Associate Justice of the Philippines

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An Associate Justice of the Philippines is one of 15 members of the Philippine Supreme Court, the highest court in the Philippines. The Chief Justice presides over the High Court, but carries only one of the 15 votes in the court. Traditionally, the Chief Justice is deemed primus inter pares ("first among equals") among the Justices.

Until 1973, only men were appointed as Associate Justices to the Court. Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, an appointee of President Ferdinand Marcos, was the first woman to sit on the Court. Since then, 15 other women have been appointed as Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. The most recent woman to be appointed to the high tribunal is Priscilla J. Baltazar-Padilla, a former Justice of the Court of Appeals of the Philippines.

Current Associate Justices[edit]

There are currently fourteen (13 Are currently serving, 1 is vacant) associate justices on the Supreme Court, with the most recent appointment being that of Ricardo Rosario, who was sworn in on October 8, 2020, succeeding Jose Reyes Jr.. The justices, ordered by seniority, are:

Constitutional requirements and limitations[edit]

Under the 1987 Constitution, the minimum requirements for appointment to the Supreme Court are natural born citizenship; 40 years of age; and 15 years or more as a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. (sec. 7(1), Article VIII) The members of the Court are appointed by the President from a list of at least 3 nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. (sec. 9, Article VIII) The appointment is not subject to confirmation by Congress.

Members of the Court are mandated to retire upon reaching the age of 70. (sec. 11, Article VIII) They may also be removed from office through impeachment, which is accomplished through a resolution of impeachment affirmed by a 1/3 vote of all members of the House of Representatives and conviction by 2/3 vote of all members of the Senate.

Since 1901, there has always been only one Chief Justice. In contrast, the number of Associate Justices has wildly varied. From the original number of six (1901–1916), this was increased to eight (1916–1935), then to ten (1935–1940). During the years 1940–1945, the membership varied from five to seven. After liberation in 1945, the number was reset to ten, and the current number of fourteen was first set in place with the enactment of the 1973 Constitution. During the first few months of the Aquino administration, ten Associate Justices sat on the Court, but the appointment of Carolina Griño-Aquino in February 1988 finally restored the number of Associate Justices at fourteen.

Official functions[edit]

The cases decided by the Supreme Court involve several classes of disputes. Most prominently, the Court is called upon to exercise the power of judicial review of presidential or legislative actions. More often, the Court also undertakes appellate review of decisions of the trial courts and the Court of Appeals in civil and criminal cases. The Court is also tasked with deciding administrative cases involving members and employees of the judiciary and of lawyers belonging to the Philippine Bar. The decisions of the Court become part of the law of the land.

Each Justice carries one vote on the Court which they exercise whether when sitting in Division, or in the full complement of 15 (or "en banc"). Since the 1970s, the Supreme Court has sat in three divisions, with five Justices as members of each division. As most Supreme Court cases are decided by the division rather than the en banc, a vote of three Justices sitting in a division is usually sufficient to decide the case. However, the Constitution prescribes instances whereby a case must be decided en banc, such as in declaring a law as unconstitutional or when a judicial precedent is overturned. Each vote can be crucial, as recently shown in the 2006 People's Initiative case (Lambino v. COMELEC), which was decided en banc by an 8–7 vote.

As a case is decided, one justice in the majority is assigned to write the majority opinion for the Court. Even as these decisions speak in behalf of the Court, the writer of the opinion (known as the "ponente") is strongly identified with the decision, and the body of opinions of each Justice enhances his/her reputation. Many important opinions are analyzed in law schools and are well-remembered long after the Justice had left the Court. For example, several of the opinions of Associate Justice Jose P. Laurel were crucial in the development of Philippine jurisprudence and are widely read and quoted nearly 70 years after they had been written.

Any other Justice, whether they be in the majority or in the minority, is entitled to write a separate opinion in a case to clarify his/her views, or even to challenge the points raised in the majority opinion. In the 1973 case of Javellana v. Executive Secretary, concerning the ratification of the 1973 Constitution, each Justice chose to write a separate opinion, while more recently, the 2005 decision on the Expanded VAT Law (Abakada v. Executive Secretary) saw 11 separate opinions. The separate opinions of a Justice in the majority is usually known as a "concurring opinion", while one penned by a Justice in the minority is known as a "dissenting opinion". A Justice who only partially agrees with the majority opinion while disagreeing with portions thereof may even write a "concurring and dissenting opinion".

While these separate opinions do not receive as much public attention as majority opinions, they are usually studied in the legal academe and by other judges. On several occasions, views expressed in a dissenting or concurring opinion were adopted by the Supreme Court in later years. Justice Gregorio Perfecto, whose staunch libertarian views were out of sync with the Cold War era, wrote over 140 dissenting opinions in just 4 years. Years after his death, some of his views in dissent, such as in Moncado v. People's Court (1948) were adopted by a more liberal Supreme Court.

The rule of seniority[edit]

The Associate Justices of the Court are usually ordered according to the date of their appointment. There are no official ramifications as to this ranking, although the order determines the seating arrangement on the bench and is duly considered in all matters of protocol. Within the discretion of the Court, the ranking may also factor into the composition of the divisions of the Court.

