Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

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Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. The number of Associate Justices is determined by the United States Congress and is currently set at eight by the Judiciary Act of 1869.

Like the Chief Justice, Associate Justices are nominated by the President of the United States and are confirmed by the United States Senate by majority vote. This is provided for in Article II of the Constitution, which states that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint... Judges of the supreme Court." Although the Constitution refers to them as "Judges of the Supreme Court," the title actually used is "Associate Justice," introduced in the Judiciary Act of 1789.[1] Associate justices were traditionally styled "Mr. Justice" in court opinions, but the title was shortened to "Justice" in 1980, a year before the first female justice was appointed.[2]

Article III of the Constitution specifies that Associate Justices, and all other United States federal judges "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior". This language means that the appointments are effectively for life, ending only when a Justice dies in office, retires, or is removed from office following impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction by the Senate.[3]

Each of the Justices of the Supreme Court has a single vote in deciding the cases argued before it; the Chief Justice's vote counts no more than that of any other Justice. However, in drafting opinions, the Chief Justice enjoys additional influence in case disposition if in the majority through his power to assign who writes the opinion. Otherwise, the senior justice in the majority assigns the writing of a decision. Furthermore, the Chief Justice leads the discussion of the case among the justices. The Chief Justice has certain administrative responsibilities that the other Justices do not and is paid slightly more ($255,500 per year for the Chief Justice and $244,400 per year for each Associate Justice[4]).

Associate Justices have seniority by order of appointment, although the Chief Justice is always considered to be the most senior. If two justices are appointed on the same day, the older is designated the senior Justice of the two. Currently, the senior Associate Justice is Anthony Kennedy. By tradition, when the Justices are in conference deliberating the outcome of cases before the Court, the justices state their views in order of seniority. If there is a knock at their conference room door, the junior justice (who sits closest to the door) must answer it. The current junior justice is Elena Kagan.

Under 28 USC 3, when the Chief Justice is unable to discharge his functions, or that office is vacant, his duties are carried out by the most senior Associate Justice until the disability or the vacancy ends.

The sitting Associate Justices are, ordered by seniority:

Retired Associate Justices[edit]

When Justices retire, they have the opportunity to assume duties similar to the senior status assumed by District and Circuit Judges. This means that the Justice keeps his or her title, and may serve by assignment on panels of the U.S. Courts of Appeals, or even the US District Courts if so requested and assigned. Retired Justices may choose to keep a set of chambers in the Supreme Court building, as well as to employ law clerks. The names of retired Associate Justices continue to appear alongside those of the active Justices of the Court on the Bound Volumes of Supreme Court decisions. However, retired Associate Justices (unlike judges on senior status) take no part in the consideration or decision of any cases before their former court (the Supreme Court), although they may be appointed by the Chief Justice to sit on lower courts.

Currently, there are three retired Associate Justices: Sandra Day O'Connor, who retired on January 31, 2006, David H. Souter, who retired on June 29, 2009, and John Paul Stevens, who retired on June 29, 2010. Both O'Connor and Souter occasionally serve on panels of the Courts of Appeals of various circuits. As of present, Stevens has chosen not to so serve.

List of Associate Justices[edit]

Portrait Justice Replacing Preceding Office Confirmation Confirmation Vote Tenure President
1 John Rutledge.jpg John Rutledge (new seat) 1st
Governor of South Carolina
(1779-1782)
September 26, 1789 Acclamation September 26, 1789

March 4, 1791
 
Washington
***
2 WilliamCushing.jpg William Cushing (new seat) Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Superior Court
(1777-1789)
September 26, 1789 Acclamation September 27, 1789

September 13, 1810
3 JusticeJamesWilson.jpg James Wilson (new seat) Delegate to the Constitutional Convention
(1787)
September 26, 1789 Acclamation September 29, 1789

August 21, 1798
4 JohnBlair.jpg John Blair (new seat) Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses
(1766-1770)
September 26, 1789 Acclamation September 30, 1789

October 25, 1795
5 JamesIredell.jpg James Iredell (new seat) 2nd
Attorney General of North Carolina
(1779-1782)
February 10, 1790 Acclamation May 12, 1790

