDP 2004, p. 33
  158. ^ FAO Statistics Division, 2007, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "Faostat". Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 11 February 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2006.
  159. ^ Assam Small Farmers' Agri-business Consortium. "Fish Species of Assam" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2006.
  160. ^ UNDP 2004, p. 37
  161. ^ "Assam Flood Toll Rises to 13". NDTV. 23 August 2015. Archived from the original on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  162. ^ "Flood situation in Assam worsens". Hindustan Times. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  163. ^ "Indian state: Assam". Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  164. ^ "Indian state: Assam, Thrust Areas". Ministry of External Affairs, Govt. of India. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  165. ^ List of busiest airports in India by passenger traffic
  166. ^ "GMC". Guwahati Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013.
  167. ^ "Guwahati". IndiaUnveiled. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  168. ^ "Dibrugarh Municipality". Dibrugarh Municipal Board. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014.
  169. ^ "Dibrugarh". IndiaUnveiled. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  170. ^ "New Delhi Dibrugarh Trains". Indiarailinfo. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  171. ^ "Trains from Dibrugarh". Indiarailinfo. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  172. ^ "ADB $200 Million Loan to Upgrade Services in Key Cities of India's Assam State". Asian Development Bank. 3 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  173. ^ "$81-million ADB loan for State urban infrastructure". The Assam Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  174. ^ Government of Assam (18 February 2007). "Available Resources in Assam". Government of Assam. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  175. ^ "Assamco". Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  176. ^ "Government of Assam | Department of Industries and Commerce". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  177. ^ "Assam Economy – Economy of Assam, Business & Economy of Assam India". Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  178. ^ Kakati, Banikanta (1962), Assamese, Its Formation and Development, 2nd edition, Guwahati, India: Lawyer's Book Stall
  179. ^ "Bihu – Its Myriad Colours". NORTHEAST NOW. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  180. ^ "Beshoma: The 'Rongali Bihu' of Deshi Muslims | The Thumb Print - A magazine from the East". Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  181. ^ "Dances of Assam – Folk Dances of Assam, Traditional Dances of Assam". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  182. ^ "khorisa turns natural preservative". Archived from the original on 11 April 2019.
  183. ^ "Portrait of a poet as an artist". The Telegraph. 13 October 2003.
  184. ^ Paniker, K. Ayyappa (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 9788126003655.
  185. ^ Mukherjee, Prabhat (1981). The History of Medieval Vaishnavism in Orissa. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120602298.
  186. ^ "Madhava Kandali Ramayana : Composed in Assamese by Sage Madhava Kandali, the great son of the soil in the Fourteenth Century AD/Translated into English by Shanti Lal Nagar Translated into English by Shanti Lal Nagar Vedams Books 9788121509350". Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  187. ^ "Bordowa Than – Bordowa Than". Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  188. ^ Neog, Maheswar, 1915-1995. (1980). Early history of the Vaiṣṇava faith and movement in Assam : Śaṅkaradeva and his times. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120800079. OCLC 15304755.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  189. ^ Stewart, Tony K.; Neog, Maheswar (April 1988). "Early History of the Vaiṣṇava Faith and Movement in Assam: Śaṅkaradeva and His Times". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 108 (2): 334. doi:10.2307/603683. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 603683.
  190. ^ Sociology, Dibrugarh University Department of; Region, Dibrugarh University Centre for Sociological Study of Frontier; Association, North East India Sociological (1978). North East India: A Sociological Study. Concept Publishing Company.
  191. ^ Kakati, Banikanta Ed (1953). Aspects of Early Assamese Literature.
  192. ^ Assam Tourism 2002, Government of Assam. "Arts and Crafts of Assam in About Assam". Archived from the original on 7 April 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2007.
  193. ^ Ranjan, M.P.; Iyer, Nilam; Pandya, Ghanshyam, Bamboo and Cane Crafts of Northeast India, National Institute of Design
  194. ^ Nath, T.K., Bamboo Cane and Assam, Guwahati, India: Industrial Development Bank of India, Small Industries Development Bank of India


Further reading[edit]