In 1986, the order of seniority in the Court was modified upon the assumption to the presidency of Corazon C. Aquino. President Aquino had sought to reorganize the Court by obtaining the resignation of most of the Associate Justices who had been appointed by Ferdinand Marcos, and filling those vacancies with her own choices. Eventually, Aquino chose to re-appoint three Marcos-appointed Justices: Ameurfina A. Melencio-Herrera, Hugo E. Gutierrez, Jr.[14] and Nestor B. Alampay, but did so only after appointing several new Justices to the Court. The previous service of these three were not considered for the purposes of determining seniority. This point would cause a minor controversy in 1992. During that time, it was advocated in some sectors that Herrera, as the longest serving incumbent Associate Justice, was more qualified to succeed the resigned Chief Justice Marcelo B. Fernan than Andres R. Narvasa, who was considered as the Senior Associate Justice despite having been appointed to the Court 7 years after Melencio-Herrera. President Aquino eventually appointed Narvasa over Herrera.

The incumbent Justice with the earliest date of appointment is deemed the Senior Associate Justice. While the Senior Associate Justice has no constitutional or statutory duties, he or she usually acts as Acting Chief Justice during the absence of the Chief Justice. The Senior Associate Justice is also usually designated as the chairperson of the second division of the Court.

The following became Senior Associate Justices in their tenure in the Supreme Court:

* Appointed as Chief Justice
* Elected as President
Senior Associate Justice Year Appointed Tenure
Florentino Torres 1901 1901–1920
Elias Finley Johnson 1903 1920–1933
Thomas A. Street 1917 1933–1935
George A. Malcolm 1917 1936–1936
Antonio Villa-Real 1925 1936–1940
José Abad Santos 1932 1940–1941
José P. Laurel Sr. 1936 1941–1942
Manuel V. Moran 1938 1942–1945
Roman Ozaeta 1941 1945–1950
Ricardo M. Parás Jr. 1941 1950–1951
Felicisimo R. Feria 1945 1951–1953
César F. Bengzon 1945 1953–1961
Sabino B. Padilla 1945 1961– 1964
Roberto R. Concepcion, Jr. 1954 1964–1966
Jose B. L. Reyes 1954 1966–1972
Querube C. Makalintal 1962 1972–1973
Roberto Regala 1962 1973–1975
Fred Ruiz Castro 1966 1975–1976
Enrique M. Fernando Sr. 1967 1976–1979
Claudio Teehankee Sr. 1968 1979–1986
Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera 1979 1986
Andres R. Narvasa 1986 1986–1991
Hugo Gutierrez Jr. 1982 and 1986 1991–1993
Isagani A. Cruz 1986 1993–1994
Teodoro R. Padilla 1987 1994–1997
Florenz D. Regalado 1988 1997–1998
Flerida Ruth P. Romero 1991 1998–1999
Josue N. Bellosillo 1992 1999–2003
Reynato S. Puno 1993 2003–2005
Leonardo A. Quisumbing 1998 2005–2009
Antonio T. Carpio 2001 2009–2019
Estela M. Perlas-Bernabe 2011 2019–present

Becoming Chief Justice[edit]

Only two persons appointed as Chief Justice had not previously served as Associate Justices. These were Cayetano Arellano, the first Chief Justice, and Jose Yulo, the former Speaker of the House of Representatives who was appointed as Chief Justice during the Japanese period. All other Chief Justices, except for Victorino Mapa, were incumbent Associate Justices at the time of their appointment as Chief Justice. Mapa had served as Associate Justice from 1901 to 1913, when he was appointed as Secretary of Justice. Mapa would be appointed as Chief Justice in 1920.

Another tradition, though less stringently observed, was that the most senior Associate Justice would be appointed as Chief Justice upon a permanent vacancy to that post. Deviations from this tradition, especially in recent years, have caused some controversy. Senior Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee, who had emerged as a fervent critic of Ferdinand Marcos, was twice bypassed for Chief Justice by Marcos. More recently, in 2005, the appointment of Artemio Panganiban as Chief Justice over Senior Associate Justice Reynato Puno was also the subject of some controversy. Puno was eventually appointed as Chief Justice in 2006. Another contender for Chief Justice in 2006 was Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago. Had Santiago been appointed Chief Justice, she would have been the first person since Jose Yulo in 1942 to have been appointed Chief without serving as Associate Justice. When Justice Renato Corona assumed as Chief Justice on May 17, 2010, the most senior Associate Justice was Antonio Carpio, who was appointed to the Court in October 2001, 6 months before Corona's own appointment.

List of Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines[edit]

