Astra (weapon)

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Arjuna uses the Agneyastra against Angaraparna

In Hinduism, an astra (Sanskrit: अस्त्र) was a supernatural weapon, presided over by a specific deity and imbued with spiritual or occult power that caused its effect or impact. Later the word came to denote any weapon which was used by releasing it from one's hand (e.g. an arrow, compared to keeping it one's hand e.g. a sword [shastra]).[1][2]

Astradhari[edit]

The bearer of the weapon is called an Astradhari (Sanskrit: अस्त्रधारी).[3]

Summoning of Astra[edit]

To summon or use an astra required use of a specific incantation/invocation. The deity invoked would then endow the weapon making it impossible to counter through regular means. Specific conditions existed involving the usage of astras, the violation of which could be fatal. Because of the power involved, the knowledge involving an astra was passed in the Guru-shishya tradition from a Guru (teacher) to a Shishya (pupil) by word of mouth alone, and only following the establishment of the student's character. Certain astras had to be handed down from the deity involved directly, knowledge of the incantation being insufficient.[citation needed]

Astras in Hindu Epics[edit]

Arjuna gifts the Agneyastra to the Gandharva

Astras come into importance mainly in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, where they are used in the great battles described in each epic. They are depicted as used by archers such as Parashurama, Rama, Lakshman, Indrajit (Meghnad), Ravana, Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Ashwatthaman, Arjuna and other warriors.

The divya ("divine"[4]) astras were generally invoked into arrows, although they could potentially be used with anything. Ashwatthaman invoked Brahmashirsha astra using a blade of grass as his weapon. Arjuna was capable to shoot all his celestial weapons including Pasupatastra by using mind power alone.[5]

[1]

