Astemizole

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Astemizole
Astemizole.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Multum Consumer Information
MedlinePlus a600034
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code R06AX11 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
  • Withdrawn
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding ~96%
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP3A4)[1]
Biological half-life 24 hours
Excretion Fecal
Identifiers
IUPAC name: 1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-N-[1-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-piperidyl]benzoimidazol-2-amine
CAS Number 68844-77-9 YesY
PubChem (CID) 2247
IUPHAR/BPS 2603
DrugBank DB00637 YesY
ChemSpider 2160 YesY
UNII 7HU6337315 YesY
KEGG D00234 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:2896 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL296419 YesY
Chemical and physical data
Formula C28H31FN4O
Molar mass 458.571 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
  (verify)

Astemizole (marketed under the brand name Hismanal, developmental code R43512) was a second-generation antihistamine drug that has a long duration of action. Astemizole was discovered by Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1977. It has been withdrawn from the market in most countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects (QTc interval prolongation and related arrhythmias due to hERG channel blockade).[2]

Pharmacology[edit]

Astemizole is a histamine H1-receptor antagonist. It has anticholinergic and antipruritic effects.

Astemizole is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and competitively binds to histamine H1 receptor sites in the gastrointestinal tract, uterus, blood vessels, and bronchial muscle. This suppresses the formation of edema and pruritus (caused by histamine).

Despite some earlier reports that astemizole does not cross the blood–brain barrier, several studies[3][4] have shown high permeability and high binding to protein folds associated with Alzheimer's.

Astemizole may also act on histamine H3 receptors, thereby producing adverse effects.[citation needed]

Astemizole does also act as FIASMA (functional inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase).[5]

Toxicity[edit]

Astemizole has an oral LD50 of approximately 2052 mg/kg (in mice).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matsumoto S, Yamazoe Y (February 2001). "Involvement of multiple human cytochromes P450 in the liver microsomal metabolism of astemizole and a comparison with terfenadine". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 51 (2): 133–42. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2001.01292.x. PMC 2014443Freely accessible. PMID 11259984. 
  2. ^ Zhou Z, Vorperian VR, Gong Q, Zhang S, January CT (June 1999). "Block of HERG potassium channels by the antihistamine astemizole and its metabolites desmethylastemizole and norastemizole". J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 10 (6): 836–43. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8167.1999.tb00264.x. PMID 10376921. 
  3. ^ Rojo, Leonel E.; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Saavedra, Iván N.; Davies, Peter; Maccioni, Ricardo B. (2010). "Selective Interaction of Lansoprazole and Astemizole with Tau Polymers: Potential New Clinical Use in Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. IOS Press. 19 (2): 573–589. doi:10.3233/JAD-2010-1262. ISSN 1875-8908. PMC 2951486Freely accessible. PMID 20110603. 
  4. ^ Di, Li; Kerns, Edward H; Fan, Kristi; McConnell, Oliver J; Carter, Guy T (7 March 2003). "High throughput artificial membrane permeability assay for blood–brain barrier". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 38 (3): 223–232. doi:10.1016/S0223-5234(03)00012-6. 
  5. ^ Kornhuber J, Muehlbacher M, Trapp S, Pechmann S, Friedl A, Reichel M, Mühle C, Terfloth L, Groemer T, Spitzer G, Liedl K, Gulbins E, Tripal P (2011). "Identification of novel functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase". PLoS ONE. 6 (8): e23852. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023852. PMC 3166082Freely accessible. PMID 21909365. 

External links[edit]