# Justice Start of term End of term Replacing Chief justices Appointed by
1 Cayetano Arellano[15] June 11, 1901 April 12, 1920[16] Newly created seat First Chief Justice William McKinley
2 Florentino Torres[17] June 17, 1901 April 20, 1920 Cayetano Arellano
3 Victorino Mapa[18] October 31, 1913
4 James Francis Smith February 17, 1903
5 Joseph F. Cooper October 17, 1904
6 Charles A. Willard April 24, 1904
7 Fletcher Ladd July 13, 1903
8 John T. McDonough February 18, 1903 May 1, 1904 James Francis Smith Theodore Roosevelt
9 Elias Finley Johnson October 3, 1903 April 1, 1933 Fletcher Ladd
10 Adam Clarke Carson November 16, 1904 November 30, 1920 Charles A. Willard
11 James F. Tracy July 1, 1905 July 2, 1909 John T. Mcdonough
12 Sherman Moreland February 1, 1909 April 23, 1917
13 Charles Burke Elliott June 3, 1909 February 13, 1910 William Howard Taft
14 Grant T. Trent February 28, 1910 April 23, 1917 Charles Burke Elliott
15 Manuel Araullo December 16, 1913 October 31, 1921 Victorino Mapa
16 Thomas A. Street June 13, 1917 June 1, 1935 Woodrow Wilson
17 George A. Malcolm July 9, 1917 February 1, 1936
18 Ramón Avanceña October 31, 1917 March 31, 1925
19 Frederich Charles Fisher November 17, 1917 November 16, 1918
20 Percy M. Moir November 25, 1918 November 20, 1920
21 Ignacio Villamor May 19, 1920 May 25, 1933[i]
22 James A. Ostrand September 27, 1921 June 30, 1933 Victorino Mapa Victorino Mapa Warren G. Harding
23 Charles A. Johns October 7, 1921 January 11, 1932[i] Percy M. Moir
24 Norberto Romualdez November 1, 1921 April 1, 1932 Manuel Araullo Manuel Araullo
25 Antonio Villareal June 16, 1925 June 5, 1940 colspan=2 Ramón Avanceña Calvin Coolidge
26 John A. Hull June 1, 1932 February 1, 1936 Charles A. Johns Ramón Avanceña Herbert Hoover
27 James C. Vickers February 1, 1936
28 José Abad Santos June 18, 1932 December 23, 1941 Norberto Romualdez
29 Carlos A. Imperial June 22, 1932 May 20, 1941[i]
30 George Charles Butte July 1, 1932 February 1, 1936
31 Anacleto Diaz November 20, 1933 December 19, 1941 Ignacio Villamor Franklin Delano Roosevelt
32 Leonard S. Goddard January 9, 1934 January 29, 1936
33 Claro M. Recto July 3, 1935 November 1, 1936
34 José P. Laurel February 29, 1936 February 5, 1942 Manuel L. Quezon
35 Pedro Concepción October 31, 1936 January 1, 1940
36 Manuel V. Moran December 12, 1938 July 9, 1945
37 Roman Ozaeta June 24, 1941 October 16, 1950 Antonio Villareal
38 Ricardo Parás December 28, 1941 April 1, 1951 José Abad Santos
39 José Yulo February 5, 1942 May 7, 1942
40 Jorge C. Bocobo January 31, 1944
41 Jose Generoso July 15, 1948 José Yulo
42 Jose Lopez Vito January 31, 1944
42-A[19] Domingo Imperial May 11, 1942 January 31, 1944
43 Antonio Horrilleno July 1, 1943 August 17, 1945
44 Delfin Jaranilla June 6, 1945 June 6, 1946 Sergio Osmeña
45 Felicisimo R. Feria August 6, 1953
46 Mariano H. De Joya June 25, 1945
47 Guillermo Pablo June 4, 1955
48 Gregorio Perfecto August 17, 1949[i]
49 Emilio Y. Hilado May 31, 1948
50 Jose A. Espiritu August 15, 1945
51 Manuel C. Briones September 15, 1945 May 24, 1949 Manuel V. Moran
52 César Bengzon April 28, 1961
53 Sabino B. Padilla June 25, 1946 August 21, 1964 Manuel Roxas
54 Pedro Tuazon January 4, 1954
55 Jose Hontiveros October 16, 1947
56 Alejandro A. Reyes August 6, 1948 June 3, 1959 Jose Generoso Elpidio Quirino
57 Marcelino R. Montemayor August 21, 1948 July 27, 1960
58 Luis P. Torres August 20, 1949 April 1, 1950
59 Felix Angelo Bautista October 20, 1950 May 20, 1956
60 Fernando Jugo June 3, 1956[i]
61 Alejo Labrador April 22, 1952 July 17, 1964 Ricardo Parás
62 Roberto Concepcion February 9, 1954 June 17, 1966 Ramon Magsaysay
63 Ramon Diokno February 10, 1954 April 21, 1954[i]
64 Jose B. L. Reyes June 30, 1954 August 19, 1972 Ramon Diokno
65 Pastor M. Endencia December 20, 1955 July 26, 1960
66 Alfonso Felix July 24, 1956 September 17, 1958
67 Jesus G. Barrera June 5, 1959 December 18, 1966 Carlos P. García
68 Jose Gutierrez David August 28, 1959 January 29, 1961
69 Arsenio Dizon July 26, 1960 October 5, 1971
70 Jose Ma. Paredes August 18, 1960 August 15, 1965
71 Dionisio De Leon April 28, 1961 April 8, 1962 César Bengzon