October 20, 1799
6 Thomas Johnson (governor).jpeg Thomas Johnson Rutledge 1st
Governor of Maryland
(1777-1779)
November 7, 1791 Acclamation August 5, 1792

January 16, 1793
7 William Paterson copy.jpg William Paterson Johnson 2nd
Governor of New Jersey
(1790-1793)
March 4, 1793 Acclamation March 4, 1793

September 8, 1806
8 Samuel Chase.jpg Samuel Chase
I
Blair Chief Justice of the
Maryland General Court
(1791-1796)
January 27, 1796 Acclamation January 27, 1796

June 19, 1811
9 BushrodWashington.jpg Bushrod Washington Wilson Delegate to the Virginia Ratifying Convention
(1788)
December 20, 1798 Acclamation December 20, 1798

November 26, 1829
  J. Adams*
10 AlfredMoore.jpg Alfred Moore Iredell 3rd
Attorney General of North Carolina
(1782-1791)
December 9, 1799 Acclamation December 10, 1799

January 26, 1804
11 WilliamJohnson.jpg William Johnson Moore Speaker of the
South Carolina House of Representatives
(1798-1800)
March 24, 1804 Acclamation May 7, 1804

August 4, 1834
  Jefferson
12 Henry Brockholst Livingston.jpg Henry Brockholst Livingston Paterson Justice of the New York Supreme Court
(1802-1807)
December 17, 1806 Acclamation January 20, 1807

March 18, 1823
13 Thomas Todd SCOTUS.jpg Thomas Todd (new seat) Chief Justice of the
Kentucky Court of Appeals
(1806-1807)
March 2, 1807 Acclamation March 3, 1807

February 7, 1826
14 GabrielDuvall.jpg Gabriel Duvall Chase U.S. Representative for
Maryland's 2nd
(1794-1796)
November 18, 1811 Acclamation November 23, 1811

January 12, 1835
  Madison
15 Daguerreotype of Joseph Story, 1844 (edit).jpg Joseph Story Cushing U.S. Representative for
Massachusetts's 2nd
(1808-1809)
November 18, 1811 Acclamation February 3, 1812

September 10, 1845
16 SmithThompson.jpg Smith Thompson Livingston 6th
United States Secretary of the Navy
(1819-1823)
December 9, 1823 Acclamation September 1, 1823

December 18, 1843
  Monroe
17 RobertTrimble.jpg Robert Trimble Todd Judge of the
United States District Court for the
District of Kentucky

(1817-1826)
May 9, 1826 25-5 May 9, 1826

August 25, 1828
  J.Q. Adams
18 Justice John McLean daguerreotype by Mathew Brady 1849.jpg John McLean Trimble 6th
United States Postmaster General
(1823-1829)
March 7, 1829 Acclamation March 7, 1829

April 4, 1861
  Jackson*
19 Henry baldwin (justice).jpg Henry Baldwin Washington U.S. Representative for
Pennsylvania's 14th
(1817-1822)
January 6, 1830 41-2 January 6, 1830

April 21, 1844
20 James Moore Wayne - Brady-Handy.jpg James Moore Wayne Johnson U.S. Representative for
Georgia's at-large
(1829-1835)
January 9, 1835 Acclamation January 14, 1835

July 5, 1867
21 PPBarbour.jpg Philip Pendleton Barbour Duvall Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Virginia

(1830-1836)
March 15, 1836 30-11 March 15, 1836

February 25, 1841
22 John Catron - Brady-Handy.jpg John Catron (new seat) Judge of the
Tennessee Supreme Court
of Errors and Appeals

(1824-1834)
March 8, 1837 28-15 March 8, 1837

May 30, 1865
23 John McKinley.jpg John McKinley (new seat) United States Senator from Alabama
(1826-1831, 1837)
September 25, 1837 Acclamation April 22, 1837

July 19, 1852
  Van Buren
24 PVDaniel.jpg Peter Vivian Daniel Barbour Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Virginia