Astra Deity Effect
Brahmaastra Brahma, the Creator Would destroy entire hosts at once and could also counter most other astras. In the epic Mahabharata, it is said that the weapon manifests with the single head of Lord Brahma as, its tip. In Mahabharata era, Parasurama, Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Kripa, Ashwatthama, Arjuna, Yudhishtir and in other eras several other Maharathis possessed the knowledge to invoke this weapon. It is the only weapon capable of piercing the Brahma Kavach (invincible armour of Lord Brahma). Atikaya, one of Raavan's sons possessed the invincible armour of Lord Brahma that could only be pierced by a Brahmastra and was killed by Lakshmana (brother of Lord Rama) using a Brahmaastra. In ancient Sanskrit writings, the Brahmastra was a weapon created by Brahma, along with its more powerful versions like Brahmashirsha astra and Brahmanda astra.
Trishula Shiva, the Destroyer The Trident of Lord Shiva. Most Powerful Weapon, Infallible, cannot be stopped by anyone, except Lord Shiva himself and Goddess Shakti (consort of lord Shiva in Parvati form).
Gada (mace),गदा Lord Hanuman Primary weapon of Lord Hanuman. A mace is a blunt weapon, a type of club or virge that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful blows. A mace typically consists of a strong, heavy, wooden or metal shaft, often reinforced with metal, featuring a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron, or steel. Later, chosen by Bhima and Duryodhana as their primary weapon and used against each other in Mahabharata.
Sudarshana Chakra Vishnu, the Preserver The legendary discus of Lord Vishnu, given to Vishnu by Vishvakarman.[6] Infallible, flies at the command of Vishnu. Can be stopped only by Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva.[7][8][9][10] It has tremendous occult and spiritual power to destroy everything or can be used to protect anything. Used by Vishnu in his Krishna avatar to behead his cousin Shishupala. Apart from Lord Vishnu, only Arjuna was capable to use Sudarshan Chakra[11]
Barbarika's Teen Baan (three infallible arrows) Shiva, the Destroyer Lord Shiva [12] gave Barbarika three infallible arrows (Teen Baan). A single arrow was enough to destroy all opponents in any war, and it would then return to Barbarika's quiver. The first arrow is used to mark all the things that Barbarika wants to destroy. On releasing the third arrow, it would destroy all the things that are marked and will then return to Barbarika's quiver. If Barbarika uses the second arrow, then the second arrow will mark all the things that Barbarika wants to save. On using the third arrow, it will destroy all the things that are not marked. In other words, with one arrow Barbarika can fix all his targets and with the other he can destroy them. Barbarika came to be known by the appellation Teen Baandhaari, the "Bearer of Three Arrows". Barbarika was the son of Ghatotkacha, and the grandson of Bhima (second of the Pandava brothers) and Hidimbi.
Indraastra Indra, God of Weather Would bring about a 'shower' of arrows from the sky.
Vasavi Shakti Indra, God of Weather Magical dart of Indra. Used by Karna against unarmed Ghatotkacha in the Mahabharata war.
Agneyastra Agni, God of Fire The weapon discharged would emit flames inextinguishable through normal means. Arjuna used it against Angaraparna, the Gandharva.
Varunastra Varuna, God of Water The weapon discharged would release torrential volumes of water. This weapon is commonly mentioned as used to counter the Agneyastra.
Manavastra Manu (Hinduism), Father of the Human Race Could overcome supernatural protections and carry the target hundreds of miles away. Can inspire humane traits in an evil being. This weapon Was used by Sri Rama on the rakshasa (demon) Maricha.
Varunapasha Varuna, God of Water A powerful noose which not even other gods can escape from.
Bhaumastra Bhūmi, Goddess of Earth The weapon could create tunnels deep into the earth and summon jewels.
Bhargavastra Parashurama The weapon releases millions and millions of arrows that shrouded the battlefield in arrows and blocked the vision of the pandava army by the sheer quantity of arrows that it released.[13]
Nagaastra The Nagas The weapon would have an unerring aim and take on the form of a snake, proving deadly upon impact. Used by Karna against Arjuna in Mahabharata.
Nagapasha The Nagas Upon impact, this weapon would bind the target in coils of living venomous snakes. In the Ramayana, it was used against Rama and Lakshmana by Indrajit.
Garudastra Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu A weapon that can defend against Nagaastra when attacked by the opponents. It was used by Lord Rama in Ramayana.[14]
Anjalika Astra Indra, God of Weather Arjuna killed Karna using this astra.[15]
Vayvayastra Vayu, God of Wind Brings about a gale capable of lifting armies off the ground. On the 14th day of the Kurukshetra War, when the battle continued after the sunset Ashwatthama used this weapon to penetrate the illusions made by Anjanaparvan the son of Ghatotkacha. Arjuna used this weapon against Karna in final battle.
Suryastra Surya, God of the Sun Creates a dazzling light that would dispel any darkness about and dry up water bodies. Arjuna used this astra against Shakuni on 12th day of Kurukshtra War.
Vajra Indra, God of Weather Target would be struck with bolts of lightning (vajra referring to Indra's thunderbolt). On the 14th day of the Kurukshetra War when the battle continued after the sunset Ashwatthama used this weapon to penetrate the illusions made by Anjanaparvan the son of Ghatotkacha. Arjuna was expert in Vajra weapon[16] Vishwamitra and Rama too had Vajra weapon.