72 Felipe Natividad April 8, 1962 September 20, 1962 Diosdado Macapagal
73 Roberto Regala May 23, 1962 December 22, 1975
74 Querube Makalintal October 21, 1973
75 Calixto Zaldivar September 12, 1964 September 13, 1974 Alejo Labrador
76 Jose P. Bengzon September 12, 1964 May 5, 1968 Sabino B. Padilla
77 Conrado V. Sanchez May 29, 1966 February 19, 1970 Ferdinand Marcos
78 Fred Ruiz Castro January 5, 1976
79 Eugenio Angeles June 30, 1967 November 2, 1968 Roberto Concepcion
80 Enrique Fernando July 1, 1979
81 Francisco Capistrano September 16, 1968 October 6, 1969
82 Claudio Teehankee December 17, 1968 April 1, 1986 Eugenio Angeles
83 Antonio P. Barredo December 17, 1968 October 4, 1982
84 Julio Villamor January 24, 1970 April 12, 1972
85 Felix Makasiar August 2, 1970 July 25, 1985 Conrado V. Sanchez
86 Felix Q. Antonio June 1972 May 18, 1980
87 Salvador V. Esguerra June 19, 1976
88 Estanislao A. Fernandez October 19, 1973 March 28, 1975 Jose B. L. Reyes Querube Makalintal
89 Cecilia Muñoz-Palma October 29, 1973 November 22, 1978 Newly created seat
90 Ramon Aquino November 19, 1985
91 Hermogenes Concepcion Jr. April 18, 1975 January 10, 1978 Calixto Zaldivar
92 Ruperto G. Martin April 18, 1975 January 10, 1978 Estanislao A. Fernandez
93 Guillermo S. Santos May 27, 1977 January 23, 1980 Fred Ruiz Castro
94 Ramon C. Fernandez May 11, 1982 Conrado M. Vasquez
95 Juvenal K. Guerrero November 4, 1984
96 Vicente Abad Santos January 17, 1979 July 12, 1986 Fred Ruiz Castro
97 Pacifico P. De Castro May 31, 1984
98 Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera May 11, 1992 Cecilia Muñoz-Palma
Corazon Aquino (1986)
99 Vicente G. Ericta November 20, 1981 May 11, 1982 Enrique Fernando Ferdinand Marcos
100 Efren I. Plana April 16, 1986
101 Venicio T. Escolin April 15, 1986
102 Conrado M. Vasquez May 14, 1982 September 30, 1983 Ramon C. Fernandez
103 Lorenzo Relova January 19, 1986
104 Hugo Gutierrez Jr. March 31, 1993 Ferdinand Marcos(1979)
Corazon Aquino (1986)
105 Buenaventura S. De La Fuente February 28, 1984 March 6, 1986 Conrado M. Vasquez Ferdinand Marcos
106 Serafin R. Cuevas June 1, 1984 April 16, 1986
107 Nestor B. Alampay January 24, 1985 March 17, 1986 Enrique Fernando
108 Lino M. Patajo July 31, 1985 April 16, 1986 Felix Makasiar
109 Jose Feria April 7, 1986 January 10, 1987 Felix Makasiar Corazon Aquino
110 Pedro Yap April 8, 1986 April 18, 1988 Ramon Aquino
111 Marcelo Fernan April 9, 1986 June 30, 1988 Lorenzo Relova
112 Andres Narvasa April 10, 1986 December 7, 1991 Claudio Teehankee
113 Isagani A. Cruz April 16, 1986 October 11, 1994
114 Edgardo L. Paras July 4, 1992
115 Florentino P. Feliciano August 8, 1986 December 13, 1995
116 Teodoro R. Padilla January 12, 1987 August 22, 1997
117 Abdulwahid A. Bidin May 7, 1995
118 Emilio A. Gancayco August 20, 1991
119 Abraham F. Sarmiento January 25, 1987 October 8, 1991 Vicente Abad Santos
120 Irene Cortes February 1, 1987 October 20, 1990 Jose Feria
121 Carolina Griño-Aquino February 2, 1988 October 22, 1993 Irene Cortes Claudio Teehankee
122 Leo D. Medialdea May 2, 1988 November 7, 1992[i] Carolina Griño-Aquino Pedro Yap
123 Florenz Regalado July 29, 1988 October 13, 1998 Marcelo Fernan Marcelo Fernan
124 Hilario Davide Jr. January 24, 1991 November 29, 1998 Irene Cortes
125 Flerida Ruth Romero October 21, 1991 August 1, 1999 Abraham F. Sarmiento
126 Rodolfo A. Nocon December 2, 1991 March 15, 1994
127 Josue N. Bellosillo March 3, 1992 November 13, 2003 Andres Narvasa Andres Narvasa
128 Jose Melo August 10, 1992 May 30, 2002 Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera Fidel Ramos
129 Jose C. Campos Jr. September 3, 1992 April 9, 1993
130 Camilo D. Quiason February 1, 1993 July 18, 1995 Leo D. Medialdea
131 Reynato Puno June 28, 1993 December 7, 2007 Hugo E. Gutierrez, Jr.
132 Jose C. Vitug July 15, 2004 Jose C. Campos Jr.
133 Santiago M. Kapunan January 5, 1994 August 12, 2002 Carolina Griño-Aquino
134 Vicente V. Mendoza June 7, 1994 April 5, 2003 Rodolfo A. Nocon
135 Ricardo J. Francisco January 5, 1995 February 13, 1998 Isagani A. Cruz
136 Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. January 10, 1995 October 18, 1997
137 Artemio Panganiban October 5, 1995 December 19, 2005 Camilo Quiason