(1836-1841)
March 2, 1841 25-5 March 3, 1841

May 31, 1860
25 Samuel Nelson - Brady-Handy.jpg Samuel Nelson Thompson Chief Justice of the New York Supreme Court
(1831-1845)
February 14, 1845 Acclamation February 14, 1845

November 28, 1872
  Tyler
26 LeviWoodbury.png Levi Woodbury Story 13th
United States Secretary of the Treasury
(1834-1841)
January 31, 1846 Acclamation September 20, 1845

September 4, 1851
  Polk
27 Robert Cooper Grier - Brady-Handy.jpg Robert Cooper Grier Baldwin Judge for the
Pennsylvania state District Court
for Allegheny County
(1833-1846)
August 4, 1846 Acclamation August 4, 1846

January 31, 1870
28 BRCurtis.jpg Benjamin Robbins Curtis Woodbury Massachusetts State Representative December 20, 1851 Acclamation September 22, 1851

September 30, 1857
  Filmore
29 John Archibald Campbell - Brady-Handy.jpg John Archibald Campbell McKinley Alabama State Representative March 22, 1853 Acclamation March 23, 1853

April 30, 1861
  Pierce
30 NClifford.jpg Nathan Clifford Curtis 19th
United States Attorney General
(1846-1848)
January 12, 1858 26-23 January 12, 1858

July 25, 1881
  Buchanan
31 Noah Haynes Swayne, photo, head and shoulders, seated.jpg Noah Haynes Swayne McLean U.S. Attorney for the
District of Ohio
(1830-1834)
January 24, 1862 38-1 January 24, 1862

January 24, 1881
  Lincoln*
32 Samuel Freeman Miller - Brady-Handy.jpg Samuel Freeman Miller Daniel Lawyer July 16, 1862 Acclamation July 16, 1862

October 13, 1890
33 DDavis.jpg David Davis Campbell Judge of the
Illinois 3rd Circuit Court
(1848-1862)
December 8, 1862 Acclamation October 17, 1862

March 3, 1877
34 Stephen Johnson Field, photo half length seated, 1875.jpg Stephen Johnson Field (new seat) 5th
Chief Justice of California
(1859-1863)
March 10, 1863 Acclamation March 10, 1863

December 1, 1897
35 William Strong judge - Brady-Handy.jpg William Strong Grier U.S. Representative
for Pennsylvania's 9th
(1847-1851)
February 18, 1870 February 18, 1870

December 14, 1880
  Grant*
36 Joseph Philo Bradley - Brady-Handy.jpg Joseph Philo Bradley (new seat) Lawyer March 21, 1870 46-9 March 21, 1870

January 22, 1892
37 Ward Hunt - Brady-Handy.jpg Ward Hunt Nelson Chief Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
(1868-1872)
December 11, 1872 Acclamation December 11, 1872

January 27, 1882
38 JudgeJMHarlan.jpg John Marshall Harlan Davis 14th
Attorney General of Kentucky
(1863-1867)
November 29, 1877 Acclamation November 29, 1877

October 14, 1911
  Hayes
39 William Burnham Woods.jpg William Burnham Woods Strong Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Fifth Circuit

(1869-1880)
December 21, 1880 39-8 December 21, 1880

May 14, 1887
40 Thomas Stanley Matthews - Brady-Handy.jpg Stanley Matthews Swayne United States Senator from Ohio
(1877-1879)
May 12, 1881 24-23 May 12, 1881

March 22, 1889
  Garfield
41 Horacegrayphoto.jpg Horace Gray Clifford Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
(1873-1881)
December 20, 1881 51-5 December 20, 1881

September 15, 1902
  Arthur
42 Samuel Blatchford.jpg Samuel Blatchford Hunt Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1878-1882)
March 22, 1882 Acclamation March 22, 1882

July 7, 1893
43 Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II - Brady-Handy.jpg Lucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar II
Woods 16th
United States Secretary of the Interior
(1885-1888)
January 16, 1888 32-28 January 16, 1888