Mohini Astra Mohini, an Avatar of Vishnu Dispel any form of maya or sorcery in the vicinity.
Twashtar Astra Twashtri, the Heavenly Builder When used against a group of opponents (such as an army), would cause them to mistake each other for enemies and fight each other.
Sammohana/Pramohana Gandharvas Would cause entire hosts/armies to collapse in a trance. Arjuna uses this weapon against the Kaurava army during the Virata war. On the 6th day of Kurukshetra war, Dhrishtadyumna used it against Kauravas which caused them to be unconscious but Drona used his Prajna astra to stop its effect.
Parvataastra Would cause a Parvata/mountain to fall on the target from the skies.
Brahmashirsha astra Brahma, the Creator Capable of killing devas. Was used by Ashwatthama on Parikshit. It is thought that the Brahmashirsha astra is the evolution of the Brahmastra and is a secret infallible weapon creates by Lord Brahma 4 to betimes stronger than Brahmastra. In the epic Mahabharata, it is said that the weapon manifest with the four heads of Lord Brahma as its tip. In the Ramayana, Indrajit invoked the Brahmashira astra and charged its power onto his chariot, bow and arrows. Aided by its exceedingly destructive power, Indrajit was able to slay 670 million vanaras in one day. In Mahabharata era Sage Agnivesha, Drona, Arjuna and Ashwatthama (only has the knowledge to release the astra did not know to retract it) possessed the knowledge to invoke this weapon.
Brahmadanda Brahma, the Creator A defensive weapon. Capable of repelling any astra ever created including the Brahmastra. Used by Vashishta against Vishwamitra to baffle Pashupatastra and Narayanastra. In Mahabharata era, Drona and Lord Parashurama possessed this weapon.
Narayanastra Vishnu, the Preserver Would create showers of arrows and discs. The astra's power would increase with the resistance offered to it. This weapon had to be obtained from the Narayana form Vishnu directly, and could be used only once in a lifetime. If the user were to attempt invoking it a second time, it would rebound on him, and possibly, his troops. In Mahabharata era, Lord Vishnu in his Narayana from blessed Guru Drona and his son Ashwatthama and gifted the knowledge about this weapon. In Mahabharata war Ashwatthama used this weapon against Pandava army after the death of Drona. It destroyed one Akshauhini of Pandava army completely. This astra fires a powerful tirade of millions of deadly missiles simultaneously. The intensity of the shower is proportional to the resistance. The only way of defense towards this missile, is to show total submission before the missiles hit. This in turn will cause this weapon to stop and spare the target. When it was used, Ekadasha (Eleven) Rudras appear in the sky to destroy the targets. Millions of types of weapons like Chakra, Gadha, ultra sharp arrows appeared in rage to destroy the target. Who ever tries to resist it will be destroyed. Vishwamitra used this weapon on Vashistha but Vashistha baffled it with his Brahmadanda. Rama got this weapon from Vishwamitra.
Vaishnavastra Vishnu, the Preserver Would destroy target completely, irrespective of target's nature. Infallible. Had to be obtained from Lord Vishnu directly. In Mahabharata era Bhagadatta had this. Rama used this weapon to destroy the energy of Bharghava Rama.[17]
Kaumodaki Vishnu, the Preserver Divine mace of Vishnu. Would destroy whole armies. Infallible and without parallel. Lord Krishna slayed Demon Dantavakra with it.
Sharanga (bow) Vishnu, the Preserver The bow of Lord Vishnu, also called as Vaishnav Dhanush was used by Sri Rama then Sri Krishna.
Nandaka Vishnu, the Preserver The sacred sword of Vishnu. It had a blade which was indestructible. It was used by Lord Krishna to kill countless demons.
Vijaya (bow) Shiva, the Destroyer The bow was made by Vishvakarman, Shiva presented the bow to Parashurama who gave it to his student karna.[18][19]
Pinaka (bow) Shiva, the Destroyer Also called as Shiva Dhanush, was the bow of Lord Shiva, which he used to kill countless Asuras in battle (The city of Tripura was destroyed by Lord Shiva using the Pinaka). Was given to Parashurama By Lord Shiva, which was passed down to King Janaka, the father of Devi Sita, and was broken by Lord Ram in her swayamvara.
Maheshwarastra Shiva, the Destroyer Contains the power of Shiva's third eye. Shoots a really fast fiery beam which can turn even celestial beings to complete ashes. It has the power to turn the entire creation to ashes.It can only be countered by a weapon whose presiding deity is Lord Vishnu
Rudra Astra Shiva, the Destroyer Arjuna obtained this weapon from Lord Shiva,[20][21] Rama used this weapon to impenetrate Kumbhakaran [22]
Pashupatastra Shiva, the Destroyer One of the most powerful weapons among all the astras. Every time it was summoned, its head would never be the same. It summons a larger number of monsters and a huge spirit which personifies the weapon. Would destroy target completely, irrespective of target's nature. This astra was capable to destroy whole world. In Mahabharat only Arjuna possessed Pashupatastra.[23] Vishwamitra and Rama too had this weapon [24]
Parashu (axe) Shiva, the Destroyer The Parashu (axe) was an unconquerable and indestructible divine weapon given to Lord Parashurama by his Guru Lord Shiva along with other divine weapons due to the extreme devotion of Lord Parashurama. Lord Parashurama later gave this axe to Lord Ganesha. Parashurama means Rama who wields the axe as Rama was the name Lord Parashurama was known by till he acquired the axe from Lord Shiva.