138 Justo P. Torres Jr. March 11, 1996 November 1, 1997
139 Antonio M. Martinez November 10, 1997 February 2, 1999
140 Leonardo A. Quisumbing January 15, 1998 November 6, 2009 Justo P. Torres Jr.
141 Fidel P. Purisima January 20, 1998 October 28, 2000 Regino C. Hermosisima Jr.
142 Bernardo P. Pardo September 30, 1998 February 11, 2002 Ricardo J. Francisco Joseph Estrada
143 Arturo B. Buena January 5, 1999 March 25, 2002 Florenz D. Regalado Hilario Davide Jr.
144 Minerva P. Gonzaga-Reyes September 25, 2001 Hilario Davide Jr.
145 Consuelo Ynares-Santiago April 6, 1999 October 5, 2009 Antonio Martinez
146 Sabino R. De Leon Jr. October 12, 1999 June 9, 2002 Flerida Ruth Pineda-Romero
147 Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez December 22, 2000 February 28, 2008 Fidel P. Purisima
148 Antonio Carpio October 26, 2001 October 26, 2019 Minerva P. Gonzaga-Reyes Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
149 Alicia Austria-Martinez April 9, 2002 April 30, 2009 Bernardo P. Pardo
150 Renato Corona May 17, 2010 Arturo B. Buena
151 Conchita Carpio-Morales August 26, 2002 June 19, 2011 Jose Melo
152 Romeo J. Callejo, Sr. August 26, 2002 April 28, 2007 Sabino R. De Leon Jr.
153 Adolfo S. Azcuna October 17, 2002 February 16, 2009 Santiago M. Kapunan
154 Dante O. Tiñga July 4, 2003 May 11, 2009 Vicente V. Mendoza
155 Minita V. Chico-Nazario February 10, 2004 December 5, 2009 Josue N. Bellosillo
156 Cancio Garcia October 7, 2004 October 30, 2007 Jose C. Vitug
157 Presbitero Velasco Jr. March 31, 2006 August 8, 2018 Artemio Panganiban Artemio Panganiban
158 Antonio Eduardo B. Nachura February 7, 2007 June 13, 2011 Reynato Puno Reynato Puno
159 Ruben T. Reyes August 2, 2007 January 3, 2009 Romeo J. Callejo, Sr.
160 Teresita Leonardo-de Castro December 3, 2007 August 28, 2018 Cancio Garcia
161 Arturo D. Brion March 17, 2008 December 29, 2016 Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez
162 Diosdado Peralta January 14, 2009[18] October 22, 2019 Ruben Reyes
163 Lucas Bersamin April 3, 2009[20] November 28, 2018 Adolfo Azcuna
164 Mariano del Castillo July 29, 2009 July 29, 2019 Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez
165 Roberto A. Abad August 7, 2009 May 22, 2014 Dante O. Tiñga
166 Martin Villarama Jr. November 6, 2009 January 16, 2016 Consuelo Ynares-Santiago
167 Jose P. Perez December 26, 2009 December 14, 2016 Leonardo A. Quisumbing
168 Jose C. Mendoza January 4, 2010 August 13, 2017 Minita Chico-Nazario
169 Maria Lourdes Sereno August 13, 2010 August 24, 2012 Renato Corona rowspan="3" Renato Corona Benigno Aquino III
170 Bienvenido L. Reyes August 20, 2011 July 6, 2017 Antonio Eduardo Nachura
171 Estela Perlas-Bernabe September 16, 2011 Incumbent Conchita Carpio-Morales
172 Marvic Leonen November 21, 2012 Incumbent Maria Lourdes Sereno Maria Lourdes Sereno
173 Francis Jardeleza August 19, 2014 September 26, 2019 Roberto Abad
174 Alfredo Benjamin Caguioa January 22, 2016 Incumbent Martin Villarama Jr.
175 Samuel R. Martires March 2, 2017 August 3, 2018 Jose P. Perez Rodrigo Duterte
176 Noel G. Tijam March 8, 2017 January 5, 2019 Arturo D. Brion
177 Andres B. Reyes Jr. July 12, 2017 May 11, 2020 Bienvenido L. Reyes
178 Alexander Gesmundo August 14, 2017 Incumbent Jose C. Mendoza
179 Jose Reyes Jr. August 9, 2018 September 18, 2020 Presbitero Velasco Jr. Antonio Carpio (Acting)
180 Ramon Paul Hernando October 10, 2018[21] Samuel R. Martires Teresita Leonardo-De Castro
181 Rosmari Carandang November 26, 2018[22] Incumbent Teresita Leonardo-de Castro Lucas Bersamin
182 Amy Lazaro-Javier March 6, 2019[20] Incumbent Noel Tijam Lucas Bersamin
183 Henri Jean Paul B. Inting May 27, 2019[23] Incumbent Lucas Bersamin Lucas Bersamin
184 Rodil V. Zalameda August 5, 2019[24] Incumbent Mariano del Castillo Lucas Bersamin
185 Mario V. Lopez December 3, 2019[25] Incumbent Francis Jardeleza Diosdado Peralta
186 Edgardo L. Delos Santos Incumbent Antonio Carpio
187 Samuel H. Gaerlan January 8, 2020[18] Incumbent Diosdado Peralta
188 Priscilla Baltazar-Padilla July 16, 2020[26] November 3, 2020 Andres Reyes, Jr.
189 Ricardo Rosario October 8, 2020[27] Incumbent Jose Reyes, Jr.