January 23, 1893
  Cleveland*
44 DavidBrewer.jpg David Josiah Brewer Matthews Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1884-1889)
December 18, 1889 53-11 December 18, 1889

March 28, 1910
  B. Harrison
45 Henry Billings Brown 2.jpg Henry Billings Brown Miller Judge of the
United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Michigan

(1875-1890)
December 29, 1890 Acclamation December 29, 1890

May 28, 1906
46 George Shiras Jr.jpg George Shiras, Jr. Bradley Lawyer July 26, 1892 Acclamation July 26, 1892

February 23, 1903
47 Justice Howell Jackson2.jpg Howell Edmunds Jackson Lamar Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1891-1893)
February 18, 1893 Acclamation February 18, 1893

August 8, 1895
48 Edward White, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1905.jpg Edward Douglass White Blatchford United States Senator from Louisiana
(1891-1894)
February 19, 1894 Acclamation February 19, 1894

December 18, 1910
  Cleveland
49 Rufus Wheeler Peckham cph.3b30513.jpg Rufus Wheeler Peckham Jackson Associate Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
December 9, 1895 Acclamation December 9, 1895

October 24, 1909
50 Joseph McKenna (assoc justice).jpg Joseph McKenna Field 42nd
United States Attorney General
(1897-1898)
January 21, 1898 Acclamation January 21, 1898

January 5, 1925
  McKinley
51 Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1902.jpg Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Gray Chief Justice of the
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
(1899-1902)
December 4, 1902 Acclamation December 4, 1902

January 12, 1932
  T. Roosevelt
52 William Rufus Day cph.3b31004.jpg William R. Day Shiras Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1899-1903)
February 23, 1903 Acclamation February 23, 1903

November 13, 1922
53 WHMoody.jpg William Henry Moody Brown 45th
United States Attorney General
(1904-1906)
December 12, 1906 Acclamation December 12, 1906

November 20, 1910
54 HoraceHarmonLurton.jpg Horace Harmon Lurton Peckham Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1893-1909)
December 20, 1909 Acclamation December 20, 1909

July 12, 1914
  Taft*
55 Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes.jpg Charles Evans Hughes Brewer 36th
Governor of New York
(1907-1910)
May 2, 1910 Acclamation October 10, 1910

June 10, 1916
56 Willis Van Devanter.jpg Willis Van Devanter White Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1903-1910)
December 15, 1910 Acclamation December 16, 1910

June 2, 1937
57 Joseph Lamar.jpg Joseph Rucker Lamar Moody Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court of Georgia
(1901-1905)
December 15, 1910 Acclamation December 17, 1910

January 2, 1916
58 Mahlon Pitney cph.3b30300.jpg Mahlon Pitney Harlan U.S. Representative for
New Jersey's 4th
(1895-1899)
March 13, 1912 50-26 March 13, 1912

December 31, 1922
59 Jamescmcreynolds.jpg James Clark McReynolds Lurton 48th
United States Attorney General
(1913-1914)
August 29, 1914 44-6 August 29, 1914

January 31, 1941
  Wilson
60 Brandeisl.jpg Louis Brandeis Lamar Lawyer June 1, 1916 47-22 June 1, 1916

February 13, 1939
61 JohnHessinClarke.jpg John Hessin Clarke Hughes Judge of the
United States District Court for the
Northern District of Ohio

(1914-1916)
July 24, 1916 Acclamation July 24, 1916

September 5, 1922
62 Justice George Sutherland 5.jpg George Sutherland Clarke United States Senator from Utah
(1905-1917)
September 5, 1922 Acclamation September 5, 1922

January 17, 1938
  Harding*
63 Pierce Butler.jpg Pierce Butler Day President of the
Minnesota State Bar Association
December 21, 1922 61-8 December 21, 1922

November 16, 1939
64 Justice Edward Terry Sanford.jpg Edward Terry Sanford Pitney Judge of the
United States District Court for the
Middle District of Tennessee

(1908-1923)
January 29, 1923 Acclamation January 29, 1923

March 8, 1930
65 Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone photograph circa 1927-1932.jpg Harlan F. Stone McKenna 52nd
United States Attorney General
(1924-1925)
February 5, 1925 71-6 February 5, 1925