Chandrahas Shiva, the Destroyer The divine sword Chandrahas (Chandra-Moon, Has-laugh, literally 'the laughter of the moon' but referring to the shape formed by a crescent moon which resembles a smile) was given to Raavan with a warning that if it was used for unjust causes, it would return to the three-eyed Lord Shiva and Ravana's days would be numbered.
Gandiva (bow) This invincible bow was created by Brahma, the Creator of universe. Brahma held it first for a thousand years, then Prajapati held it for five hundred and three years, Indra, for five hundred and eighty years, and Soma for five hundred years. After that Varuna held it for a hundred years before handing it to Arjuna along with a Kapi/Hanuman bannered chariot, and two inexhaustible quivers, as requested by Agni during the Khandava-daha Parva. The bow was decorated with hundreds of gold bosses, and had radiant ends. The bow was worshiped by Devas, Gandharvas and Danavas. No person other than Arjuna could wield the Gandiva and Arjuna was wielder of Gandiva then he came to be known as gandivdhari (carrier of gandiva bow).
Sabda-veda astra This weapon prevents an opponent from turning invisible. Used by Arjuna against the Ghandarva king Chitrasena. In Mahabharat era, only Arjuna and Krishna knew this weapon
Antardhana Astra Kubera, god of wealth The Antardhana Astra would make things, people or entire places disappear. It was given to Arjun by Kubera.
Prajnastra This weapon was used to restore the senses and thoughts of someone. It was a good counter to the Antardhana Astra and the Sammohana. Warriors like Drona, Indrajita and Arjuna had and used this astra.
Sailastra The Sailastra was used to make heavy winds disappear, meaning it was the counter to Vayvayastra, the wind weapon. It was used by warriors like Drona and Arjuna.
Visoshana Indra, god of weather The Visoshana was the drying weapon. It could dry anything. Indrajita possessed this weapon. It was an amazing counter to the Varunastra. Arjuna obtained this weapon from Lord Surya.
Jyotiksha Astra Surya, god of the sun The Jyotiksha Astra could brighten a dark area. Arjuna had this astra and used in the Mahabharata war.
Sauparna The Sauparna weapon would release crazy birds. Hence, it was a good counter to the Nagastra. It was used by Susharma in the Mahabharata war when Arjuna used the Nagastra on the Sampshapataka army.
Govardhana (bow) Vishnu, the Preserver The Govardhana was a powerful bow of Vishnu. During the Mahabharata, Vishnu gave Vidura this bow.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gopa l, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 72.
  2. ^ Mahabharata by Roy, Chandra Pratap
  3. ^ "Astradhari (Astradhari) meaning in English - ASTRADHARI मीनिंग - Translation". dict.hinkhoj.com.
  4. ^ Bhaktivedanta Database https://web.archive.org/web/20120318224435/http://vedabase.net/d/divya. Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 27 July 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help) A concordance of occurrences of the word divya in the Bhagavad-gita and other sacred texts, with a translation for each occurrence.
  5. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Kairata Parva: Section XL". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
  6. ^ "The unknown and untold story of Krishna's Sudarshan Chakra". www.speakingtree.in.
  7. ^ Saurabh Parikh (20 February 2012). "1078 KRISHNA STORY -- BANASUR STORY -- SHIVJI HELP BANASUR AND HE REPENTS" – via YouTube.
  8. ^ "Sudarśana Chakra - the discus of the lord". Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  9. ^ Bodhasarananda Swami. (2016). Stories from the Bhagvatam. Advaita Ashrama. ISBN 978-81-7505-814-9., Quote: "There, Mahadeva told him: 'I cannot help you either. Go to Vaikuntha. Nobody but Sri Hari can save you."
  10. ^ Sri Swami Vishwananda (2016). The Essence of Shreemad Bhagavatam. Bhakti Marga Publications. p. 308. ISBN 978-3-940381-52-1., Quote: "Lord Shankar looked and said, "Aaah! I can't help you. Go to Maha Vishnu."
  11. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 8: Karna Parva: Section 89". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  12. ^ Paramahamsa Sri Swami Vishwananda (2017). Shreemad Bhagavad Gita: The Song of Love. Publishdrive. ISBN 3940381705.
  13. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 8: Karna Parva: Section 64". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  14. ^ "Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda". www.valmikiramayan.net.
  15. ^ "The Mahabharata in Sanskrit: Book 8: Chapter 67". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  16. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CLXXI". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  17. ^ Rao, Desiraju Hanumanta. "Valmiki Ramayana - Baala Kanda - Sarga 76". www.valmikiramayan.net.
  18. ^ Shah, Umakant Premanand (1995). Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U.P. Shah. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 9788170173168.
  19. ^ Narasimhan, Chakravarthi V. (1999). The Mahābhārata: An English Version Based on Selected Verses. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 9788120816732.
  20. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 4: Virata Parva: Go-harana Parva: Section LXI". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  21. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 8: Karna Parva: Section 90". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  22. ^ Murthy, K.M.K. "Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - Sarga 67". www.valmikiramayan.net.
  23. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Kairata Parva: Section XL". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  24. ^ Rao, Desiraju Hanumanta. "Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - Sarga 56". www.valmikiramayan.net.