Living Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines[edit]

Rank Justice Life dates Age Notes
13 Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. October 18, 1927 93 years, 96 days Current oldest living former Associate Justice
28 Minerva P. Gonzaga-Reyes September 25, 1931 89 years, 119 days
30 Bernardo P. Pardo February 11, 1932 88 years, 346 days
36 Santiago M. Kapunan August 12, 1932 88 years, 163 days
42 Vicente V. Mendoza April 5, 1933 87 years, 292 days
44 Josue N. Bellosillo November 13, 1933 87 years, 70 days
50 Jose C. Vitug July 15, 1934 86 years, 191 days
59 Hilario Davide Jr. December 20, 1935 85 years, 33 days Nineteenth Chief Justice (1998–2005)
64 Artemio Panganiban December 7, 1936 84 years, 46 days 20th Chief Justice (2005–2007)
66 Romeo J. Callejo, Sr. April 28, 1937 83 years, 269 days
70 Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez February 28, 1938 82 years, 329 days
76 Ruben T. Reyes January 3, 1939 82 years, 19 days
78 Adolfo S. Azcuna February 16, 1939 81 years, 341 days
79 Dante O. Tiñga May 11, 1939 81 years, 256 days
82 Consuelo Ynares-Santiago October 5, 1939 81 years, 109 days
83 Minita V. Chico-Nazario December 5, 1939 81 years, 48 days
84 Reynato Puno May 17, 1940 80 years, 250 days 22nd Chief Justice (2006–2010)
86 Alicia Austria-Martinez December 19, 1940 80 years, 34 days
88 Antonio Eduardo B. Nachura June 13, 1941 79 years, 223 days
89 Conchita Carpio-Morales June 19, 1941 79 years, 217 days
98 Roberto A. Abad May 22, 1944 76 years, 245 days
111 Martin Villarama Jr. April 14, 1946 74 years, 283 days
114 Jose P. Perez December 14, 1946 74 years, 39 days
115 Arturo D. Brion December 29, 1946 74 years, 24 days
121 Bienvenido L. Reyes July 6, 1947 73 years, 200 days
123 Jose C. Mendoza August 13, 1947 73 years, 162 days
129 Presbitero Velasco Jr. August 8, 1948 72 years, 167 days
134 Teresita Leonardo-de Castro October 8, 1948 72 years, 106 days de Jure 24th Chief Justice (2018)
136 Samuel R. Martires January 2, 1949 72 years, 20 days Currently serving as the Ombudsman
137 Noel G. Tijam January 5, 1949 72 years, 17 days
141 Mariano del Castillo July 29, 1949 71 years, 177 days
142 Francis Jardeleza September 26, 1949 71 years, 118 days
143 Lucas Bersamin October 18, 1949 71 years, 96 days 25th Chief Justice (2018–2019)
144 Antonio Carpio October 26, 1949 71 years, 88 days
148 Andres B. Reyes Jr. May 11, 1950 70 years, 256 days
150 Jose Reyes Jr. September 18, 1950 70 years, 126 days
153 Rosmari Carandang January 9, 1952 69 years, 13 days
155 Diosdado Peralta March 27, 1952 68 years, 301 days 26th Chief Justice (2019– present)
156 Estela Perlas-Bernabe May 14, 1952 68 years, 253 days
157 Edgardo L. Delos Santos June 12, 1952 68 years, 224 days
163 Mario V. Lopez June 4, 1955 65 years, 232 days
170 Alexander Gesmundo November 6, 1956 64 years, 77 days
172 Amy Lazaro-Javier November 16, 1956 64 years, 67 days
173 Henri Jean Paul B. Inting September 4, 1957 63 years, 140 days
175 Priscilla Baltazar-Padilla July 2, 1958 62 years, 204 days
176 Samuel H. Gaerlan December 19, 1958 62 years, 34 days
177 Ricardo Rosario October 15, 1958 62 years, 99 days
179 Alfredo Benjamin Caguioa September 30, 1959 61 years, 114 days
181 Maria Lourdes Sereno July 2, 1960 60 years, 204 days de facto Chief Justice (2012–2018)
184 Marvic Leonen December 29, 1962 58 years, 24 days
186 Rodil V. Zalameda August 3, 1963 57 years, 172 days
189 Ramon Paul Hernando August 27, 1966 54 years, 148 days