July 3, 1941
  Coolidge
66 Owen J. Roberts cph.3b11988.jpg Owen Josephus Roberts Sanford Assistant District Attorney for Philadelphia May 20, 1930 Acclamation May 20, 1930

July 31, 1945
  Hoover*
67 Justice Benjamin N Cardozo 2.jpg Benjamin N. Cardozo Holmes Chief Judge of the
New York Court of Appeals
(1927-1932)
February 24, 1932 Acclamation March 2, 1932

July 9, 1938
68 HugoLaFayetteBlack.jpg Hugo Black Van Devanter United States Senator from Alabama
(1927-1937)
August 17, 1937 63-16 August 18, 1937

September 17, 1971
  F.D. Roosevelt*
69 Stanley Forman Reed.jpg Stanley Forman Reed Sutherland 22nd
United States Solicitor General
(1935-1938)
January 25, 1938 Acclamation January 27, 1938

February 25, 1957
70 Frankfurter-Felix-LOC.jpg Felix Frankfurter Cardozo Chair of Harvard Law School January 17, 1939 Acclamation January 20, 1939

August 28, 1962
71 Justice William O Douglas.jpg William O. Douglas Brandeis 3rd
Chairman of the Securities
and Exchange Commission

(1937-1939)
April 4, 1939 62-4 April 15, 1939

November 12, 1975
72 Justice Frank Murphy.jpg Frank Murphy Butler 56th
United States Attorney General
(1939-1940)
January 16, 1940 Acclamation January 18, 1940

July 19, 1949
73 James F. Byrnes cph.3c32232.jpg James F. Byrnes McReynolds United States Senator from South Carolina
(1931-1941)
June 12, 1941 Acclamation July 8, 1941

October 3, 1942
74 Roberthjackson.jpg Robert H. Jackson Stone 57th
United States Attorney General
(1940-1941)
July 7, 1941 Acclamation July 11, 1941

October 9, 1954
75 Wiley Rutledge.jpg Wiley Blount Rutledge Byrnes Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals for the
District of Columbia Circuit
February 8, 1943 Acclamation February 11, 1943

September 10, 1949
76 Harold Burton.jpg Harold Hitz Burton Roberts United States Senator from Ohio
(1944-1945)
September 19, 1945 Acclamation September 22, 1945

October 13, 1958
  Truman*
77 Tom C. Clark.jpg Tom C. Clark Murphy 59th
Attorney General of the United States
(1945-1949)
August 18, 1949 73-8 August 19, 1949

June 12, 1967
78 Sherman Minton's official United States Supreme Court photograph.jpg Sherman Minton Rutledge Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Seventh Circuit

(1941-1949)
October 4, 1949 48-16 October 12, 1949

October 15, 1956
79 John Marshall Harlan II official.jpg John Marshall Harlan II Jackson Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1954-1955)
March 16, 1955 71-11 March 17, 1955

September 23, 1971
  Eisenhower*
80 US Supreme Court Justice William Brennan - 1976 official portrait.jpg William J. Brennan Minton Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court of New Jersey
(1951-1956)
March 19, 1957 Acclamation October 15, 1956

July 20, 1990
81 Charles Whittaker.jpg Charles Evans Whittaker Reed Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1956-1957)
March 19, 1957 Acclamation March 22, 1957

March 31, 1962
82 US Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart - 1976 official portrait.jpg Potter Stewart Burton Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Sixth Circuit

(1954-1958)
May 5, 1959 70-17 October 14, 1958

July 3, 1981
83 Justice White Official.jpg Byron White Whittaker 4th
United States Deputy Attorney General
(1961-1962)
April 11, 1962 Acclamation April 16, 1962

June 28, 1993
  Kennedy
84 Arthur Goldberg (1971).jpg Arthur Goldberg Frankfurter 9th
United States Secretary of Labor
(1961-1962)
September 25, 1962 Acclamation September 28, 1962

July 26, 1965
85 SCOTUS Justice Abe Fortas.jpeg Abe Fortas Goldberg United States Under Secretary of the Interior August 11, 1965 Acclamation October 4, 1965