  • Online books and material
  • Language and literature
    • Bara, Mahendra (1981), The Evolution of the Assamese Script, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha
    • Barpujari, H. K. (1983), Amerikan Michanerisakal aru Unabimsa Satikar Asam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha
    • Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1965), History of Assamese Literature, Guwahati: East-West Centre Press
    • Barua, Hem (1965), Assamese Literature, New Delhi: National Book Trust
    • Brown, William Barclay (1895), An Outline Grammar of the Deori Chutiya Language Spoken in Upper Assam with an Introduction, Illustrative Sentences, and Short Vocabulary, Shillong: The Assam Secretariat Printing Office
    • Deka, Bhabananda (1961), Industrialisation of Assam, Guwahati: Gopal Das
    • Dhekial Phukan, Anandaram 1829–1859 (1977), Anandaram Dhekiyal Phukanar Racana Samgrah, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall
    • Endle, Sidney (1884), Outline of the Kachari (Baro) Language as Spoken in District Darrang, Assam, Shillong: Assam Secretariat Press
    • Gogoi, Lila (1972), Sahitya-Samskriti-Buranji, Dibrugarh: New Book Stall
    • Gogoi, Lila (1986), The Buranjis, Historical Literature of Assam, New Delhi: Omsons Publications
    • Goswami, Praphulladatta (1954), Folk-Literature of Assam, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies in Assam
    • Gurdon, Philip Richard Thornhagh (1896), Some Assamese Proverbs, Shillong: The Assam Secretariat Printing Office, ISBN 1-104-30633-6
    • Kakati, Banikanta (1959), Aspects of Early Assamese Literature, Guwahati: Gauhati University
    • Kay, S. P. (1904), An English-Mikir Vocabulary, Shillong: The Assam Secretariat Printing Office
    • Medhi, Kaliram (1988), Assamese Grammar and Origin of the Assamese Language, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board
    • Miles, Bronson (1867), A Dictionary in Assamese and English, Sibsagar, Assam: American Baptist Mission Press
    • Morey, Stephen (2005), The Tai languages of Assam : a grammar and texts, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 0-85883-549-5
  • History
    • Antrobus, H. (1957), A History of the Assam Company, Edinburgh: Private Printing by T. and A. Constable
    • Barabaruwa, Hiteswara 1876–1939 (1981), Ahomar Din, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board
    • Barooah, Nirode K. (1970), David Scott in North-East India, 1802–1831, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
    • Barua, Harakanta 1813–1900 (1962), Asama Buranji, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Assam
    • Barpujari, H. K. (1963), Assam in the Days of the Company, 1826–1858, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall
    • Barpujari, H. K. (1977), Political History of Assam. Department for the Preparation of Political History of Assam, Guwahati: Government of Assam
    • Barua, Kanak Lal, An Early History of Kamarupa, From the Earliest Time to the Sixteenth Century, Guwahati: Lawyers Book Stall
    • Barua, Kanak Lal, Studies in the Early History of Assam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha
    • Baruah, Swarna Lata (1993), Last days of Ahom monarchy : a history of Assam from 1769 to 1826, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
    • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1949), Anglo-Assamese Relations, 1771–1826, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies in Assam
    • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1947), Annals of the Delhi Badshahate, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam
    • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1957), Atan Buragohain and His Times, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall
    • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1962), Deodhai Asam Buranji, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies
    • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1928), Early British Relations with Assam, Shillong: Assam Secretariat Press
    • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1947), Lachit Barphukan and His Times, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam
    • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1964), Satasari Asama Buranji, Guwahati: Gauhati University
    • Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1975), Swargadew Rajeswarasimha, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board
    • Buchanan, Francis Hamilton 1762–1829 (1963), An Account of Assam, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies
    • Duara Barbarua, Srinath (1933), Tungkhungia Buranji, Bombay: H. Milford, Oxford University Press
    • Gait, Edward Albert 1863–1950 (1926), A History of Assam, Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.
    • Gogoi, Padmeswar (1968), The Tai and the Tai Kingdoms, Guwahati: Gauhati University
    • Guha, Amalendu (1983), The Ahom Political System, Calcutta: Centre for Studies in Social Sciences
    • Hunter, William Wilson 1840–1900 (1879), A Statistical Account of Assam, London: Trubner & Co.
  • Tradition and Culture
    • Barkath, Sukumar (1976), Hastibidyarnnara Sarasamgraha (English & Assamese), 18th Century, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board
    • Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1969), A Cultural History of Assam, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall
    • Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1960), Sankardeva, Guwahati: Assam Academy for Cultural Relations
    • Gandhiya, Jayakanta (1988), Huncari, Mukali Bihu, aru Bihunac, Dibrugarh
    • Goswami, Praphulladatta (1960), Ballads and Tales of Assam, Guwahati: Gauhati University
    • Goswami, Praphulladatta (1988), Bohag Bihu of Assam and Bihu Songs, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board
    • Mahanta, Pona (1985), Western Influence on Modern Assamese Drama, Delhi: Mittal Publications
    • Medhi, Kaliram (1978), Studies in the Vaisnava Literature and Culture of Assam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha

External links[edit]