The most recent death of a former Justice was that of Jose Armando R. Melo who passed away on October 17, 2020 at the age of 88 years, 141 days.

Notable Associate Justices[edit]

  1. To date, one Associate Justice, José P. Laurel, would later serve as President of the Philippines. Laurel also ran for the presidency in 1949 but was defeated by Elpidio Quirino. Another Associate Justice, Claro M. Recto, would be a candidate for president, but he and former Chief Justice Jose Yulo lost to Carlos P. Garcia in the 1957 presidential election.
  2. Since 1973 there are Seventeen women appointed as Associate Justices of the Court (by Appointing President)
    1. Ferdinand Marcos (19651986)
      1. Cecilia Muñoz-Palma (1973)
      2. Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera (1979)
    2. Corazon Aquino (19861992)
      1. Irene Rian-Cortes (1986)
      2. Carolina Griño-Aquino (1987)
      3. Flerida Ruth Pineda-Romero (1991)
    3. Joseph Estrada (19982001)
      1. Minerva Gonzaga-Reyes (1999)
      2. Consuelo Ynares-Santiago (1999)
      3. Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez (2000)
    4. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (20012010)
      1. Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez (2002)
      2. Conchita Carpio-Morales (2002)
      3. Minita Chico-Nazario (2003)
      4. Teresita Leonardo-De Castro (2007)
    5. Benigno Aquino III (20102016])
      1. Maria Lourdes Sereno (2020)
      2. Estela M. Perlas-Bernabe (2011)
    6. Rodrigo Duterte (2016incumbent)
      1. Rosmari Carandang (2018)
      2. Amy Lazaro-Javier (2019)
      3. Priscilla Baltazar-Padilla (2020, most recent)
  3. Among the Catholic Justices There are other denominations from which justices came from.
    1. Islam
      1. Abdulwahid Bidin (Appointed in 1987)
    2. Methodist
      1. Chief Justice José Abad Santos
      2. Chief Justice Reynato Puno
    3. Non-denominational Christian
      1. Chief Justice María Lourdes Sereno
  4. There has been notable pairs Appointed in the Supreme Court
    1. Husband and Wife
      1. Chief Justice Ramon and Associate Justice Carolina (Appointed in 1987)).
    2. Father-Son
      1. The Torres': Florentino (appointed in 1901) and Luis (appointed in 1949)
      2. The Paras': Chief Justice Ricardo Paras (appointed in 1941) and his son, Associate Justice Edgardo (appointed in 1987)
      3. The Padilla's: Sabino (appointed in 1946, again in 1950) and Teodoro (Appointed in 1987);
      4. The Feria's: Felicisimo (appointed in 1945) and Jose (appoinred in 1986)).
    3. Uncle-Nephew
      1. Abad Santos' Chief Justice José and Associate Justice Vicente
      2. The Briones-Fernan: Associate Justice Manuel and Chief Justice Marcelo
  5. At age 35, American George A. Malcolm was the youngest person ever appointed Associate Justice, in 1915. However, the present age limit in the Constitution is 40. The youngest Filipinos named Associate Justices were Claro M. Recto (45 years, 4 months, 25 days old) and Ramon Avanceña (45 years, 5 months, 18 days old).
  6. The oldest person named Associate Justice was Jose C. Campos, Jr. (69 years, 4 months and 23 days old), serving under President Fidel Ramos in 1993. However, Jose Lopez Vito was 69 years, 364 days old when he temporarily sat in Court to fill a vacancy during the Japanese occupation. The oldest Justice to ever sit in Court upon retirement or death was Florentino Torres, who was 75 when he resigned in 1920; this was prior to the specification of any age limit.
  7. The longest-serving Associate Justice was American Elias Finley Johnson, who served in that position for 29 years, 5 months and 27 days, from 1903 to 1933. The longest serving Filipino Associate Justice was Florentino Torres, who served for 18 years, 10 months, and 3 days, from 1901 to 1920. Justices Ramon Avanceña and Cesar Bengzon would serve longer in the Court than Torres, but their tenure as Associate Justice was terminated by their upon their appointment as Chief Justice in 1925 and 1961 respectively.
  8. The Associate Justice serving the shortest period was Ramon Diokno, a former Senator who died 2 months and 11 days after his appointment in 1954.
  9. The youngest Associate Justice to die was American Fletcher Ladd, who died shortly after resigning in 1903 aged 40 years and 356 days; Ladd had served in the Court for less than two years. The youngest Filipino Justice to die was José Abad Santos, who was executed by the Imperial Japanese Army at age 56 years, 73 days. Gregorio Perfecto meanwhile died in office aged 57 years, 262 days.
  10. Of the 188 Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, 12 (3 Chief Justices and 9 Associate Justices) died while serving their respective tenures they were
    1. Chief Justice Manuel Araullo (1924)
    2. Associate Justice Charles Johns (1932)
    3. Associate Justice Ignacio Villamor (1933)
    4. Associate Justice Carlos Imperial (1941)
    5. Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos (1942)
    6. Associate Justice Anacleto Diaz (1945)
    7. Associate Justice Antonino Villareal (1945)
    8. Associate Justice Gregorio Perfecto (1949)
    9. Associate Justice Ramon Diokno (1954)
    10. Associate Justice Fernando Jugo (1956)
    11. Chief Justice Fred Ruiz Castro (1976)
    12. Associate Justice Leo Medialdea (1992)
  11. The only Associate Justice who resigned before the age of compulsory retirement due to health reasons was Austria-Martinez. Note that Florentino Feliciano retired at 67 to accept appointment to the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization. In September 2008, Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez, citing health reasons, filed a letter to the Supreme Court of the Philippines through Reynato Puno, tendering her resignation effective April 30, 2009, or 15 months before her compulsory retirement on December 19, 2010. In the October 1 Judicial and Bar Council's en banc deliberations, Reynato Puno ruled: "The court merely noted it. We don't have to approve it... it is her right."[28] During the JBC hearing, a JBC member said "Austria-Martinez had wanted to retire earlier because of health reasons. We were told she had health problems even when she was in the CA."[29] Retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Artemio Panganiban stated: "I am saddened that Justice Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez has opted to retire early from the Supreme Court due to 'health reasons.' to discharge the duties of their office."[30]
  12. The longest-lived Supreme Court Associate Justice was Associate Justice James C. Vickers, who died on January 1, 2000,[31] aged 122 years, 149 days. As of 22 January 2021, the oldest living Associate Justice is Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. who born on (1927-10-18)October 18, 1927 who is currently 93 years, 96 days, he will outlive Justice Vickers if he lives to March 27, 2049.
  13. Nineteen associate Justices lived pass their 90s:
    1. James C. Vickers, (August 5, 1877–January 1, 2000[31] (aged 122 years, 149 days))
    2. Hermogenes Concepcion Jr. (April 20, 1920 – November 28, 2018 (aged 98 years, 222 days))
    3. Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera (May 11, 1922 – October 11, 2020 (aged 98 years, 154 days))
    4. Lorenzo Relova (January 20, 1916 – April 23, 2014 (aged 98 years, 93 days))
    5. Delfin Jaranilla (December 24, 1883 – June 4, 1980 (aged 96 years, 302 days))
    6. Guillermo Pablo (June 5, 1886 – August 2, 1982 (aged 96 years, 58 days)
    7. César Bengzon (May 29, 1896 – September 3, 1992 (aged 96 years, 97 days))
    8. Jose A. Espiritu (April 10, 1886 – May 30, 1982 (aged 96 years, 50 days))
    9. Ricardo M. Parás, Jr. (February 17, 1891 – October 10, 1984 (93 years, 236 days))
    10. Lino M. Patajo (September 23, 1916 – April 11, 2010 (aged 93 years, 200 days))
    11. Conrado M. Vasquez (September 13, 1913 – September 19, 2006 (aged 93 years, 6 days))
    12. Jose Benedicto L. Reyes (August 19, 1902 – December 27, 1994 (aged 92 years, 130 days))
    13. Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. (born October 18, 1927 93 years, 96 days))
    14. Cecilia Muñoz-Palma (November 22, 1913 – January 2, 2006 (aged 92 years, 41 days)),
    15. Vicente G. Ericta (February 3, 1915 – February 7, 2007 (aged 92 years, 4 days))
    16. Querube Makalintal (December 22, 1910 – November 8, 2002 (aged 91 years, 321 days))
    17. Sabino B. Padilla (August 21, 1894 – June 15, 1986 (aged 91 years, 298 days)
    18. Jose P. Bengzon (May 5, 1898 – February 4, 1990 (aged 91 years, 275 days)
    19. Jesus G. Barrera (December 18, 1896 – August 28, 1988 (aged 91 years, 254 days))
    20. Jose Feria (January 11, 1917 – May 8, 2008 (aged 91 years, 117 days))
    21. Pastor M. Endencia (July 26, 1890 – July 22, 1981 (aged 90 years, 361 days))
    22. Justo P. Torres Jr. (November 1, 1927 – December 26, 2017 (aged 90 years, 55 days))