May 14, 1969
  L. Johnson
86 Thurgood-marshall-2.jpg Thurgood Marshall Clark 32nd
United States Solicitor General
(1965-1967)
August 30, 1967 69-11 October 2, 1967

October 1, 1991
87 Justice Blackmun Official.jpg Harry Blackmun Fortas Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Eighth Circuit

(1959-1970)
May 12, 1970 94-0 June 9, 1970

August 3, 1994
  Nixon*
88 US Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell - 1976 official portrait.jpg Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. Black President of the
American Bar Association
(1964-1965)
December 6, 1971 89-1 January 7, 1972

June 26, 1987
89 William Rehnquist.jpg William Rehnquist Harlan United States Assistant Attorney General
for the Office of Legal Counsel

(1969-1971)
December 10, 1971 68-26 January 7, 1972

September 26, 1986
90 John Paul Stevens, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg John Paul Stevens Douglas Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Seventh Circuit

(1970-1975)
December 17, 1975 98-0 December 19, 1975

June 29, 2010
  Ford
91 Sandra Day O'Connor.jpg Sandra Day O'Connor Stewart Judge of the
Arizona Court of Appeals
(1979-1981)
September 21, 1981 99-0 September 25, 1981

January 31, 2006
  Reagan*
92 Antonin Scalia, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg Antonin Scalia Rehnquist Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1982-1986)
September 17, 1986 98-0 September 26, 1986

February 13, 2016
93 Anthony Kennedy official SCOTUS portrait.jpg Anthony Kennedy Powell Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Ninth Circuit

(1975-1988)
February 3, 1988 97-0 February 18, 1988

Incumbent
94 DavidSouter.jpg David Souter Brennan Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the First Circuit

(1990)
October 2, 1990 90-9 October 9, 1990

June 29, 2009
  G.H.W. Bush
95 Clarence Thomas official SCOTUS portrait.jpg Clarence Thomas Marshall Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1990-1991)
October 15, 1991 52-48 October 23, 1991

Incumbent
96 Ruth Bader Ginsburg official SCOTUS portrait.jpg Ruth Bader Ginsburg White Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1980-1993)
August 3, 1993 96-3 August 10, 1993

Incumbent
  Clinton
97 Stephen Breyer, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg Stephen Breyer Blackmun Chief Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the First Circuit

(1990-1994)
July 29, 1994 87-9 August 3, 1994

Incumbent
98 010 alito.jpg Samuel Alito O'Connor Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Third Circuit

(1990-2006)
January 31, 2006 58-42 January 31, 2006

Incumbent
  G.W. Bush*
99 Sonia Sotomayor in SCOTUS robe.jpg Sonia Sotomayor Souter Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the Second Circuit

(1998-2009)
August 6, 2009 68-31 August 8, 2009

Incumbent
  Obama
100 Elena Kagan Official SCOTUS Portrait (2013).jpg Elena Kagan Stevens 45th
Solicitor General of the United States
(2009-2010)
August 5, 2010 63-37 August 7, 2010

Present
Incumbents are highlighted in this color
Recess appointments are highlighted in this color
Denotes justice was impeached, but not convicted. I
* Also appointed one Chief Justice.
*** Also appointed three Chief Justices.
Reference:[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llac&fileName=002/llac002.db&recNum=481
  2. ^ Joan Biskupic, Sandra Day O'Connor: How the First Woman on the Supreme Court Became Its Most Influential Justice (New York: HarperCollins, 2005), 101.
  3. ^ Recess appointments are a notable exception. See U.S. v. Woodley 751 F.2d 1008, 10014; Recess appointments to the Supreme Court are exceptionally rare. Only two Chief Justices and six Associate Justices have received recess appointments, and only John Rutledge was not subsequently confirmed by the Senate. The last President to make a recess appointment to the Supreme Court was Dwight D. Eisenhower.
  4. ^ Mears, Bill (2014-06-20). "Supreme Court justices: They do OK financially". CNN. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  5. ^ "U.S. Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: 1789-Present". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]