Note Updated daily through UTC.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • The Supreme Court E-library
  • Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. I. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0134-9.
  • Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. II. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0137-3.
  • Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. III. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-0139-X.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Profile of the new Supreme Court Justice, Estela M. Perlas-Bernabe | Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines". web.archive.org. July 23, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  2. ^ Patricia Denise Chiu; Mark Merueñas (November 21, 2012). "Peace negotiator Leonen named to Supreme Court; youngest justice since '38". GMA News Online. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  3. ^ Torres-Tupas, Tetch (January 27, 2016). "Justice Secretary Caguioa takes oath as 174th SC justice". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  4. ^ "Duterte appoints Gesmundo new SC associate justice". August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
  5. ^ Punay, Edu (October 11, 2018). "Court of Appeals Ramon Paul Hernando promoted to Supreme Court". philstar.com. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  6. ^ Buan, Lian (November 28, 2018). "Duterte appoints woman justice to the Supreme Court". Rappler. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  7. ^ "LIST: 8 nominees for SC associate justice post". ABS-CBN News. June 25, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  8. ^ "Metro News Today: Bersamin Is The New Chief Justice". League Online News. November 28, 2018.
  9. ^ Buan, Lian. "Duterte appoints CA justice Zalameda to Supreme Court". Rappler. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  10. ^ "Justice Mario Villamor Lopez is sworn in as the 185th Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines | Supreme Court of the Philippines". December 5, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  11. ^ Panaligan, Rey (December 4, 2019). "SC receives appointment papers of two new associate justices". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
  12. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (January 8, 2020). "Samuel Gaerlan promoted to Supreme Court: Palace". Retrieved January 8, 2020.
  13. ^ Lagrimas, Nicole-Annie (September 16, 2020). "JBC shortlists 7 for upcoming Supreme Court vacancy". gmanetwork.com. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  14. ^ Torres-Tupas, Tetch (June 12, 2013). "Retired Associate Justice Hugo Gutierrez Jr. passes away at 86". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  15. ^ "Our Heritage and the Departed: A Cemeteries Tour". Presidential Museum & Library (Philippines). Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  16. ^ "Our Heritage and the Departed: A Cemeteries Tour". Presidential Museum & Library (Philippines). Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  17. ^ Medina, Marielle (October 16, 2015). "Did You Know". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  18. ^ a b c "Philippines Top Stories: Politics, Environment, Education, Trending | Inquirer.net". newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  19. ^ http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/A.M.-No.-18-09-18-SC.pdf
  20. ^ a b "Arroyo appoints CA Justice Bersamin to high court". GMA News Online. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  21. ^ "PROFILE OF SC JUSTICE RAMON PAUL L. HERNANDO". INQUIRER. October 12, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  22. ^ News, ABS-CBN (November 28, 2018). "Duterte appoints CA justice Rosmari Carandang to Supreme Court". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  23. ^ Ranada, Pia. "Duterte appoints CA justice Henri Inting to Supreme Court". Rappler. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  24. ^ "Duterte appoints CA justice Zalameda to Supreme Court". Rappler. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  25. ^ "Diosdado Peralta is new Chief Justice". cnn. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  26. ^ "Duterte appoints CA justice Padilla to Supreme Court of the Philippines". CNN Philippines. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  27. ^ Navalio, Mike (September 9, 2020). "Duterte appoints CA's Rosario to Supreme Court". ABS CBN News. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  28. ^ "Manila Standard".
  29. ^ abs-cbnNEWS.com/Newsbreak, by ARIES RUFO (September 30, 2008). "Exclusive: SC Justice Alicia Martinez to retire early". ABS-CBN News.
  30. ^ "1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES - CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY". www.chanrobles.com.
  31. ^ a b https://elibrary.judiciary.gov.ph/supremecourtjustices/associatejustice/43
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Justices Died in office